Mohd Razif Harun1, Mohd Zamry Jamaludin1, Sugeng Triwahyono2 and Aishah Abdul Jalil1
1Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering,
2Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
Effect of Pt and WO3 metal loading on the skeletal isomerization of n-pentane to isopentane over HZSM-5 based catalyst were studied. HZSM-5, WO3/HZSM-5, Pt/HZSM-5 and Pt/WO3/HZSM-5 were synthesized by impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by using XRD and FTIR. XRD and FTIR results showed that incorporation of metals into HZSM-5 zeolite does not significantly alter the natural structure of HZSM-5 zeolite. Catalytic isomerization of n-pentane over the prepared catalysts was carried out in a packed bed micro-reactor under hydrogen atmosphere. HZSM-5 and WO3/HZSM-5 exhibited low catalytic activity and selectivity towards isopentane. Promotion of HZSM-5 with Pt dramatically improved its catalytic activity and the isomerization selectivity in n-pentane conversion. Pt is required to generate hydrogen atoms from hydrogen molecules, which are needed to provide hydrogenation-dehydrogenation capability for structural rearrangement of n-pentane and stabilize the catalyst. In addition, WO3 increased the acidity of catalyst, which enhanced the selectivity of catalyst towards isopentane.
Modified Effects of LDPE/EVA Blends By Electron Beam Irradiation
Mazyiar Sabet, Azman Hassan, Mat Uzir Wahit
Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University technology Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor bahru, Malaysia
The effect of electron beam irradiation on the properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE, LH0075), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA, with 18 %VA) and blends were investigated. The improvement of the measured gel content, hot set, tensile strength at break, elongation at break, density changes, temperature of melting and degradation of LDPE, EVA and blends vs. absorbed doses have been investigated. In this research a significant improvement in the tensile strength of the neat EVA samples was obtained upon electron beam radiation up to 210 KGy. It was also found that The irradiation LDPE/EVA blends showed improvements in tensile strength and elongation at break when compared with LDPE.
Nanometer Scale of Silicon Oxide Pattern using Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM)
Teguh Darsono, Sabar Derita Hutagalung, Zainal Arifin Amad, Cheong Kuan Yew, Khatijah Aisha Yaacob
School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Local oxidation of semiconductor by a scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a promising approach for nano electronics devices prototyping. The local anodic oxidation by SPM tips allows for the lithography of the smallest semiconductor structures among a variety of top down processing methods. In the anodic oxidation process an electrically conducting Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) tip that is operated in air to selectively oxidize region of a sample surface.
We experimented systematically with various parameters, mainly tip voltage bias and scanning speed. SPM lithography allows not only oxide dot formation but also oxide lines and other patterns. Some of silicon oxide patterns (dots and lines) on silicon surface were fabricated with this technique. It has been found that tip voltage bias and scanning speed are the main parameters that influence the size of silicon oxide patterns. The size of silicon oxide pattern (dots and lines) can be controlled by adjusting the tip voltage bias and scanning speed.
The resulting of silicon oxide patterns size typically 30 – 100 nm in diameter and 3 – 8 nm height that can be used a mask for selective etching. The advantage of the anodic oxidation technique is that it provides a simple, reliable process for making a highly local chemical modification to surface. In addition this process is fairly general and can be applied to most materials that can be anodized.
Reem Bairam1, Marita Troye Bloomberg2, Muntasir Eltayeb1, Ibrahim Elhassan1
1Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum
2 Department of Immunology, Stockholm University
Malaria occurs in over 100 countries and territories. More than 40% of the people in the world are at risk of getting malaria. There are approximately 200 million to 500 million new cases each year in the world, and the disease is the direct cause of 1 million to 2.5 million deaths per year. Immunity to malaria is complex partly due to the complicated life cycle of the parasite with different antigens expressed at different times. In endemic malaria areas, infection with malaria is associated with elevation of strong specific and non- specific antibody responses with the humoral immune responses involving production of predominately IgM and IgG comparing both total IgE and ant malarial antibodies has been reported in a several studies carried out in a number of different malarial endemic areas review by (Perlman P. et al 1999). Further, studies have suggested that IgE may play a role in the pathogenicity of malaria. On the other hand, it is well known that IgE mediates activation of various effectors cells such as monocytes/ macrophages), also many studies suggested that. This data may suggest that IgE may also play a role in protection against malaria. The main objective of my research project is to determine the role of IgE in protection against acute P. falciparum malaria in an area characterized by highly seasonal but stable malaria transmission in Sudan. To archive this goal number of cytokines will be determined in the samples collected from my study subjects.
Physicochemical Studies of CdS Nanoparticles -Titanosilicate Hybrid