New hampshire department of education




старонка1/9
Дата канвертавання24.04.2016
Памер420.11 Kb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9
A K-6 Social Studies

ADDENDUM
FOR
THE NEW HAMPSHIRE

K-12 SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK


NEW HAMPSHIRE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

Concord, New Hampshire

November 1999




Governor of New Hampshire
Jeanne Shaheen

Executive Council
District 1 Raymond S. Burton, Woodsville
District 2 Peter J. Spaulding, Hopkinton
District 3 Ruth L. Griffin, Portsmouth
District 4 Thomas P. Colantuono, Londonderry
District 5 Bernard A. Streeter, Jr., Nashua

New Hampshire State Board of Education
John M. Lewis, Chairman, Durham
Ann M. Logan, Amherst
Ann McArdle, Manchester
Joel C. Olbricht, Derry
Gail F. Paine, Intervale
Jeffrey M. Pollock, Bedford
David B. Ruedig, Concord

Commissioner of Education
Dr. Elizabeth M. Twomey

Deputy Commissioner
Nicholas C. Donohue

Director, NH Educational Improvement and Assessment Program
William B. Ewert

Notice of Nondiscrimination

The New Hampshire Department of Education does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, marital status, national/ethnic origin, age, sex, sexual orientation, or disability in its programs, activities and employment practices. The following person has been designated to handle inquiries regarding the nondiscrimination policies: Susan E. Auerbach, NH Department of Education, 101 Pleasant Street, Concord, NH 03301-3860, 603/271-3743 TTY/V

Table of Contents

Introduction To This Addendum.............................................................................................

5

State Assessment.....................................................................................................................

8

Aligning District Curricula with the State Framework...........................................................

13

School Curriculum Mapping Grid..........................................................................................

Sample Scope and Sequence Outlines....................................................................................



15

16


More of/Less of: Recommendations for Changing Practice...................................................

20

Civics and Government




Standards and Proficiencies..........................................................................................

22

Lesson and Activity Ideas.............................................................................................

24

Resources......................................................................................................................

28

Economics




Standards and Proficiencies..........................................................................................

31

Lesson and Activity Ideas.............................................................................................

33

Resources.....................................................................................................................

38

Geography




Standards and Proficiencies..........................................................................................

41

Lesson and Activity Ideas.............................................................................................

44

Resources......................................................................................................................

50

History




Standards and Proficiencies..........................................................................................

54

Lesson and Activity Ideas.............................................................................................

57

Resources......................................................................................................................

60

Cross-Disciplinary Ideas.........................................................................................................

66

More Resources......................................................................................................................

68

The New Hampshire K-6 Social Studies Addendum Committee..........................................

74



Introduction To This Addendum
This addendum is designed as a companion guide to the New Hampshire K-12 Social Studies Curriculum Framework published in 1995. In accordance with the 1993 state legislation (RSA 193-C) that established the New Hampshire Educational Improvement and Assessment Program (NHEIAP), the purpose of the social studies framework is to serve: (a) as the basis for developing statewide social studies assessment instruments to be administered annually at the end-of-grades six and ten and, (b) as a guide for making local decisions about curriculum development and delivery. (Please note that math and language arts, but not social studies or science, are assessed at the end of grade three.) With these purposes in mind, this companion guide or addendum for grades K-6 is intended to help school districts:

* understand and more effectively prepare students for the end-of-grade six

social studies assessment and,



* develop units of study, instructional activities, and broader curricular

reorganization strategies that will facilitate alignment with the state

social studies framework.
Using a question-and-answer format, a brief review of the New Hampshire K-12 Social Studies Curriculum Framework is provided below.
Who wrote the New Hampshire K-12 Social Studies Curriculum Framework?
The 19-member framework team included elementary school teachers, middle and high school social studies teachers, academics, legislators, and citizens. (See the framework document for a list of actual participants.) The team met throughout the 1993-94 academic year to review numerous state and national curriculum documents and then write the New Hampshire K-12 Social Studies Curriculum Framework.

How is the New Hampshire K-12 Social Studies Curriculum Framework organized?

