New Classification by Lynn Margulis and Karlene V. Schwartz, 1997




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Classification of Life

(New Classification by Lynn Margulis and Karlene V. Schwartz, 1997)


I. Superkingdom: Prokarya (Prokaryotae)

A. Kingdom: Bacteria (Prokaryotae, Procaryotae, Monera) - (Precam-R)

Subkingdom: Archaea - Methanogens, Halophils, and Thermoacidophils

Subkingdom: Eubacteria – true bacteria, Gram-negative walls, No walls, Gram-positive walls

Phylum: Cyanobacteria – Blue-green algae, stromatolites

II. Superkingdom: Eukarya (Eukaryotae)

A.Kingdom: Protoctista (formerly Protista) - one celled organisms, eukaryotic organisms

Phylum: Granuloreticulosa

Class: Foraminifera (Cam-R) fusulinids, nummulites, and foraminifera

Phylum: Actinopoda

Class: Phaeodaria – (formerly Radiolaria) Class: Polycystina - (formerly Radiolaria) (Cam-R) opaline silica test

Phylum: Chrysomonada (Chrysophyta) Silicoflagellates (Jur. - R)

Phylum: Diatoms (Bacillariophora) - Diatoms - silica tests (Cret-R)

Phylum: Haptomonada (Coccolithophora) - Coccolithophores (E.Jur-R)

Phylum: Dinomastigota (Dinophyceae) - Dinoflagellates (Sil-R)

Phylum: Ciliophora - paramecium and other ciliates.

Phylum: Rhodophyta - Red algae

Phylum: Phaeophyta - Brown algae - seaweed and kelps

Phylum: Chlorophyta - Green algae - (Proterozoic? - R)

B.Kingdom: Animalia - other wise noted these organisms have a calcium carbonate shell

Subkingdom: Parazoa

Phylum: Porifera - sponges - spongin, calcium carbonate or silicate spicules - radial symmetry, if any. (Cam-R)

Subkingdom: Eumetazoa

Phylum: Archaeocyatha - extinct sponge-like, conical cup shaped organisms (Cam.)

Phylum: Cnidaria - (Coelenterata) - septum, calyx, growth lines, tabulae, corallite, corallum, and radial symmetry.

Class: Hydrozoa - hydras

Class: Scyphozoa - jellyfish

Class: Anthozoa - corals & sea anemones

Order: Tabulata - honey comb corals (Ord-Perm)

Order: Rugosa - horn coral (Tetracoral) (Ord-Perm)

Order: Scleractinia - modern reef coral, (Trias-R)

"Superphylum": Lophophorates – they possess a lophophore.

Phylum: Bryozoa - moss animals (Ord-R) always colonial, zoarium, and aperture.

Phylum: Brachiopoda (Cam-R) - beak, hinge line, plication, growth line, fold, sulcus, bilateral symmetry, inarticulate or articulate shells, some of phosphatic composition.

Class: Inarticulata - calcium phosphatic shell (E.Cam-R)

Class: Articulata - teeth and sockets, thick shells (E.Cam-R)

Phylum: Mollusca - soft-bodied organism

Class: Bivalvia - clams, oysters (Pelecypoda) (E.Cam-R), growth line beak, pallial line, pallial sinus, muscle scar, hinge teeth bilateral symmetry parallel with hinge line.

Class: Gastropoda - snails, conches (E.Cam-R) aperture, and whorl

Class: Cephalopoda - octopus, squid (Cam-R), nektonic, suture, septa, chamber, planispiral coil

Subclass: Nautiloidea (nautiloids) (Cam-R)

Subclass: Ammonoidea (ammonites) (Dev. - Cret.)

Subclass: Coleoidea (internal shell cephalopods)

Order: Belemnoidea (belemnites) (E. Miss. - Eocene)

Order: Sepiida - cuttlefish ( )

Order: Teuthoidea (squids) (Jur. - R)

Order: Octopoda - Octopus (Creta. - R)

- Polyphyletic worm groups: flatworms (platyhelminths), roundworms (nematodes), segmented worms (annelids e.g. polychaetes)
"Superphylum": Arthropoda - jointed-appendages, segmented, bilateral symmetry, chitin (Cam. -R)

Phylum: Trilobita (Cam-Perm) - axial lobe, pleural lobe, cephalon, thorax, pygidium

Phylum: Chelicerata (Arachnoidea, Merostomata) - horseshoe crab, spiders, scorpions, eurypterids, ticks & mites (Ord-R)

Class: Merostomata (Ord. - R)

Order: Eurypterida - eurypterids (M. Ord.-Perm)

Order: Xiphosura - Horseshoe crabs (Cam-R)

Class: Arachnida - scorpions, spiders, ticks, and mites (Sil-R)

Phylum: Crustacea (Cam-R) - ostracods, lobsters, crabs, barnacles

Class: Cirripedia - barnacles (Sil-R)

Class: Ostracoda - ostracods (Cam-R)

Class: Malacostraca - Lobsters, shrimp, crabs

Order: Decapoda - Shrimp, Lobsters, and crabs, crayfish (Perm. - R)

Order: Isopoda - Sow Bugs (Trias. - R)

Phylum: Mandibulata (Uniramia) (Sil - R)

Class: Myriapoda

Order: Chilopoda - centipedes (Carb. - R)

Order: Diplopoda - millipedes (Sil - R)

Class: Hexapoda (Insecta) - fly, beetle, butterfly, dragonfly, crickets, grasshoppers, etc (E.Dev. - R)

Phylum: Echinodermata - 5-fold radial/bilateral symmetry

Subphylum: Asterozoa (Eleutherozoa) – lack stem or stalk.

