Name ferns (and Allies) Homework




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FERNS (and Allies) Homework

The majority of ferns and allies conform to the life cycle to be studied here. Two groups of water ferns, however, correspond more closely to the heterosporous life cycle of Selaginella; they will be omitted from extensive consideration today. So today our focus is upon homosporous lower vascular plants in four divisions (Psilotophyta, Lycophyta, Sphenophyta, and Pterophyta).

Many botanists who have studied a wide variety of fossil and living plants have arrived at the conclusion that the leaf has arisen in two phylogenetic ways. In a number of forms, usually thought to be more primitive, the leaf is considered to be a small outgrowth, or enation, of the surface of the stem. Initially it lacked vascular tissue but, in more advanced forms, it is supplied by a single small vascular bundle. This bundle does not disturb the stem vascular cylinder at its point of divergence to the leaf; in other words, there is no leaf gap. These have been called MICROPHYLLS. In a great many more of our modern plants, the leaf is thought to have risen during evolution by a reduction, flattening in one plane, and webbing of portions of a branch system of the original plant axis. The vascular trace to such a leaf, called a MEGAPHYLL, leaves a LEAF GAP in the vascular cylinder of the stem above the point where the vascular trace diverges into the leaf. As you look at representatives of different plant groups, see if you can determine whether they are MICROPHYLLOUS or MEGAPHYLLOUS.
A. PSILOTOPHYTA. Only two genera of this division are living today, both are tropical/subtropical. Our greenhouse collection lacks a specimen of Tmesipteris. Psilotum grows readily in the greenhouse and living specimens are available for study. Make a sketch showing the form of the sporophyte and label completely. Draw lines from each word in the bank to label your sketch. Plan ahead to avoid crossing lines!

synangium

enation

aerial stem



rhizome

rhizoid


/5

On our course website is a link called Ferns and Allies Slides. The linked page shows micrographs from prepared slides of these organisms. Use the micrographs to respond to the items below.

Observe a cross section of a Psilotum rhizome

Every cell in this view is   1N   2N   and is therefore   haploid   diploid  .

Because of the ploidy, this plant is therefore a   gametophyte   sporophyte  .

Some of the epidermal cells are coated with   cutin   suberin  lignin   others are not.

Cortex cells contain grayish granules of   oil   sugar  starch   with an internal crystal.

Other cortical cells have defense chemistry that stains a much   lighter   darker   color.

In the center is/are   one   a few  many   vascular bundles.

The larger-diameter cells with thick, dark red walls are   cambium   phloem  xylem  .

The smaller-diameter cells with thinner blue-green walls are   cambium   phloem  xylem  .

This stele is a   eustele   haplostele   siphonostele  .

The xylem/phloem arrangement is   amphiphloic   bicollateral   collateral   radial  .

Based on your view of living rhizomes, what is missing from this cross section? .

Observe a low-magnification cross section of a Psilotum aerial shoot

This specimen shows sections of a stem and (at right) a section of   enation   microphyll  .

An enation   has   lacks   vascular tissues.

In the center of the stem is/are   one   a few  many   vascular bundles.

Move to a high-magnification view of the cross section of a Psilotum aerial shoot

This view show that most epidermal cells are thickly coated with   cutin   suberin  lignin  .

There are breaks in the epidermis with openings called   guard cells  pores   stomata  .

Surrounding the openings are two sunken cells called   guard cells  pores   stomata  .

Beneath the epidermis are 3 layers of greenish cortex cells colored by .

Between these cells are large gas spaces for gas exchange for   photosynthesis   respiration  .

Internal to the green layer is a red layer of cortex with walls with   cutin   suberin  lignin  .

The cells with red walls probably function in   photosynthesis   respiration   support  .

In the vascular cylinder, the star-shaped zone of red tissue is   cambium   phloem  xylem  .

The smaller-diameter cells with thinner blue-green walls are   cambium   phloem  xylem  .

This stele is a   eustele   protostele   siphonostele  .