The framework identifies six "vital themes" and ten "broad goals" and draws upon four subject areas (civics/government, economics, geography, and history) to establish 18 standards and 253 proficiencies. The framework identifies 113 proficiencies to be achieved by the end-of-grade six and an additional 131 by the end-of-grade ten for a total of 244 proficiencies. Another nine proficiencies are identified at the end-of-grade twelve (from Standard 17 regarding twentieth-century U.S. History), but these do not appear on the tenth-grade assessment.




The New Hampshire K-12 Social Studies Framework

6 Vital Themes, 10 Broad Goals

18 Standards and 253 Proficiencies drawn from 4 subject areas:


  • civics & government (4 standards, 51 proficiencies)

  • economics (5 standards, 55 proficiencies)

  • geography (6 standards, 73 proficiencies

  • history (3 standards, 74 proficiencies)

113 Proficiencies by the end-of-grade 6, 244 Proficiencies by the end-of-grade 10

9 additional proficiencies in 20th Century U.S. History by the end of grade 12



How does the New Hampshire K-12 Curriculum Framework define social studies education?
The framework defines social studies education as:
...the study of related knowledge and modes of inquiry selected from history, the humanities, and the social sciences, including economics, political science, sociology, archaeology, anthropology, psychology, geography, and philosophy.

Social studies education provides students with opportunities to acquire facts and concepts drawn from the chronology of our nation's heritage and the heritage of New Hampshire; the powerful ideas and experiences found in the history of the world; the disciplined perspectives of the historian, geographer, economist, and other social scientists; and the complexities of contemporary life. It also provides students with an understanding of the democratic principles and ideals upon which good citizenship is founded; familiarity and facility with the processes of inquiry and application used by social scientists; and the ability to use the knowledge, skills, principles, and ideals they have learned to make informed and reasoned decisions both as individuals and as citizens of the community, state, nation, and the world...social studies education encompasses instruction in the privileges, duties, and responsibilities of citizenship and instruction in the history, government, and constitutions of the United States and New Hampshire, including the organization and operation of New Hampshire municipal, county, and state government and of the federal government. (N.H. Framework, 5)


Is the framework consistent with the above definition of social studies education?
Although the framework emphasizes geography, history, political science (civics and government), and economics, most of the other fields of study mentioned in the definition of social studies do appear in the standards. For example, one of the end-of-grade-six proficiencies in Standard 17 emphasizes the humanities:

Explain, using examples, how folklore, literature, and the arts reflect, maintain, and transmit our national and cultural heritage.


As a second example, philosophy and religion easily find their way into one of the end-of-grade-six proficiencies in Standard 13:

Define the major components of culture and write a description of their culture.


As a final example, insights from the field of anthropology can be applied to the study of the third proficiency in Standard 14:

Identify features of the physical environment in their community and region that first attracted settlers and have supported subsequent development.


While it may appear that contemporary issues and problems are not emphasized in the framework, teachers are strongly encouraged to draw consistently upon current issues and problems when addressing the various proficiencies.