Class: Asteroidea - starfish (Ord-R) mobile, predacious

Class: Ophiuroidea – brittle stars

Class: Echinoidea - sand dollar, sea urchin (Ord-R) ambulacral area, and interambulacral area

Subphylum: Crinozoa – stemmed or stalked forms

Class: Crinoidea - sea lilies (Ord-R) attached, stem, calyx, arms, and columnals

Class: Blastoidea (Ord-Perm) attached, calyx, plate, ambulacral area

Phylum: Hemichordata – acorn worms, graptolites

Class: Graptolithina - graptolites (Camb-Penn)

Phylum: Conodontophora (Conodonta) - calcium phosphate, conodonts. (Cam - Late Tria.)

Superphylum": Acraniate Chordates

Phylum: Urochordata – tunicates, sea squirts

Phylum: Cephalochordata – amphioxus, lancelets

Phylum: Craniata - bilateral symmetry, bone and/or cartilage

Subphylum: Vertebratanow only subphylum in Craniata

Superclass: Agnatha - jawless fish (Cam-R)

Class: Cyclostomata – lampreys, hagfish

Class: Ostracoderms – bony skin fish

Superclass: Gnathostomata – jawed animals

Class: Acanthodii - primitive jawed, spiny fish (Dev - Perm)

Class: Placodermi - archaic jawed fish (Sil-Perm)

Class: Chondrichthyes - shark, skate, ray (Dev-R) cartilaginous fish

Class: Osteichthyes - bony fish, crossopterygians (Sil-R)

Class: Choanichthyes – Lungfish,

"Tetrapods" – four footed gnathostomes

Class: Amphibia - frogs, salamanders, labyrinthodonta (Dev-R)

Class: Reptilia - turtle, snake, lizard, and alligator, dinosaur (Penn-R)

Class: Aves – (feathered reptiles?) birds, Archaeopteryx - (Jur) (Trias-R)

Class: Mammalia - (Trias-R)

Subclass: Prototheria - duck-billed platypus, spiny anteater

Subclass: Theria – marsupials - opossum, placentals - dog, opossum, man, horse

C.Kingdom: Plantae - plants soft tissue (Precam-R)

"Superphylum": Bryata – nonvascular plants

Phylum: Bryophyta - mosses (Dev. - R)

Phylum: Hepatophyta – liverworts

"Superphylum": Tracheata – vascular plants

P hylum: Psilophyta - leafless vascular plant (M. Paleozoic – R.)

Phylum: Lycophyta - club mosses, Lycopsids (Sil. - R)

Phylum: Sphenophyta (Arthrophyta) - horsetails and sphenopsids, (Dev. - R)

Phylum: Filicinophyta (Polypodiophyta, Pterophytes) - true ferns, Pteropsids (Dev. - R)

"Phylum-Group": Gymnosperms – naked-seed plants

Phylum: Lyginopteriodopsida - seed ferns, (Dev. - Jur.)

Phylum: Cycadophyta - cycads, (Trias. - R)

Phylum: Ginkgophyta - maidenhair tree, ginkgo (Penn. - R)

Phylum: Coniferophyta - conifers, (Dev.? - R)

Phylum: Gnetophyta - (Perm. - R)

Phylum: Anthophyta (Magnoliophyta, Angiospermophyta) - flowering plants, angiosperms (Cret.-R)

Subphylum: Monocotyledones (Liliopsida) - monocotyledonous plants - bananas, cattails, coconut palm, grasses, maize, crocus (Cret. - R)

Subphylum: Dicotyledones (Magnoliopsida) - dicotyledonous plants - roses, sunflowers, maples, pumpkins, grapes, peas, and other flowering plants (Cret. - R)

D.Kingdom: Fungi - mushrooms, fungus, soft tissue (? -R)

Phylum: Zygomycota - Molds

Phylum: Basidiomycota - Mushrooms, Smuts, Rusts, and Jelly fungi

Phylum: Ascomycota – Blue-green molds, Yeast, and Lichens


Margulis, Lynn and Karlene V. Schwartz, 1997, Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth, W.H. Freeman & Company, ISBN 0-613-92338-3

Thanks to John R. Anderson, Department of Geology, Georgia Perimeter College



Dunwoody, GA 30038


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