This stele has a subtype name of   actinostele   haplostele   plectostele  .

The xylem/phloem arrangement is   amphiphloic   bicollateral   collateral   radial  .

Move to a very-high-magnification view of the vascular cylinder of a Psilotum aerial shoot

The xylem cells with larger diameter and evenly thick walls are toward the   center   edge  .

The protoxylem cells (red spiral wall thickenings) are toward the   center   edge  .

The xylem maturation is   endarch   exarch   mesarch  .

Move to a very-high-magnification view of the epidermis region of a Psilotum aerial shoot

Most of the external epidermal cells appear to   have   lack   chloroplasts.

Guard cells appear to   have   lack   chloroplasts. Both dermal cells   have   lack   vacuoles.

Beneath the epidermis are 3-4 layers of cortex cells that   have   lack   chloroplasts.

For photosynthesis, which gas must come into these cells   O2   CO2  .

The more-internal cortex cells with thick walls are pink due to   cutin   suberin  lignin  .

Observe a high-magnification longitudinal section of a Psilotum aerial shoot vascular area

This specimen shows the   metaxylem   protoxylem   to the right.

Based on the cross section, the nearest epidermis is toward the   left   right   in this specimen.

The holes in the larger diameter xylem cells are called   stomata   guard cells   pits  .

Move to a high-magnification longisection of the epidermis region of a Psilotum aerial shoot.

This specimen shows the   epidermis   cortex   vascular   tissues to the right.

The thick walls to the right are pink due to   cutin   suberin  lignin  .

The thick walls to the left are pink due to   cutin   suberin  lignin  .

The photosynthetic cortical cells are   elongate   isodiametric   (hint: recall cs).

The lignified and internal unlignified cortical cells are   elongate   isodiametric  .

Move to a very-high-magnification view of the interior ls of a Psilotum aerial shoot

This specimen shows unlignified   cortex   endodermis   phloem   xylem   cells at the top.

This specimen shows lignified   cortex   endodermis   phloem   xylem   cells at the bottom.

The thin, green walled cells are   cortex   endodermis   phloem   xylem   cells in the middle.

This cells with a long, pink strip in radial walls are   cortex   endodermis   phloem   xylem  .

The strip is pink due to   cutin   suberin  lignin  .

The dark purple oval in the phloem cell is a   pit   guard cell   sieve plate   in the end wall.

The dark purple oval tells us these phloem cells are   companion cells   sieve tube elements  .

Observe a low-magnification cross section of a Psilotum synangium

This specimen shows the synangium has   1   2   3   more   sporangia.

Each sporangium in the synangium   has   lacks   a natural split in the sterile jacket.

Every cell in the sterile jacket and shoot is   1N   2N   and is therefore   haploid   diploid  .

Move to a high-magnification cross section of a Psilotum synangium

Every cell “floating” in the sterile jacket is   1N   2N   and is therefore   haploid   diploid  .

Because of this, we know they are produced by   mitosis   meiosis   syngamy  .

The spores will be distributed by   animals   water   wind  .

The spores will germinate into   gametophytes   sporophytes   hosted by .

Observe a low-magnification longitudinal section of an attached Psilotum synangium

The sporangia of the synangium have spores that are of   the same  very different   size.



Psilotum is therefore   heterosporous   homosporous  .

The synangium   has   lacks   an attachment to the axis of the aerial shoot.

The synangium   is   is not   held in the axil of a subtending enation.

Move to a high-magnification longitudinal section of a Psilotum synangium attachment

The synangium   has   lacks   a vascular connection to the to the axis of the aerial shoot.

The enation   has   lacks   a vascular connection to the to the axis of the aerial shoot.