Does the K-12 framework establish a state curriculum?
As provided in RSA 193-C, the curriculum framework does not establish a state curriculum since specific course offerings, course sequences, teaching methods, and instructional materials have not been mandated by the state. Local school districts retain control of the organization and delivery of the social studies curriculum. The framework's standards and proficiencies, however, do identify "what New Hampshire students should know and be able to do in the social studies" (N.H. Framework, 5) and what will be tested each spring at the sixth-grade and tenth-grade levels.
How can additional information on the New Hampshire K-12 Social Studies Curriculum Framework be obtained?
All of the state's curriculum frameworks are available from the New Hampshire Department of Education, 101 Pleasant Street, Concord, NH 03301 (telephone 603-271-3494). The frameworks can also be accessed via the Internet at http://www.state.nh.us/doe/socst.htm. You may also contact Christy Hammer, Ph.D., Social Studies Consultant, at 271-6151 or chammer@ed.state.nh.us.
How does this addendum supplement the framework?
The addendum begins with a section on the state assessment process. Here the reader will gain a better understanding of how the exam is structured, who develops it, how it is linked to the K-12 framework, how districts can better prepare their students for the exam, and so on. In the next section we offer a variety of suggestions for districts interested in aligning their K-12 social studies curriculum more closely with the state's K-12 framework. Included here are a few sample scope and sequence models used by districts in the state. Next, readers will find all 253 of the Framework's proficiencies and a number of model lessons demonstrating how proficiencies can be pursued with students in ways that are both engaging and challenging. The final section offers teachers a wide selection of outstanding source materials from publishers and on the Internet that can be used when addressing the framework's proficiency standards.
The addendum committee hopes social studies educators find the pages that follow helpful and motivating. Teachers of the social studies help students understand the past, present and future. Teachers of the social studies significantly influence students’ development, both as private individuals and as informed citizens of their community, state, nation, and world. We acknowledge and commend New Hampshire teachers for their commitment to this endeavor.
Who paid for the development, publishing, and distribution of this addendum to the state social studies framework?
The addendum was funded by the federal Eisenhower program and Goals 2000 program through New Hampshire Department of Education grants. A generous contribution from the New Hampshire Council for the Social Studies funded an additional six hundred copies of this addendum.
The Sixth-Grade State Assessment: Questions & Answers
To what extent is the New Hampshire Grade Six Social Studies Assessment linked to the standards framework?
A tight linkage exists between the standards and the sixth-grade exam. Each test item is based on one or more of the framework's proficiency standards and is administered each spring in all public schools throughout New Hampshire.
Why has a state exam been created?
As consistent with the authorizing legislation for the New Hampshire Education Improvement and Assessment Program (NHEIAP), the primary purpose of the statewide exam is to assess the degree to which local curricula are providing learning experiences that result in the student proficiencies defined in the state's curriculum frameworks. School and district-wide assessment scores can be very helpful in identifying which of the proficiency standards students are learning. In addition, the exam is designed to challenge students of all academic abilities. In this way, the exam serves as an impetus for change in New Hampshire schools. Test results direct districts to areas of needed improvement. Test results also allow districts to compare the performance of their students to other groups of students in demographically similar communities, in dissimilar communities, or in the entire state.

Interpreting individual student performance is different from looking at groups. Individual student scores reflect the learning of that individual relative to criterion-referenced performance standards defined by the assessment framework (i.e., advanced, proficient, basic, and novice). A student receiving high academic grades in a given district might, therefore, score at the advanced level, while a student with similar academic grades in another district (where curricula are less challenging, standards of performance are lower, and/or the K-12 curriculum is less aligned with the state framework) might score at the basic level. The education community and broader public can now chart student learning relative to both benchmark standards and a statewide peer group.


In what ways, if any, is the current state exam different from other standardized tests?
The state's current standards-based assessment exam is different from other standardized assessment instruments in at least three important ways. First, it is a criterion-referenced test (CRT) as opposed to a norm-referenced test (NRT). CRTs yield scores that identify the level of a student's achievement in a domain of learning. Domains are defined by two characteristics, specified content and progressive levels of difficulty that individuals encounter as they learn. These progressive levels are defined by predetermined standards of performance. Levels typically do not change throughout the life of the test; they are much like a set of progressively higher hurdles, the heights of which never change and are, therefore, the same for everyone. CRTs are composed of items that range widely in difficulty so that students at a specific score level clearly demonstrate achievement that is different from that of students at other score levels.

NRTs, on the other hand, yield scores in percentiles that identify a student's performance relative to a norming sample of similar students. In an NRT, items tend to be moderate in difficulty so that the scores fall into or create a bell-shaped curve, and fine comparisons between individuals can be made. Theoretically, all students in New Hampshire could score in the novice category one year, be evenly distributed across the four categories the next, and so on. On NRTs, this is impossible since the test items are selected in such a way that 50% of the students in the norming sample will score above the mean and 50% will score below the mean.

A second difference between CRTs and NRTs will become evident as school districts tighten the alignment between their curricula and the state frameworks. The validity of students' scores, as indicators of what they have actually learned and achieved, will significantly exceed that of other standardized exams. Too often NRT's do not assess students on the specific subject matter they learned in their school. The state exam, a CRT, contains a much greater percentage of test items that address material students have actually studied--assuming, of course, that New Hampshire school districts have aligned their curricula with the state framework.

