Chittakorn Polyon1, David J. Lurie2, Wiwat Youngdee1, Chunpen Thomas1 and Ian Thomas1
1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand
2Bio-Medical Physics, School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB252ZD, UK
Field-Cycled Proton-Electron Double-Resonance Imaging (FC-PEDRI) was used to indirectly image 15N nitroxide free radicals, from the difference image, by saturation of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) transitions at a lower field and performing proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at a higher field with and without EPR irradiation. To locate EPR transitions, Field-Cycled Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (FC-DNP) experiments were performed on a 5.5 ml aqueous solution sample of 1 mM 15N D17 TEMPOL (a 15N nitroxide system) at EPR frequencies between 45 and 133 MHz. FC-PEDRI experiments were performed at low magnetic field (1.1-5.7 mT) for EPR with a proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) detection field of 59 mT (at 2.495 MHz). For this EPR frequency range, the lowest EPR power deposited in the sample was taken at a lower frequency of 52.52 MHz, but the image quality was poor. This image could be improved when taken at a higher frequency of 132.5 MHz but the EPR power deposited in the sample was higher. However, the best image quality could be obtained at the lower frequency of 123.785 MHz with a lower EPR power deposition.
Synthesis of Zeolites from Low Grade Kaolin
Shamsul Kamal Sulaiman
Mineral Research Center Department of Minerals and Geoscience, Jalan Sultan Azlan Shah 31400, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
Low grade kaolin from Bidor area was characterized and used for the synthesis of zeolites. The synthesis method used was a hydrothermal treatment with NaOH activation at low temperature. The kaolin was pretreated with thermal treatment to make it more reactive in the hydrothermal process. In hydrothermal treatment, transformation phenomena involved the dissolution of metakaolinite and quartz, and subsequent formation of zeolite A which then slowly transformed to zeolite HS. As temperature and reaction time increased, zeolite A transformed to more stable zeolite P. The synthesis product from the material was tested for potential application in removal heavy metal and ammonium ions from wastewater and preliminary treatment of landfill.
Stress Variations due to Different in Stem Length on TKR
M.I.Z. Ridzwan1, M.S. Mohidin1, Solehuddin Shuib1, and A.A. Shokri2
1 School of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai, Malaysia
2 Department of Orthopedics, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
The purpose of this study was to observe the effect in stress distributions when varying the stem length in total knee replacement (TKR). The stem was varied between 41 to 58 mm long and it was respectively similar with the tray size started from number 1 to 6. The implanted model included cortical and cancellous bones, tibial tray and polyethylene (PE) insert. They were assembled in SolidWorks, then imported to ANSYS software and analysed using finite element method. The finite element (FE) models were smart meshed with SOLID92 element type. Compressive load was applied on top of PE insert at both of its medial and lateral sides with the magnitude was similar as during standing position. Bones distal end was rigidly fixed from any translations and rotations. Results were taken along medial, lateral, anterior and posterior regions started from proximal end for both stem and cancellous bone. In implant, stresses were distributed almost similar for all locations except in anterior position where it was placed relatively far with the applied load. Thus increased the stress due to moment rather than in normal stress. For cancellous bone, stresses were shielded at proximal end but it increased when it reached the distal end. However the maximum stresses for any materials were lower than its yield strength.
Supported SnO2-Based Ion Exchange Systems for the Removal of Toxic Heavy Metals From Industrial Effluent
Chin Kee Chin, Jamaludin Karim, Ismail Ibrahim and Hamdan Yahya
Pusat Penyelidikan Mineral, Jabatan Mineral & Geosains
Jalan Sultan Azlan Shah, 31400 Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
Malaysian Rice Husk Ash (RHA) has been selected as silica source in synthesis of Zeolite X. Silica from RHA are found to be very reactive and feasible in producing Zeolite X. Zeolite are known to exhibit excellent sorptive and ion exchange properties. These properties render the zeolite mineral to be used as suitable active support materials for making supported SnO2 - based ion exchange system. A comparative study between Zeolite X and tin supported Zeolite X by ion-exchange was done for removing toxic heavy metals from industrial effluents. As a result of tin coated onto Zeolite X, the ion-exchange properties to remove heavy metals were not improved.
Refractory Castable for Ladle Lining in Ferronickel Mining Industries
Hendra Wijayanto and Faisal Alkadrie
Processing and Engineering Department Nickel Mining Business Unit,
PT ANTAM Tbk, Indonesia
Ladle is a cylindrical steel container that is used for storing ferronickel crude from smelter to be transported to refining process. Crude temperature is around 1480 oC and for handling condition like that, ladle shell must be protected by material which has good ability to hold high heat effect. In ladle construction, ladle wall consist of shell and lining refractory, where shell is made from SUS 400 and lining refractory is used refractory brick. Refractory brick has low conductivity which is placed in inner surface of shell. The main function of refractory brick is to hold high heat effect temperature from crude to the shell. Refractory brick has an expensive price and need a specific time to install it in ladle, as we know that we have to always make improvisation to reduce production cost, and one of effort is changing brick refractory with refractory castable where it has same conductivity even lower than brick refractory and of course it price is cheaper than brick refractory as well as it need shorter time installation. For make sure changing process is secure, authors have to make some theoretical analysis, computational simulation analysis with software. The first step of methodology is theoretical analysis including chemical and heat transfer analysis. Chemical analysis is done to analyze reaction that occurred between refractory castable compound and slag of ferronickel crude compound. Reaction between refractory castable compound and slag of ferronickel crude are influenced by thermodynamic and kinetic reaction. Heat transfer analysis is done to analyze heat transfer that occurred between ferronickel crude, refractory castable and shell. The second type of methodology is computational simulation analysis with software. In this step authors use software to analyze and simulate chemical reaction and heat transfer process in computer. After both step of methodology are finished, authors can make comparison between both result, and finally can make conclusion from it. If from theoretical analysis and computational simulation analysis are obtained good and secure result. The changing process of refractory brick with refractory castable can be done.
Selective Oxidation of Hydrocarbon by Heterogeneous Catalysis
Putra Laboratory for Catalysis Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Selective catalytic oxidation is one of the major areas of industrial petrochemical production. Indeed, more than 60% of the chemicals and intermediates synthesized via catalytic processes are products of oxidation. These products made through oxidation mechanism are usually key intermediates for subsequent processes (eg. monomers, comonomers, or modifiers for polymer). One of the most important application of selective oxidation catalysis is the functionalization of hydrocarbons. In this lecture, the synthesis of maleic anhydride from n-butane which is the only commercialized application of alkane selective oxidation by heterogeneous gas-solid catalytic processes will be discussed. Vanadium phosphate is almost exclusively used as catalyst for this reaction with the active phase of vanadyl pyrophosphate. Several fundamental aspects of this catalyst such as the chemistry of preparation, the nature of the active phase and active centres, the role of different oxygen species, structural-activity relationships, mechanochemical pretreatment and the role of dopants will also be described.
Characteristic of AC Conductivity in Ternary Zinc Oxide Calcium Oxide Phosphate Glasses