B. LYCOPHYTA. Lycopodium is essentially herbaceous but perennial and is world-wide in distribution. Most species are found in moist shaded woods, either growing on the ground or epiphytically in the tropics; a few species occur in drier environments. Living specimens from the arboretum are available for observation. Make a sketch showing the form of the sporophyte and label completely. Draw lines from each word in the bank to label your sketch. Plan ahead to avoid crossing lines! An additional enlargement sketch may be needed.

strobilus

sporangium

sporophyll

microphyll

spiral phyllotaxis

dichotomous branching

aerial stem

rhizome

root


Continue working with the linked file called Ferns and Allies Slides on our course website. Use the micrographs from prepared slides of these organisms to respond to the items below.

Observe a low-magnification cross section of a Lycopodium root

Based on your view of living roots, what is missing from this cross section? .

Some of the epidermal cells are coated with   cutin   suberin  lignin   most are not.

In the center is/are   one   a few  many   vascular bundles.

Move to a high-magnification cross section of a Lycopodium root

Every cell in this view is   1N   2N   and is therefore   haploid   diploid  .

Because of the ploidy, this plant is therefore a   gametophyte   sporophyte  .

This closer view reveals that the vascular cylinder is   is   is not   branching.

The diverging vascular trace is likely going into a(n)   enation   microphyll   lateral root  .

The larger-diameter cells with thick, dark red walls are   cambium   phloem  xylem  .

The smaller-diameter cells with thinner blue-green walls are   cambium   phloem  xylem  .

This stele is a   eustele   protostele   siphonostele  .

This stele has a subtype name of   actinostele   haplostele   plectostele  .

The xylem/phloem arrangement is   amphiphloic   bicollateral   collateral   radial  .

Move to a very-high-magnification cross section of a Lycopodium root

Outside the vascular tissues are   cortex   endodermis   pericycle   cells with a pink strip in their radial walls. The strip is pink due to   cutin   suberin  lignin  .

Observe a low-magnification cross section (2 available) of a Lycopodium leafy aerial shoot

This specimen shows sections of a stem and a few sections of   enation   microphyll  .

A microphyll   has   lacks   vascular tissues.

In the center of the stem is/are   one   a few   many   vascular cylinders.

The arrangement of the leaves is likely   opposite   spiral   whorled  .

Move to a high-magnification view of the cross section of a Lycopodium stem vascular area

In the vascular cylinder, the layered zone of red tissue is   cambium   phloem  xylem  .

The smaller-diameter cells with thinner blue-green walls are   cambium   phloem  xylem  .

This stele is a   eustele   protostele   siphonostele  .

This stele has a subtype name of   actinostele   haplostele   plectostele  .

The xylem/phloem arrangement is   amphiphloic   bicollateral   collateral   radial  .

The smaller-diameter protoxylem cells are toward the   exterior   interior   of the xylem.

In the cortex there are very dark purple cell clusters which are .

The arrangement of these clusters shows that leaves are likely   opposite   spiral   whorled  .

The size of the clusters shows that the leaf is likely a(n)   enation   microphyll   megaphyll  .

Move to a high-magnification view of the cross section of a Lycopodium stem dermal area

This view shows that most epidermal cells are thickly coated with   cutin   suberin  lignin  .

There are breaks in the epidermis with openings called   guard cells  pores   stomata  .

Surrounding the openings are two cells called   guard cells  pores   stomata  .

Beneath the epidermis are 6-8 layers of cortex cells with greyish .

Between these cells are large gas spaces for gas exchange for   photosynthesis   respiration  .

Internal to these cells are larger cells with   larger   smaller   gas spaces.

These larger cells with smaller gas spaces get energy from   photosynthesis   respiration  .

For that process, which gas must come into these cells   O2   CO2  .

Observe a high-magnification cross-section of the leaf of a Lycopodium aerial shoot

The epidermal cells with thick external walls are pink due to   cutin   suberin  lignin 

The epidermis   has   lacks   guard cells and stomata.

A microphyll   has   lacks   vascular tissues and   has   lacks   mesophyll.

The photosynthetic cells   have   lack   chloroplasts and   have   lack   a vacuole.

In the center is/are   0   1   more   vascular cylinder(s), so the leaf is   enation   microphyll  .

The xylem cells are located toward the   center   edge   of the vascular bundle.

I can tell because xylem cell walls are   red  green   and are more   thin  thick  than phloem.

The xylem/phloem arrangement is   amphiphloic   bicollateral   collateral   radial  .

Observe a low-magnification longi-section of the strobilus of a Lycopodium aerial shoot

The strobilus axis appears to   have   lack   vascular tissue.

The green appendages appear to be   have   lack   purplish sporangia in their axils.

The green appendages are therefore   microphylls   sporophylls  .

Move to two high-magnification longitudinal sections of an the strobilus of a Lycopodium shoot

The sporangia   have   lack   stalk and sterile jacket.

The sporangia contain spores that are of   the same  very different   size.

Lycopodium is therefore   heterosporous   homosporous  .

Move to 2 very-high-magnification longitudinal sections of an the strobilus of Lycopodium

The sporophyll   has   lacks   a vascular bundle and so is also a(n)   enation   microphyll  .

Every cell “floating” in the sterile jacket is   1N   2N   and is therefore   haploid   diploid  .

Because of this, we know the cells are produced by   mitosis   meiosis   syngamy  .

Move to an extremely-high-magnification of spores in the sporangium of Lycopodium

The evidence that meiosis has occurred are the clusters of spores called .

The individual spores also show evidence in the form of .

These spores will be distributed by   animals   water   wind  .

The spores will germinate into   gametophytes   sporophytes  .



C. SPHENOPHYTA. The only living genus in this division is Equisetum, commonly called horsetail or scouring rush. Most species grow in wet areas, but a few are adapted to drier regions. Living specimens are available for study. Make a sketch showing the form of the sporophyte and label completely. Draw lines from each word in the bank to label your sketch. Plan ahead to avoid crossing lines! An enlargement sketch may be needed.

aerial stem

microphyll

stem branches

node

internode



rhizome

root


Continue working with the linked file called Ferns and Allies Slides on our course website. Use the micrographs from prepared slides of these organisms to respond to the items below.

Observe a low-magnification cross section of an Equisetum root

Some of the epidermal cells appear damaged; what was ripped away? .

Some of the epidermal cells are coated with   cutin   suberin  lignin   most are not.

In the center is/are   one   a few  many   vascular bundle(s).

The cortex and vascular cylinder   has   lacks   large gas spaces.

Move to a high-magnification cross section of a Equisetum root

The larger-diameter cells with thick, dark red walls are   cambium   phloem  xylem  .

The smaller-diameter cells with thinner blue-green walls are   cambium   phloem  xylem  .

Outside the vascular tissues are   cortex   endodermis   pericycle   cells with a pink strip in their radial walls. The strip is pink due to   cutin   suberin  lignin  .

Observe a low-magnification cross section of an Equisetum leafy stem

The outer ring is made of   0   a few   20   laterally-fused leaves.

The inner ring of tissue is the stem with   0   a few   20   vascular bundles.

The stem   has   lacks   both pith cells and a hollow pith region.

Move to a high-magnification cross section of the ring of leaves in Equisetum

The enlarged portion of the ring is made of   1   2   3   complete laterally-fused leaves.

The   inner   outer   epidermis is multi-layered and has brightly glowing silicate layers.

The mesophyll appears to be   filamentous   parenchymatous  .

Move to a very-high-magnification cross section of one leaf in Equisetum

The palisade mesophyll cells   have   lack   chloroplasts and vacuoles.

The spongy mesophyll appears to be   less   more   tightly packed than the palisade layer

The leaf has   0   1   more   vein(s) and therefore is a(n)   enation   microphyll   megaphyll  

The vascular bundle is closest to the   inner   outer   epidermis.

Every cell in this view is   1N   2N   and is therefore   haploid   diploid  .

Because of the ploidy, this plant is therefore a   gametophyte   sporophyte  .

Move to 2 high-magnification cross sections of the ring of leaves and stem in Equisetum

The enlarged portion of the stem shows   1   2   5-6   vascular bundles.

The stem has pith cells and a hollow pith region   inside   outside   the ring of bundles.

The   inner   outer   pith cells are dying /disintegrating in the process of .

Another cell type undergoing this process is   metaxylem   protoxylem   forming air canals.

Move to a very-high-magnification cross section of the stem in Equisetum

The epidermal coating is not red and is   cutin   silicate  .

The surface of the stem is   ridged   smooth   with stomata   at   between   vascular bundles.

The   inner   outer   mesophyll cells have dense cytoplasm for   photosynthesis   respiration  .

Observe a low-magnification longi-section of the strobilus of a Equisetum aerial shoot

The strobilus axis appears to   have   lack   vascular tissue.

The green appendages appear to be   have   lack   vascular connections to the axis.

Hanging under the cap of these sporangiophores are   spores   sporangia  .

Move to 2 high-magnification longitudinal sections of a sporangium of an Equisetum strobilus

The sporangium   has   lacks   a nearby vascular connection for its attachment.

If mature, the cells in the sporangium most recently underwent   mitosis  meiosis   syngamy  

The mature sporangium contains spores that are of   the same  very different   size.



Equisetum is therefore   heterosporous   homosporous  .

In this view every cell, except the spores, is   1N   2N   and therefore   diploid   haploid  .

The spores will be distributed by   animals   water   wind  .

The spores germinate into   autotrophic   heterotrophic     gametophytes   sporophytes  .

Move to a very-high-magnification longitudinal section of the axis of a strobilus of Equisetum

The vertical stem shows protoxylem toward the   pith   cortex  .

The xylem maturation in Equisetum is therefore   endarch   exarch   mesarch  .

The sporangiophore has   0   1   more   vein(s), a derivative of a(n)   enation   microphyll  

Observe a low-magnification whole mount of a Equisetum gametophyte with antheridia

The body   has   lacks   vascular tissue and so is a   plant   thallus  .

The body is anchored by   rhizoids   rhizomes   roots  .

At the tip of the gametophyte is the male gametangium, the   antheridium   archegonium  .

Move to high- and very-high magnification whole mount views of an Equisetum gametophyte

In this view every cell is   1N   2N   and therefore   diploid   haploid  .

Inside these antheridia the   egg   sperm   is produced by   meiosis   mitosis  .

In the very-high magnification view, the developing gametes are   round   curled  .

The developing gametes are distributed by   animals   water   wind  .

Observe a low-magnification whole mount of a Equisetum gametophyte with archegonia

The body   has   lacks   vascular tissue and so is a   plant   thallus  .

The body is anchored by   rhizoids   rhizomes   roots  .

In the base of the gametophyte is a female gametangium, the   antheridium   archegonium  .

Move to high- and very-high magnification whole mount views of an Equisetum gametophyte

In this view every cell is   1N   2N   and therefore   diploid   haploid  .

The dark brown cells are   sterile jacket   internal   cells and all are   diploid   haploid  .

The very round cell at the end of the brown cells is the   neck canal   ventral canal   egg   cell.

The   egg   sperm   does not leave the archegonium but attracts sperm by .

The gametes of all ferns and allies are   anisogamous   isogamous   oogamous  .

Observe a low-magnification whole mount of a Equisetum gametophyte with young sporophyte

The frilly bluish-green body is the   gametophyte   sporophyte  ;

its thick, hairy purple appendages are   rhizoids   root hairs  .

The linear yellowish vertical body is the   gametophyte   sporophyte  ;

its very thin, hairy purple-gray appendages are   rhizoids   root hairs  .

On the shoot tip of the sporophyte is a cluster of   antheridia   sporangia   microphylls  .

The tapered part of the tip of the sporophyte root is the   radicle   root cap   lateral root  .



D. PTEROPHYTA. This division includes the ferns, most of which are shade-loving plants of rather small size, although some species (called tree ferns) often reach 20 to 30 or more feet in height. Fresh sporophytes are available from the greenhouse for observation. Make a sketch showing the form of the sporophyte and label completely. Draw lines from each word in the bank to label your sketch. Plan ahead to avoid crossing lines! An enlargement sketch may be needed.
Fiddlehead

Rhizome


Root

Earlier in the semester, you made a spore culture of Ceratopteris richardii in Knopp's agar. The population of gametophytes has grown and you should examine it by dissection microscope for gametophyte development, gametangia, and overall form. Then make a wet mount of two large gametophytes that appear to have archegonia, and include several of the smaller "bubbly" gametophytes that appear to have antheridia. Under the cover slip, with some time of observation, you should be able to observe sperm release, sperm motility, chemotaxis, and perhaps even the early parts of syngamy! If you flood the plate in one area (marked on the bottom) you might be able to see young sporophytes next week!

Antheridium Archegonium

Male Thallus Female Thallus

Rhizoid Rhizoid

Continue working with the linked file called Ferns and Allies Slides on our course website. Use the micrographs from prepared slides of these organisms to respond to the items below.

Observe a low-magnification cross section of a Pteridium rhizome

A rhizome is an underground   leaf   root   stem  .

This rhizome is hybrid: a ring of bundles looking like   eustele   plectostele  ...

…and the three plates looking like   eustele   plectostele  .

Move to a high-magnification cross section of a Pteridium rhizome showing the ring

What appears to be a ring of bundles is a cylinder perforated by .

Somewhere near this section of stem, leaves have diverged from the stem at a .

The likely leaf arrangment for this fern is   alternate   opposite   whorled  .

This kind of vascular cylinder is actually a   eustele   plectostele   siphonostele  .

The larger-diameter cells with thick, dark red walls are   cambium   phloem  xylem  .

The smaller-diameter cells with thinner pink walls are   cambium   phloem  xylem  .

Move to a high-magnification cross section of a Pteridium rhizome showing the ring and plate

In each vascular area the protoxylem is toward the   center   edge   of the bundle or plate.

The xylem maturation is   endarch   exarch   mesarch   (the center of stem is below this!).

The xylem/phloem arrangement is   amphiphloic   collateral   radial  .

Observe a low-magnification cross section of a Adiantum rhizome

This rhizome is more clearly a   eustele   plectostele   siphonostele   with one .

The likely leaf arrangment for this fern is   alternate   opposite   whorled  .

The cylinder is surrounded by cortex and filled with pith that is   blue   purple   red  .

Move to a high-magnification cross section of a Adiantum rhizome

This kind of vascular cylinder is actually a   eustele   plectostele   siphonostele  .

The larger-diameter cells with thick, dark red walls are   cambium   phloem  xylem  .

The smaller-diameter cells with thinner blue walls are   cambium   phloem  xylem  .

In the vascular cylinder the protoxylem is toward the   center   edge   of the tissue.

The xylem maturation is   endarch   exarch   mesarch  .

The xylem/phloem arrangement is   amphiphloic   collateral   radial  .

Observe a high-magnification cross section of one fern leaflet

This leaf   has   lacks   palisade and spongy layers but palisade is .

The leaf vein has   amphiphloic   collateral   radial   xylem/phloem arrangement.

The xylem is closer to the   lower   upper   epidermis than is the phloem.

The leaf vascular tissues of the vein are surrounded by   bundle sheath   mesophyll   cells.

The two pairs of guard cells are in the   lower   upper   epidermis.

The fern frond is likely   amphistomatic    epistomatic    hypostomatic  .

Every cell in this view is   1N   2N   and is therefore   haploid   diploid  .

Because of the ploidy, this plant is therefore a   gametophyte   sporophyte  .

Observe a low-magnification cross-section of a fertile leaf of a fern

The sporangia are attached to the   lower   upper   surface in clusters called

Move to a high-magnification longitudinal sections of a sporangium of a fern

The sporangium   has   lacks   a stalk and a sterile jacket that open at the cells.