Finally, unlike previously used standardized tests, the current statewide assessment includes open-response items. Here, students are given an opportunity to demonstrate their understandings in greater depth and in a less structured format. These items are not scored as either right or wrong, but are scored instead on a continuum of point values awarded depending on the sophistication of the responses. For each item, differences between a 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0-point response are specifically defined in a scoring guide (e.g., a rubric) to ensure uniformity in grading or inter-rater reliability.



To study the test format in greater detail, teachers can obtain a copy of the previous test’s released items and scoring rubrics from their school principal or the New Hampshire Department of Education.
Who constructs the sixth-grade exam?
With support from New Hampshire Department of Education personnel and consultants from the assessment contractor, Advanced Systems in Measurement and Evaluation, located in Dover, NH, a Test-Item Development Committee (composed of elementary and middle school teachers, school administrators, university professors, and citizen representatives) constructs test items that are keyed to the standards framework document. Each item is field-tested, reviewed and selected by the Test Development Committee and the Department of Education, and then approved by the State Board of Education.
What is the format of the exam?
Both the 1998 and 1999 exams contained two kinds of assessment items: multiple choice and open response. Of each student’s score, 59% is based on the multiple choice items and the remaining 41% on the open response questions.
Who grades the exam?
Currently, Advanced Systems is contracted to grade the exams and aggregate the scores. Multiple-choice items are scanned and scored using automated equipment. For open-response items, scoring rubrics are created. Advanced Systems evaluators are trained to use these rubrics to ensure objectivity and inter-rater reliability.

What are “proficiency levels” and, overall, how difficult is the sixth-grade exam?
Student performance is categorized into four proficiency levels, each of which is summarized below:
Advanced - Students at this level demonstrate a thorough understanding of information, concepts, and skills in history, geography, economics, and civics and government. They integrate the use of tools such as maps, globes, graphs, and charts as well as an understanding of chronology, in defining and addressing problems. They interrelate their knowledge of the social studies and apply it to the examination of relevant issues. They communicate their conclusions and problem-solving strategies clearly and concisely.
Proficient - Students at this level demonstrate an overall understanding of information, concepts, and skills in history, geography, economics, and civics and government. They can explain important ideas such as the rights and responsibilities of citizenship or how supply, demand, and competition affect prices. They obtain information from maps, globes, graphs, charts, narratives, artifacts, and timelines and form conclusions based on data. They apply their knowledge of the social studies to relevant tasks and clearly communicate and explain their findings.
Basic - Students at this level demonstrate a rudimentary understanding of information, concepts, and skills in history, geography, economics, and civics and government. They can describe people, places, and events as well as important ideas such as the relationship between geography and the development of population centers. They obtain information from maps, globes, graphs, charts, narratives, artifacts, and timelines and make obvious conclusions based on data. They use their knowledge of the social to address straight-forward tasks and adequately communicate their findings.
Novice - Students at this level demonstrate some understanding of information, concepts, and skills in history, geography, economics, and civics and government. For example, they recognize a the importance of documents such as the Declaration of Independence, the New Hampshire Constitution, and the United States Constitution, are familiar with a number of specific facts, and are aware that the social studies are interrelated. Their ability to address straight-forward social studies tasks and communicate their findings is uneven and limited by the extent of their knowledge.
The "advanced" and "proficient" performance levels are difficult to achieve. In 1998 and 1999, 5% of New Hampshire sixth-grade students scored at the "advanced" level and 10% scored at the "proficient" level on the social studies portion of the exam. Likewise, in both 1998 and 1999 about one half of students, 49%, scored at the "novice" level while one third of students, 34%, scored at the "basic" level. (Approximately 2% of New Hampshire sixth graders in both 1998 and 1999 were not included in the above totals.)

