Monmouthshire (Vice-county 35)


Cwm Ifor The only limestone gorge in western Monmouthshire is Cwm Ifor



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Cwm Ifor

The only limestone gorge in western Monmouthshire is Cwm Ifor (SO255113), which lies at the head of Cwm Llanwenarth between The Blorenge and Gilwern Hill. Although there is parking at Pen-ffordd-goch Pond (see above) the descent from there into the cwm is very steep; it is better to park at Garnddyrys (SO258118) and follow the old tramroad southwestwards. Garnddyrys itself has a reasonably rich bryophyte flora, including Bryum pallescens on the massive blocks of slag, Lophozia bicrenata (acidic spoil), L. excisa (calcareous spoil) and L. sudetica (slag) and Campylium stellatum var. protensum and Campyliadelphus (Campylium) chrysophyllus in calcareous turf. Scapania cuspiduligera NS grows in very small quantity in one of the quarries above the road. The grassland fungus flora at Garnddyrys is exceptionally rich.


As the tramroad reaches the head of Cwm Ifor it passes numerous limestone crags on which a range of calcicoles grow. These include Campylopus fragilis and Plagiobryum zieri on thin soil and Leiocolea badensis in damper turf. A few plants of Funaria muhlenbergii NS grow on top of a limestone boulder by the tramroad, at the only Monmouthshire site for this species. Preissia quadrata can be found in abundance on the mortar of a ruined building, often with sporophytes. Scrambling down into the gully is difficult but rewarding - highlights at the bottom include Cololejeunea calcarea, Plagiochila britannica, Bartramia ithyphylla, Orthothecium intricatum, Platydictya jungermannioides NS and Seligeria pusilla NS. The sporophyte enthusiast can have an enjoyable time in Cwm Ifor; rarely-fruiting species that have done their thing here include Breutelia chrysocoma, Neckera crispa and Tortella tortuosa.
Gilwern Hill

The Vice-county boundary cuts Gilwern Hill (SO24-12-) in half; the Monmouthshire part includes limestone quarries and woodland, whilst the Breconshire part also supports some peatland. Extensive areas of calcareous spoil in and around the quarries hold abundant Trichostomum crispulum and various other calcicoles, but the two specialities - Scapania cuspiduligera NS and Rhodobryum roseum - are very restricted in extent and are difficult to find. The woodland is, for the most part, private, but a footpath can be followed through Graig Wood into Cwm Llanwenarth. Where a layer of bryophytes has developed over shaded limestone blocks, there is a chance of finding Tritomaria exsectiformis, currently known from two places in the area. Any natural limestone faces should be examined for Seligeria spp. as S. acutifolia NS and S. donniana NS are present in small quantity. There is room for a couple of cars at SO243119.


11. Abergavenny
See also Castle Meadows in Usk Valley above
Ysgyryd Fawr

The distinctive lumpy profile of “The Skirrid” is one of Abergavenny’s main landmarks. Although there are footpaths on to the mountain from the north there is limited parking there, so it is best to park at SO328163 and follow the main path. The wall at the top of Caer Wood (SO327169) supports abundant Porella platyphylla, among which is a little P. arboris-vitae. From here, one can scramble up on to the southern lump (SO327170), the dry southern slopes of which hold Ditrichum gracile (crispatissimum), Encalypta vulgaris, Microbryum (Phascum) curvicolle and Tortula subulata. The best ground on the mountain is the northern landslip (SO330182), said to date from Christ’s crucifixion and giving Ysgyryd Fawr another alternative name of “The Holy Mountain”. Careful searching of the Old Red Sandstone blocks here should reveal Scapania aspera, Hedwigia stellata, Leucodon sciuroides and Pterogonium gracile and, given the similarity of the habitat to that at Cwmyoy (see below), Grimmia longirostris (affinis) should also be borne in mind. Patches of thin soil may have Acaulon muticum or Tortula lanceola (Pottia lanceolata) growing on them. The ridge walk gives stunning views of northern Monmouthshire and the southern Marches, but the descent at the north end is very steep so turning back once the summit is reached is advisable.


Bryn Arw

The only part of bracken-dominated Bryn Arw that is worth the bryologist’s time is the southern end. This is an alternative to Ysgyryd Fawr and Cwmyoy, supporting a typical Old Red Sandstone bryophyte flora, including Acaulon muticum, Aloina aloides, Dicranum bonjeanii, Leucodon sciuroides, Pterogonium gracile and Tortula lanceola (Pottia lanceolata). The Leucodon is more abundant here than anywhere else in the Vice-county.