The cells in the immature sporangium are diploid cells from   mitosis   meiosis   syngamy  

The cells in the mature sporangium are haploid cells from   mitosis   meiosis   syngamy  

The cells in the mature sporangium are spores that are of   the same  very different   size.

This fern is therefore   heterosporous   homosporous  .

In this view every cell, except the spores, is   1N   2N   and therefore   diploid   haploid  .

Observe a high-magnification whole mount of a fern sporangium

The jacket cells with differentially thick walls are the   annulus   lip cells   sporangiophore  .

The spores will be distributed by   animals   water   wind  .

The spores germinate into   autotrophic   heterotrophic     gametophytes   sporophytes  .

Observe a low-magnification cross section of a Polystichum leaf with sorus

The sporangia are held under a(n)   annulus   indusium   sporangiophore  .

Observe a low-magnification whole mount of Fern gametophyte with antheridia and archegonia

The body   has   lacks   vascular tissue and so is a   plant   thallus  .

The body is anchored by   rhizoids   rhizomes   roots  .

The bubble-like gametangia in the base of the gametophyte are   antheridia   archegonia  .

The protruding gametangia in the notch of the gametophyte are   antheridia   archegonia  .

In this view every cell is   1N   2N   and therefore   diploid   haploid  .

Move to high-magnification whole mount views of the notch of a fern gametophyte

The swollen part of the archegonium, the   neck   venter   is   embedded   protruding  .

Deep in the archegonium, the female gamete is the   canal   egg   cell.

The   neck   venter   opens to allow sperm to enter by   animals   water   wind  .

Move to high-magnification whole mount views of the rhizoid area of a fern gametophyte

Inside the antheridium, the male gamete is made by   meiosis   mitosis   syngamy  .

The antheridium opens to allow sperm to   be carried off   swim away   fly off  .

There are two very-high magnification views of antheridia and archegonia.

Observe a very high magnification longitudinal section of a fern gametophyte with antheridia

The antheridium is found in an area where the thallus is   one   many   cell(s) thick.

The antheridium is   embedded in   protruding from   attached to   the thallus.

Observe a whole mount of a fern sperm

The sperm is   round   curved   and has   no   one   many   flagella.

Observe a very high magnification longitudinal section of a fern gametophyte with archegonia

The archegonium is found in an area where the thallus is   one   many   cells thick.

The swollen part of the archegonium, the   neck   venter   is   embedded   protruding  .

The largest cell of the archegonium is the   sterile jacket   canal   egg   cell.

The   neck   venter   opens to allow sperm to enter by   animals   water   wind  .

Observe a low-magnification whole mount of Fern gametophyte with early sporophyte

In the one large, dark archegonium   meiosis   mitosis   syngamy   all of these   occurred.

In the tissue in the lage, dark archegonium is the   egg   zygote   sporophyte  .

Move to a high-magnification whole mount of Fern gametophyte with early sporophyte

The sporophyte   has   has not   yet broken out of the   antheridium    archegonium  .

Observe a low-magnification whole mount of Fern gametophyte with sporophyte

The two broken-up wings on either side of the sporophyte are the .

Move to the high-magnification view of the sporophyte leaf

The sporophyte leaf has   dichotomous   netted   parallel   veination.

Move to a high-magnification whole mount of fern gametophyte with early sporophyte root

Yellowish part of the sporophyte is the   leaf   root   stem  .

The tapered part of the tip of the sporophyte root is the   radicle   root cap   lateral root  .

The hairs that attach to the broken up green part are   rhizoids   root hairs  .

The hairs that attach to the yellowish part are   rhizoids   root hairs  .

Move to high-magnification whole mount views of a fern gametophyte with sporophyte stem

The claw-like appendage is the second leaf primordium arching over the shoot .

The axis extending down toward the yellow root is the   leaf   root   stem  .


Document © Ross E. Koning 1994. Permission granted for non-commercial instruction.

Koning, Ross E. 1994. Ferns and Allies. Plant Information Website. http://plantphys.info/plant_biology/labdoc/ferns.doc




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