How does the state report the results of student performance on the exam?
In the fall, each school district is given performance data at the individual, school, and district levels of analysis. Findings at the school and district levels are then reported to the public at community meetings and in most local newspapers throughout the state. District administrators receive other data to help them identify relative strengths and weaknesses and plan instructional improvements. For example, each school and district is given data that allow staff to compare specific subtopic performance for each content area at one school (i.e., civics & government, economics, geography, and history) to the subtopic performance obtained at the district and/or state level. These data can be quite instructive. We recommend that teachers review them with school administrators and their colleagues.
Should sixth-grade teachers assume primary responsibility for student performance on the state assessment?
Absolutely not. Test results reflect the district's curriculum design and instructional efforts over a six or seven-year period (i.e., 1-6 or K-6). The state assessment is a test of cumulative learning, not just that occurring in the sixth grade, so elementary and lower middle school teachers must work together to design and deliver articulated curricula, engaging instructional practices, and varied assessment procedures.
What can teachers do to improve student learning and performance, both in class and on the state exam?
Numerous possibilities exist here. A wide rather than a narrow array of assessment strategies can more accurately measure the academic development of a wide range of students. To improve student performance on the state exam, teachers might expose students to a variety of assessment formats throughout the school year. When handing back quiz and test results, teachers can also remind students what each format is asking them to do.

While formal tests provide useful information, they should not be the sole means of evaluating student learning. A simple checklist indicating which students participated in class discussion, which students contributed on a small group task, and anecdotal comments on other aspects of students' work can be implemented regardless of students' prior levels of achievement. Teachers might also consider sharing with students in advance the understandings, skills, and dispositions that are pursued in a given lesson and that will be used to evaluate student performance. These lesson and performance objectives can be specified in greater detail by constructing scoring guides (e.g., rubrics) similar to those used on the state assessment. Rubrics serve to clarify for students the difference between excellent, above average, and satisfactory performance on a given task (e.g., a position paper, class presentation, or other student project).

Teachers can engage students frequently in open response writing tasks, with or without a scoring guide. The state assessment clearly emphasizes written expression, as approximately 40% of the exam is devoted to open-response items. In addition, teachers can share exemplary student work from earlier years to increase motivation, clarify expectations and possibilities, and, one hopes, to enhance the quality of students' work.

Finally, the construction of assessment tasks that are both challenging and interesting to students are more likely to maximize student learning. The lesson activities described in a later section of this addendum serve as examples.



Do the four subject areas of the framework (civics & government, economics, geography, and history) receive equal emphasis on the sixth grade exam?
Yes, one-quarter of the exam is devoted to each area. For example, if there are thirty-two multiple-choice items on the exam, eight items will be devoted to each of the four subject areas. It is important to note that because U.S., world, and New Hampshire history are all subsumed under the history category, only four items (or one-eighth of the test) are devoted to U.S. and New Hampshire history, and four items (or one-eighth of the test) to world history.

Aligning District Curricula with

The New Hampshire Social Studies Framework

Many school districts have begun the process of modifying the content and sequence of their current social studies courses to ensure proper and timely coverage of the framework's proficiencies. To help in this effort, the addendum committee recommends the following:


* Due to the cumulative nature of the sixth and tenth-grade state assessments and the substantial breadth of content involved, it is essential that districts conduct a system-wide (rather than an elementary, middle, or high school) review of their current social studies curriculum.
* Districts committed to enhancing the alignment of their curricula to the state framework will need to consider the following questions:

  • What social studies disciplines and specific topics are currently taught at each grade in your district? In other words, what is the "delivered" rather than "official" social studies scope and sequence in the district?

  • At which grade or grades, if any, are each of the 253 social studies proficiency standards being addressed?

  • Of the proficiencies not addressed at any grade level, can any be incorporated into the district's current scope and sequence model? If not, what alternative or additional courses are needed and at what grade levels are they to be offered?

  • Are some proficiencies beyond the scope of what you believe your program can or should provide? If so, how will you justify their exclusion to colleagues and the local community?

  • In your professional judgment, would the newly aligned K-12 social studies curriculum plan be an improvement over the old district model?

* Units of study at any grade level should continue to be structured around important themes, issues, questions, and topics. This committee does not recommend a simplistic and fragmented lockstep march through a set of proficiency standards masquerading as a series of units or a course! Stated another way, any worthwhile alignment effort will still require teachers to design creative learning experiences that are engaging, challenging, cohesive, and personally meaningful to students.