The Sugar-loaf

It is quite a long walk to get to the top of The Sugar-loaf (SO273188) and the effort is of questionable value - Dicranum fuscescens is the only interesting species that grows there. The north-facing slopes are, however, of significance as the only site in the county where Marchantia polymorpha ssp. montivagans grows (in Nant-du) in any kind of abundance. They also support Drepanocladus cossonii, Plagiomnium elatum, Sanionia (Drepanocladus) uncinata and a little Trichocolea tomentella. The northeast-facing wooded slopes of St Mary’s Vale (SO278169) hold locally abundant Bazzania trilobata near the edge of its British range. Other species in the woodland include Ptilidium pulcherrimum and Trichocolea tomentella, although both are difficult to find. The latter species also grows in Park Lodge Wood (SO284185), sharing a stony flush with one of the county’s few colonies of Thuidium delicatulum.



Cwm Coed-y-cerrig NNR

Boardwalks leading from the car-park (SO292211) allow access to much of this National Nature Reserve. Alder carr, supporting Eurhynchium speciosum, Plagiomnium elatum and possibly P. ellipticum, is the principal habitat; conditions also appear to be ideal for Amblystegium humile but this has not yet been recorded. A number of good bryologists have visited the NNR in the past. Jonathan Sleath found Platygyrium repens NS in willow carr west of the car-park in 1995, whilst Martha Newton carried out a full survey of the site in 1997 and noted Plagiothecium laetum NS amongst other species. Roy Perry found Plagiothecium latebricola in 1982 and a BBS visit in 1968 turned up Thuidium recognitum NS on base-rich rock, the latter would be a superb species to refind.


There is an old record of Antitrichia curtipendula from this area: Augustin Ley collected it between The Queen’s Head and Pontyspig in the late 19th century. Walls around the Gaer (SO293219) or by the track between Pen-rhiw and New Inn Farm would be ideal places to start a search, but there are no public rights of way here.
12. Western Monmouthshire
This area is almost the most poorly recorded in the county (the levels west of Newport are even less well known), although several visits have shown that it has a rich bryophyte flora. Parallel valleys (Rhymney, Sirhowy, Ebbw & Afon Llwyd), running north-south, and an industrial past give this area a similar appearance to mid Glamorgan. The underlying rocks are, for the most part, Devonian and include the Pennant Sandstone and the Coal Measures. The sandstone forms crags that support a characteristic assemblage of mosses, including Cynodontium bruntonii and Racomitrium aquaticum, which does not penetrate further east in Monmouthshire. Records of Barbilophozia kunzeana and Scapania paludicola suggest that the marshy grassland and flushes on the Coal Measures deserve more attention.
Rhymney Valley

The Carboniferous Limestone that forms the eastern edge of the Coalfield is exposed in a large working quarry at Machen and also as small natural outcrops. The footpath past Castell Meredydd (ST224886) may reveal Pterogonium gracile, which occurs in abundance on an old Ash, Reboulia hemisphaerica, which grows on thin soil by the drive, and a few epiphytes such as Dicranum tauricum or Orthotrichum lyellii. The quarry should not be visited as it is dangerous. Further up the Rhymney Valley, Lejeunea lamacerina, Fissidens celticus and F. curnovii grow in a shaded valley at Trethomas Park (ST188889).


Rhymney Hill & Mynydd Bedwellte

One of the best remnants of bog in Monmouthshire is at the north end of Rhymney Hill (SO126084), the ridge between the Rhymney and Sirhowy Valleys. Cladopodiella fluitans is abundant here, in contrast to its only other Vice-county site, Waun Afon (see below), where it is very rare, and Splachnum ampulaceum also occurs in quantity. Cattle and horse grazing of this common is undoubtedly the reason why Splachnum persists here but is so rare elsewhere in south Wales. A patch of Scapania paludicola NT was found on trampled ground at the south end of the bog in 2002. The rest of the hill is covered with acidic grassland, acid flushes and heathland, some of which holds Sphagnum compactum. There are old records of Saccogyna viticulosa and Bryum alpinum from Cwm Tysswg (SO13-06-); unfortunately there are no public footpaths in this cwm, which is crying out for more thorough exploration.


The flat top of Mynydd Bedwellte (SO14-05-) is pretty unremarkable, although a mysterious, non-fertile large Fossombronia collected here in 2002 hints that a thorough exploration could be worthwhile. The east-facing crags, formed of Pennant Sandstone and therefore with a similar flora to parts of the Glamorgan Valleys, hold most of the hill’s specialities. Andreaea rothii, Cynodontium bruntonii, Polytrichum alpinum and Racomitrium aquaticum are locally abundant, whilst careful examination of crevices could reveal Rhabdoweisia crispata, R. fugax or Scapania scandica, all of which have been found there. This is the only Monmouthshire site west of The Blorenge from which Seligeria recurvata has been recorded.

Sirhowy Valley

A waterfall by the visitor centre at the Sirhowy Valley Country Park (ST210911) supports Saccogyna viticulosa at one of its few Vice-county localities. Microlejeunea ulicina and Orthotrichum stramineum are among the epiphytes on willows in the woodland here, whilst Bryum laevifilum (subelegans) has been noted on an elder. The damp floor of the drained Scotch Peter’s Reservoir (SO155089) is Fossombronia heaven: F. wondraczekii is plentiful, whilst F. incurva NS (at its only known V-c 35 site) and F. pusilla occur in smaller quantity. Bulbiferous Pohlia spp. should be searched for although none have yet been found. There is room to pull in a car on the Tredegar to Ebbw Vale road at SO151087. A ditch by one of the Waun-y-pound pools (SO152107) also holds Fossombronia wondraczekii.


Ebbw Vale

At the southern end of Ebbw Vale, Cwm Carn Forest Drive (ST239935) gives access to an extensive area of conifer plantations in a steep-sided valley. A brief visit revealed Diplophyllum obtusifolium NS on a friable bank next to the entrance gate and Colura calyptrifolia NS on a willow next to Nant Carn just nearby. Numerous forestry tracks, as well as the drivable loop, can be explored. The next cwm to the north, Cwm Gwyddon (ST23-95-) can only be explored on foot; its flora is similar, and includes D. obtusifolium and a few epiphytes. The most interesting part of the cwm, the headwaters in ST24-97- & ST25-97-, are best reached from the road at ST236980. The sides of the cwm are steep, making for difficult walking, but these protect several bryophytes of local interest as well as a strong population of Ivy-leaved Bell-flower Wahlenbergia hederacea. The most notable species in the cwm are Andreaea rupestris, at its only known V-c site, A. rothii falcata, Dicranella palustris (quite scarce in the county) and Diphyscium foliosum, whilst Jungermannia pumila, Lophozia ventricosa var. sylvicola and Racomitrium aquaticum grow in a gully at ST251977.


Shopping in the Garden Festival retail outlet, which has a large carpark at SO175060, can be combined with a visit to Craig Rhiwargan (SO176055) on the northeast-facing slopes above Cwm. The dramatic wooded block-scree above the carpark holds locally abundant Sanionia (Drepanocladus) uncinata and Schistidium apocarpum and a little Lophozia bicrenata, whilst natural crags further north have locally abundant Cynodontium bruntonii and Racomitrium aquaticum as well as smaller amounts of Bartramia pomiformis and Diphyscium foliosum; generally the quarried faces are bryologically poor. The Gardens themselves (SO175063) are fairly good for epiphytes, including Orthotrichum striatum and O. tenellum. An alternative suite of epiphytes is found on Poplar trunks by the approach road: Grimmia pulvinata, Ptychomitrium polyphyllum, Racomitrium aciculare and R. fasciculare all grow on the bark, which has presumably been affected by air pollution from the nearby steelworks.
Cwm Merddog LNR (SO187063) on the opposite side of the valley is an ancient semi-natural woodland that would probably be bryologically interesting.
Blaina & Abertillery

There are carparks and a picnic site down the valley from the reservoir in Cwm Tillery (SO219065). A bridleway runs northwards across the slopes above the reservoir, giving access to rocky oak woodland in which Barbilophozia floerkii and a wide range of fairly common mosses grow; Andreaea rothii falcata has been noted on a more exposed rock. The west-facing slopes and quarries around SO223067 should also be explored, as should springheads on the slopes above the reservoir. Sadly the reservoir’s water levels are maintained too high for any interesting bryophytes to grow on the margins. Cwm Celyn (SO20-09-) may be similar. However, if access to the species-rich marshy grassland - which supports Carum verticillatum and Vicia orobus, amongst other interesting vascular plants - could be arranged, it would probably prove to be much richer.


The extensive east-facing crags of Darren Ddu (SO198060) and West Side (SO193076) would probably hold a similar array of bryophytes to those on Mynydd Bedwellte and Craig Rhiwargan.
Mynydd Coity & Blaenavon

Mynydd Coity (SO23-07-) itself is a large expanse of moorland with little of bryological note; lower lying ground on the ridge’s eastern side is more interesting however. The British (SO25-03-) and Varteg Waste (SO25-05-) may be worth a look as they hold fragments of undisturbed semi-natural vegetation set in a sea of colliery spoil. A little further north, there is a colony of Schistidium platyphyllum NS on a concrete weir (SO253078) in one of the streams flowing through the Waun Hoscyn spoilheaps. The colliery spoil at Waun Hoscyn is base-rich in places; these areas support Climacium dendroides, Didymodon (Barbula) tophaceus forma acutifolia and Sanionia (Drepanocladus) uncinata. There is a wide gravel layby next to the Blaenavon Cemetery, from which Waun Hoscyn can be explored. Barbilophozia attenuata, Scapania gracilis and Dicranum fuscescens grow in small patches of block scree at the northern end of Mynydd Farteg Fawr (SO245076). Old poplars east of the school in Forge Side (SO247085) are worth a quick look as they support Orthotrichum lyellii and O. striatum.
The largest semi-intact peat bog in Western Monmouthshire is Waun Afon (SO220103), three miles west of Brynmawr. Given the rarity of this habitat in Monmouthshire, the presence of several bog hepatics is notable; unfortunately Cephalozia connivens, Cladopodiella fluitans, Odontoschisma sphagni and Mylia anomala are only present in tiny quantity. Splachnum ampulaceum is slightly commoner here; dense tufts were noted on 8 cowpats at the northern end of the bog (SO219108) in May 2003. A footpath runs southwards along a track from parking at SO218110 and the best bryophytes are all to the east of this path.
On the other side of the B4248, Cefn Garnyrerw (SO229109) is the county hotspot for Sphagnum compactum, whilst the spoil heaps and remnant bog northeast of Garn-yr-erw (SO23-10-) support a wide range of bryophytes including Cephaloziella hampeana, Archidium alternifolium, Hypnum lindbergii (these last two on the track at SO232103) and a single mound of Polytrichum strictum (alpestre). Blaenavon (SO25-09-) is a World Heritage Site with exceptionally interesting industrial archaeology. Although Ptychomitrium polyphyllum has been noted on a slag wall in the town, it has a fairly poor bryophyte flora.
13. Grwyne Fawr Valley
Coed-dias

The bridge over the Grwyne-fawr at Coed-dias supports a tuft of Grimmia decipiens, found during the 1999 BBS meeting. The eastern bank held Bryum gemmiparum RDB(EN) in 1954 but this species may have been lost due to over-shading as it was not refound in 1999. The slopes above Coed-dias are reached from the Pont Cadwgan car-park (SO267251) by walking south-eastwards through the forestry to Nant Bran. This cwm, which runs along the edge of the forestry, includes a few outcrops of Old Red Sandstone, with Bartramia ithyphylla, Campylopus fragilis and Seligeria recurvata present in small quantity. At the head of the cwm, a flush system holds small amounts of Cephalozia pleniceps NS, Plagiomnium elatum, Rhizomnium pseudopunctatum and Scorpidium scorpioides. These also occur as slightly larger patches further southeast around SO276247, together with other Vice-county rarities such as Calliergon giganteum, Drepanocladus revolvens and Fissidens osmundoides and frequent D. cossonii.


Pont Cadwgan

Parking for at least 10 cars at SO267251 provides access to the southern part of Mynydd Du Forest. The Grwyne-fawr forms the county boundary here so the author has concentrated on the eastern side of the river. Flat rocks in the river support Jungermannia exsertifolia, Didymodon (Barbula) spadiceus, Fissidens rufulus NS and Hygrohypnum luridum, whilst low rock outcrops next to it have a little Metzgeria conjugata. Poplars near the car-park have a rich epiphyte flora including frequent Orthotrichum stramineum, occasional O. lyellii and at least one patch of Leucodon sciuroides.


Bal-mawr

The trek up through an area of forestry from the Pont Cadwgan car-park is very tedious, even Diplophyllum obtusifolium seems to be absent! Once you reach the flushes on the south face of the Bal-mawr you should find that the walk was worthwhile, at least in a Monmouthshire context. Drepanocladus cossonii is more abundant here than anywhere else in the county, D. revolvens is frequent and Scorpidium scorpioides grows in at least two places. Sphagnum tenellum grows on the edge of at least one flush and there is surely a better chance of adding S. contortum to the county list here than anywhere else. The star species is rather tricky to find - Calypogeia azurea NS was collected from the upper bank of the track on the south-western side of the hill in 2002; this is its most southerly known site in Britain. Augustine Ley bryologised in this area and, as well as the Scorpidium, recorded Grimmia donniana on one rock somewhere around here in the 19th century; no other V-c 35 records of this species are known.


Blaen-y-cwm

Bryologising at Blaen-y-cwm (SO252285) involves flirting with the county boundary, which follows a stream down from Chwarel y Fan to the Afon Grwyne Fawr. The boundary stream is bryologically unremarkable, at least on the Monmouthshire side, although low sandstone outcrops support a little Metzgeria conjugata. Following the river southwards from the carpark is more productive, as it leads one past more low crags - with Plagiochila spinulosa, M. conjugata and locally abundant Porella arboris-vitae - and through unimproved grassland with Barbilophozia barbata. Climbing eastwards on to tracks through the conifer forest allows access to Diplophyllum obtusifolium; look for small rosettes of it on very friable, reddish soil that has hardly been colonised by other bryophytes. Oligotrichum hercynicum was found on a track here in 1999 but was not collected and has not been seen in the county since then.


14. Cwmyoy & Oldcastle
Cwmyoy

From the limited parking next to Cwmyoy Church (SO298233) follow a footpath northwards then eastwards for a couple of hundred yards to get to Cwmyoy Graig, the two-part mound above the village. This is one of the richest bryophyte sites in the county although several of the more interesting species are hard to find. Most notable is Grimmia longirostris (G. affinis) NS which grows on a sandstone block in the central valley (SO300237); this species is known from only one other site in Wales and should not be collected, its upright sporophytes but overall Grimmia-like appearance make it distinctive in the field anyway. Also in the central valley are locally abundant Leucodon sciuroides and Pterogonium gracile, about 100 Rhodobryum roseum (western side at northern end of valley) and a few tufts of Bryum donnianum NS. The dry, south-facing slopes of the Graig provide ideal conditions for strong colonies of Microbryum (Phascum) curvicolle and Tortula lanceola (Pottia lanceolata) as well as smaller quantities of T. modica (Pottia intermedia), M. davallianum and M. rectum (Pottia recta). Other species recorded here include Cephaloziella stellulifera NS, Bartramia ithyphylla, Brachythecium glareosum, Encalypta vulgaris, Hypnum lindbergii, Sanionia (Drepanocladus) uncinata, Scleropodium tourettii and Tortula subulata var. graeffii NS. The walls around Cwmyoy Church support an abundance of Anomodon viticulosus and Porella platyphylla whilst the tiles of the church itself hold Grimmia ovalis RDB(VU).


The British Bryological Society visited Cwmyoy Darren (SO296245) in 1999 and recorded over 100 species of bryophytes. Among the more interesting were Porella arboris-vitae, Leucodon sciuroides, Pterogonium gracile and Didymodon ferrugineus (Barbula reflexa). Jonathan Sleath noted Grimmia longirostris (G. affinis) NS near the southern end of the Darren in 1998; it has not been recorded since but is no doubt lurking somewhere in the extensive sandstone block scree. A quick stop at a large Ash tree on the right hand side of the track to the Graig, just beyond the tin buildings should reveal a few interesting epiphytes - these include Orthotrichum striatum, O. lyellii and O. stramineum.
Hatterall Hill

Hatterall Hill is the south-eastern extremity of the Black Mountains; its southern end can be accessed by walking from Cwmyoy (park at the church). Flushes at SO305249 and SO 308253 support Drepanocladus cossonii and D. revolvens, the latter at one of only three known V-c sites; those to the east of Blaenyoy (SO313245) have not been explored in detail but hold Plagiomnium elatum as well as D. cossonii. The stream above Blaenyoy (SO308249) has a few low sandstone outcrops with Gymnostomum aeruginosum and Eucladium verticillatum but is generally dull. The eastern slopes of the hill can be visited by parking at Oldcastle (SO325246) and walking north-west. Sandstone blocks in an old quarry support a little Tritomaria exsectiformis and low crags near the county boundary hold several of the common calcicoles of the Black Mountains sandstone including Neckera crispa and Seligeria recurvata.


15. Llanthony Valley
Llanthony

The southwest-facing slopes of Loxidge Tump and Cwm Siarpal (SO289289), above the Priory at Llanthony, offer an alternative to Cwmyoy Darren and support most of the same species. Base-rich sandstone in Cwm Siarpal holds Gyroweisia tenuis, Neckera crispa, Seligeria recurvata and Tortula subulata var. graeffii NS. The southwest-facing Darren (SO295283) above Cwmyoy is rather more diverse with Encalypta vulgaris, Leucodon sciuroides, Orthotrichum cupulatum, Pterogonium gracile and Zygodon viridissimus var. stirtonii amongst the more interesting species. Didymodon ferrugineus (Barbula reflexa) grows in slightly damp, base-rich turf below the crag. The Priory Church has a little Grimmia ovalis RDB(VU) on its roof but this is almost impossible to view.


Mid Valley cwms

Cwm Bwchel (281272), Cwm Nantygwyddel (SO275280) and Cwm Nant-y-carnau (SO272285) were amongst Augustine Ley’s principal hunting grounds in Monmouthshire and he recorded a number of interesting species including Bartramia halleriana NS, Leptodontium flexifolium, Orthothecium intricatum, Rhynchostegiella curviseta NS and Tortula subulata var. angustata in Cwm Bwchel. Recent brief visits to the three cwms located Plagiochila spinulosa and Metzgeria conjugata in some abundance in Cwm Bwchel; Leiocolea alpestris, Trichocolea tomentella, Plagiomnium elatum and abundant Seligeria recurvata in Cwm Nantygwyddel; and Blindia acuta, Hygrohypnum ochraceum and L. alpestris in Cwm Nant-y-carnau. Further searching should reveal a few more of Ley’s species.
Tarren yr Esgob south

Most of the long crag of Tarren yr Esgob lies in Breconshire but the south-easternmost section (SO255305) is in Monmouthshire. It looks a tiny area on the map but its crags are surprisingly extensive and would take a good couple of days for a thorough examination. The crags are not a single vertical cliff but comprise many outcrops of Old Red Sandstone at various levels on a very steep slope. With care almost every outcrop can be searched, traverses along each of 4 or 5 levels being the easiest way to proceed.


Early in the year the scree below the crags can be seen to be quite extensive but by late summer much of this has been lost below Bracken, making climbing difficult and bryology almost impossible. Hiding within the scree is at least one colony of Frullania fragilifolia as well as various Grimmiales, Neckera crispa and Tortella tortuosa. These last two species pick out the more base-rich blocks of sandstone and allow one to home-in on what are usually more interesting associates.
The crags themselves hold county rarities such as Anomobryum julaceum, Bartramia halleriana NS, Fissidens osmundoides, Plagiopus oederianus NS, Plagiobryum zieri and Pohlia elongata (all in small quantity and difficult to find), whilst damp turf has Jungermannia paroica and Scapania scandica. The supporting cast includes locally abundant Lejeunea patens and Plagiochila spinulosa as well as scattered Blepharostoma trichophylla, Cololejeunea calcarea, Leiocolea alpestris & L. bantriensis, Metzgeria conjugata, Bartramia ithyphylla, Brachydontium trichodes NS and Mnium marginatum. The potential for new discoveries can be illustrated by the last visit, in late 2002, which produced Tetrodontium brownianum and Entosthodon (Funaria) obtusus new for the county. Augustine Ley recorded Encalypta ciliata here but it has not been recorded since and the record was disregarded by some experts - its rediscovery seems likely, given its presence further south on The Blorenge. Distichium capillaceum has also not been recorded for almost 100 years and surely also awaits rediscovery on the Tarren.
16. Newport area
The levels west of Newport are the still almost unknown bryologically. A few visits to the area have produced Calliergon cordifolium, Drepanocladus aduncus, Microbryum davallianum and various epiphytes, but there appear to be relatively few suitable places for a diverse bryophyte flora to develop. Rather than recommending sites, it seems best to suggest that the reens and saltmarsh are the habitats most likely to repay a search. I hope that someone will surprise me and find something exciting on the levels!
Sam D.S. Bosanquet,

BBS recorder for V-c 35


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