* Ideally, grades K-12 should be included in an alignment effort. Inclusion of the early grades (K-3) in a curriculum review is imperative. In these grades, social studies tend, like science disciplines, to get lost in the pursuit of literacy and numeracy. Both social studies and science are important ends in themselves but they can also serve as excellent vehicles for teaching reading, writing, and mathematics. In the early grades, particular emphasis needs to be placed on grades four through six if school districts are to address the 113 social studies proficiency standards across four disciplines -- civics/government, geography, economics, and history – by the end of grade six. That leaves grades seven through ten -- four years -- to address 144 new proficiencies and to revisit some of the initial 113 proficiencies prior to the tenth-grade exam.

* Include one or more teacher representatives from each grade and from each school to identify more effectively what is currently being taught and to gain a better sense of what teachers can and are willing to deliver in a revised plan. Teacher commitment to the process and ownership



of the revised curriculum cannot occur without significant teacher involvement.
* Treat all participants at each grade level as valued and equal members of the realignment team.
* Because a system-wide curriculum realignment process is very time-consuming and potentially contentious, it is essential that school principals, district administrators, and the school board are in full support of the effort.
* If a sizable curriculum realignment is needed, solicit district administration support for teacher release time during the school year and/or summer compensation to (a) identify what is currently being taught across the grade levels, (b) determine the degree of correspondence between what is currently taught and the framework's proficiency standards, and (c) create a revised district social studies curriculum that ensures more effective and timely coverage of the state framework's proficiency standards.
* If it is apparent that many of the state's proficiency standards are not currently addressed at any grade in the district (or are being addressed too early or too late relative to the sixth and tenth-grade assessments), solicit district administration support and commitment to purchase needed textbooks and other grade-appropriate resource materials.
* Designate a team leader to facilitate discussions and direct the team's realignment effort. To maximize legitimacy and commitment, the leader needs to be respected by the team and by other teachers in the district. In some instances, group effort and cohesion may require the use of an outside facilitator.
* Full agreement is unlikely to be reached regarding many of the proposed curriculum modifications. We, therefore, recommend that a decision-making process be agreed upon by the team at the beginning of the effort (e.g., at least a 2/3-vote required for any proposed modification to be accepted).
* Following the realignment effort and during the implementation phase, promote teacher dialogue and collaboration by regularly having teachers share daily lessons, unit plans, course outlines, and various instructional activities and methods. Sharing could occur at grade level, in team or department meetings, or at half-day or full-day teacher in-service sessions. This staff development work might also include teacher sharing of classroom assessment activities that are used to prepare students for the range of item types that appear on the state exams.
School Curriculum Mapping Grid
At what grade levels are the New Hampshire K-12 Social Studies Curriculum Framework proficiencies taught in this district?





Grades Where Taught

N.H. Proficiency Standard

K

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

example:

6.6.1

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Using copies of the above grid, schools can map when, where, and by whom proficiencies are currently being taught in their district in order to see how well aligned they are with the New Hampshire K-12 Social Studies Curriculum Framework. Then, using the same grid, districts can adjust and make a plan for better alignment.

Sample Scope and Sequence Outlines
A wide variety of K-12 scope and sequence models can, in theory, be created to align with the state’s social studies framework. In addition, the unique circumstances of each district will lead to a variety of district models. Below are provided two sample scope and sequence outlines. This committee would like to emphasize that these are provided as sample illustrations, not as recommended models that school districts should appropriate and use.
Grade K-12 Social Studies Scope and Sequence

Portsmouth School District
Kindergarten – Second Grade: Although emphasis is placed on literacy and mathematics in these grades, many thematic units involve students in the exploration of self, the child’s family and neighborhood, and communities near and far.
Third Grade: Community, Government, and Geography

Introduction to the concepts of rules, laws, and government officials and other workers at school and in the community, state and nation; different types of maps (including scales and projections) and their application at the school and in the community; land use and the categories of rural, suburban, and urban; the effect of weather and climate on communities; and, the history and significance of our major holidays.



  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9


База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка