Modern distribution province Modern ecology




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S6. Synthesis of fossil occurrences in the Cenozoic of Europe and Africa north of the equator, of taxa (orders to genera) that comprise only non-migrant species restricted to the Paleotropical province, the Old World tropics, or the Pantropical area in Africa, i.e. non migrants in the tropics or subtropics of subsaharan Africa.


Modern distribution province *

Modern ecology *

Ecology scored †

Order

Family

Subfamily

/ Tribe

Genus

Fossil occurrences ‡

Age

(Ma) §

Latitude

(° N) ║

References

for fossil occurrence

Afrotropical

Tropical

T

"Ciconiiformes"

Balaenicipitidae

 

 

Fayum (Egypt), early Oligocene

31

29

1-3

Afrotropical

Tropical

T

"Ciconiiformes"

Balaenicipitidae

 

 

Bled ed Douarah (Tunisia), late Miocene (MN9)

9

33

1, 4, 5

Afrotropical

Tropical

T

"Ciconiiformes"

Balaenicipitidae

 

 

Hadar (Ethiopia), late Pliocene

3

11

D. G. Matthiesen (pers. com. fide F. C. Howell, September 2002, unpublished data 1988-1991)

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Falconiformes

Sagittariidae

 

 

Quercy (France), Oligocene (MP23)

30

44.5

6, 7

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Falconiformes

Sagittariidae

 

 

Quercy (France), Oligocene (MP28)

26

44.5

6, 7

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Falconiformes

Sagittariidae

 

 

St-Gérand-le-Puy (France), early Miocene (MN2a)

19.5

46.5

6

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Gruiformes

Gruidae

Balearicinae

Balearica

Grafenmühle (Germany), early Miocene (MN2-3)

19

49

8

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Gruiformes

Gruidae

Balearicinae

Balearica

Toros Menalla (Chad), late Miocene

7

17

9

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Gruiformes

Gruidae

Balearicinae

Balearica

Hadar (Ethiopia), late Pliocene

3

11

D. G. Matthiesen (pers. com. fide F. C. Howell, September 2002, unpublished data 1988-1991)

Afrotropical

Essentially tropical, although also marginally present in subtropical southern Africa

T

Musophagiformes

 

 

 

Fur (Denmark), early Eocene (Ypresian)

54

57

10

Afrotropical

Essentially tropical, although also marginally present in subtropical southern Africa

T

Musophagiformes

Musophagidae

 

 

Gaimersheim (Germany), late Oligocene (MP28)

26

49

11

Afrotropical

Essentially tropical, although also marginally present in subtropical southern Africa

T

Musophagiformes

Musophagidae

 

 

Vieux-Collonges (France), middle Miocene (MN5)

15

46

12

Afrotropical

Essentially tropical, although also marginally present in subtropical southern Africa

T

Musophagiformes

Musophagidae

 

 

La-Grive-St-Alban (France), middle Miocene (MN8)

12

45.5

13

Afrotropical

Essentially tropical, although also marginally present in subtropical southern Africa

T

Musophagiformes

Musophagidae

 

 

Fayum (Egypt), early Oligocene

31

29

2, 3

Afrotropical

Essentially tropical, although also marginally present in subtropical southern Africa

T

Musophagiformes

Musophagidae

 

 

Songhor, Chamtwara, Legetet (Kenya), early Miocene

19.5

1

14, 15

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Coliiformes

Coliidae

 

 

Southern England, early Eocene

52

51.5

16

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Coliiformes

Coliidae

 

 

Messel (Germany), middle Eocene (MP11)

48

49.5

16

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Coliiformes

Coliidae

 

 

Geiseltal (Germany), late Eocene (MP13)

40

51.5

16

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Coliiformes

Coliidae

 

 

Quercy (France), late Eocene (MP16)

39

44.5

7

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Coliiformes

Coliidae

 

 

Quercy (France), late Eocene (MP19)

35

44.5

7

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Coliiformes

Coliidae

 

 

Frauenweiler (Germany), early Oligocene (MP23-24)

30

49.5

16

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Coliiformes

Coliidae

 

 

Boutersem, Hoogbutsel (Belgium), early Oligocene

30

51

16

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Coliiformes

Coliidae

 

 

St-Gérand-le-Puy (France), early Miocene (MN2a)

19.5

46.5

13

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Coliiformes

Coliidae

 

 

Sansan (France), middle Miocene (MN6)

14

43.5

13, 17

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Coliiformes

Coliidae

 

 

La-Grive-St-Alban (France), middle Miocene (MN7-8)

12.5

45.5

13

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Coliiformes

Coliidae

 

 

Nordlinger Ries (Germany), middle Miocene (MN6)

14

49

18

Afrotropical

Essentially tropical, although also marginally present in subtropical southern Africa

T

Upupiformes

Phoeniculidae

 

 

St-Gérand-le-Puy (France), early Miocene (MN2a)

19.5

46.5

19, 20

Afrotropical

Essentially tropical, although also marginally present in subtropical southern Africa

T

Upupiformes

Phoeniculidae

 

 

Wintershof west (Germany), early Miocene (MN3a)

18

49

19, 20

Afrotropical

Essentially tropical, although also marginally present in subtropical southern Africa

T

Upupiformes

Phoeniculidae

 

 

Petersbuch (Germany), early Miocene (MN4)

16

49

19, 20

Afrotropical

Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

TS

Upupiformes

Bucerotidae

Bucorvinae

Bucorvus

Beni Mellal (Morocco), Miocene (MN6)

16

32

21

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

St-Gérand-le-Puy (France), early Miocene (MN2a)

19.5

46.5

22

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Odessa (Ukraine), early Pliocene (MN15)

4

47

23, 24

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Fayum (Egypt), early Oligocene

31

29

1-3

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Djebel Zelten (Libya), early Miocene

18.5

29

25

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Bled ed Douarah (Tunisia), late Miocene (MN9)

9

33

1, 4, 26

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Wadi Moghara (Egypt), early Miocene

17.5

30

27

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Baringo (Kenya), late Miocene

11.5

3

1, 28, 29

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Hadar (Ethiopia), late Pliocene

3

11

D. G. Matthiesen (pers. com. fide F. C. Howell, September 2002, unpublished data 1988-1991)

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Omo (Ethiopia), late Pliocene

2.6

5

D. G. Matthiesen (pers. com. fide F. C. Howell, September 2002, unpublished data 1988-1991); ref. 24

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Omo (Ethiopia), late Pliocene

1.9

5

D. G. Matthiesen (pers. com. fide F. C. Howell, September 2002, unpublished data 1988-1991); ref. 24

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Lothagam (Kenya), early Pliocene

4.8

2.5

24, 30

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Lothagam (Kenya), late Miocene

5.9

2.5

24, 30

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Sahabi (Libya), early Pliocene

5

29

31

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Toros Menalla (Chad), late Miocene

7

17

9

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Kossom Bougoudi (Chad), Pliocene

5

17

24, 32

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Koro Toro (Chad), Pliocene

3

17

24, 32

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Ciconiiformes

Ciconiidae

Leptoptilini

 

Sagantole, Urugus (Ethiopia), early Pliocene

4.4

11

24

Old World tropics

Tropical in Africa; tropical and subtropical in S Asia

TS

Galliformes

Phasianidae

Pavoninae

 

Osztramos1 (Hungary), early Pliocene

4.5

48

33

Old World tropics

Tropical in Africa; tropical and subtropical in S Asia

TS

Galliformes

Phasianidae

Pavoninae

 

Voynichevo, Kamenskoe, Odessa (Ukraine), early Pliocene

4.5

47

33

Old World tropics

Tropical in Africa; tropical and subtropical in S Asia

TS

Galliformes

Phasianidae

Pavoninae

 

Perpignan (France), early Eocene

4.5

42.5

34

Old World tropics

Tropical in Africa; tropical and subtropical in S Asia

TS

Galliformes

Phasianidae

Pavoninae

 

Muselievo (Bulgary), early Eocene

4.5

43

33

Old World tropics

Tropical in Africa; tropical and subtropical in S Asia

TS

Galliformes

Phasianidae

Pavoninae

 

Megalo Emvolon (Greece), early Pliocene

4.5

40

33

Old World tropics

Tropical in Africa; tropical and subtropical in S Asia

TS

Galliformes

Phasianidae

Pavoninae

 

Ardé (France), late Pliocene

2.7

46

34

Old World tropics

Tropical in Africa; tropical and subtropical in S Asia

TS

Galliformes

Phasianidae

Pavoninae

 

Etulia, Lucesti (Moldova), late Pliocene

2.7

46

33

Old World tropics

Tropical in Africa; tropical and subtropical in S Asia

TS

Galliformes

Phasianidae

Pavoninae

 

St-Vallier, Senèze (France), late Pliocene

2.7

45

34

Old World tropics

Tropical in Africa; tropical and subtropical in S Asia

TS

Galliformes

Phasianidae

Pavoninae

 

Aramis (Ethiopia), early Pliocene

4.4

11

35

Old World tropics

Tropical in Africa; tropical and subtropical in S Asia

TS

Galliformes

Phasianidae

Pavoninae

 

Mabaget (Kenya), early Pliocene

5

1

36

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Upupiformes

Bucerotidae

 

 

Songhor, Legetet (Kenya), early Miocene

19.5

1

15

Old World tropics

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Upupiformes

Bucerotidae

 

 

Maboko Island (Kenya), middle Miocene

15.5

0

15

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Pelecaniformes

Anhingidae

 

Anhinga

Hambach 6C (Germany), middle Miocene

15

51

37

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Pelecaniformes

Anhingidae

 

Anhinga

Götzendorf (Austria), Tataruş -Brusturi (Romania), late Miocene (MN10)

10

47

33

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Pelecaniformes

Anhingidae

 

Anhinga

Mátraszőlős 1 (Hungary), middle Miocene (MN6-8)

14

47

33

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Pelecaniformes

Anhingidae

 

Anhinga

Middle Awash (Ethiopia), late Miocene

5.8

11

9

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Pelecaniformes

Anhingidae

 

Anhinga

Hadar (Ethiopia), late Pliocene

2.5

11

38

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Pelecaniformes

Anhingidae

 

Anhinga

Omo (Ethiopia), late Pliocene

3

5

38

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Pelecaniformes

Anhingidae

 

Anhinga

Konso (Ethiopia), late Pliocene

1.9

5

Pers. obs.

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Pelecaniformes

Anhingidae

 

Anhinga

Lothagam (Kenya), late Miocene

7.5

2.5

30

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Pelecaniformes

Anhingidae

 

Anhinga

Kanapoi (Kenya), early Pliocene

4.1

2.5

39

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Pelecaniformes

Anhingidae

 

Anhinga

Bled ed Douarah (Tunisia), late Miocene (MN9)

9

33

1, 4

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Pelecaniformes

Anhingidae

 

Anhinga

Sahabi (Libya), early Pliocene

5

29

9, 31

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Pelecaniformes

Anhingidae

 

Anhinga

Toros Menalla (Chad), late Miocene

7

17

9

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Pelecaniformes

Anhingidae

 

Anhinga

Kossom Bougoudi (Chad), Pliocene

5

17

32

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Pelecaniformes

Anhingidae

 

Anhinga

Koro Toro (Chad), Pliocene

3

17

32

Pantropical

Tropical

T

Gruiformes

Heliornithidae

 

 

Toros Menalla (Chad), late Miocene

7

17

9, 40

Pantropical

Essentially tropical, although also marginally subtropical

T

Charadriiformes

Jacanidae

 

 

Fayum (Egypt), early Oligocene

31

29

2, 3

Pantropical

Essentially tropical, although also marginally subtropical

T

Charadriiformes

Jacanidae

 

 

Fayum (Egypt), early Oligocene

33

29

2, 3

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Psittaciformes

Psittacidae

 

 

Sansan (France), middle Miocene (MN6)

14

43.5

41

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Psittaciformes

Psittacidae

 

 

Nordlinger Ries (Germany), middle Miocene (MN6)

14

49

41

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Psittaciformes

Psittacidae

 

 

St-Gérand-le-Puy (France), early Miocene (MN2a)

19.5

46.5

41

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Psittaciformes

Psittacidae

 

 

Merkur (Czechia), early Miocene (MN3)

18

50.5

41

Pantropical

Tropical and subtropical

TS

Psittaciformes

Psittacidae

 

 

Asa Issie (Ethiopia), early Pliocene

4.2

11

42

Pantropical

Tropical

T

Trogoniformes

 

 

 

Fur (Denmark), early Eocene (Ypresian)

54

57

10, 43

Pantropical

Tropical

T

Trogoniformes

 

 

 

Southern England, early Eocene (ca MP7-10)

52

51.5

43

Pantropical

Tropical

T

Trogoniformes

 

 

 

Messel (Germany), middle Eocene (MP11)

48

49.5

43

Pantropical

Tropical

T

Trogoniformes

Trogonidae

 

 

Céreste (France), early Oligocene (MP23)

30

44

43

Pantropical

Tropical

T

Trogoniformes

Trogonidae

 

 

Matt (Switzerland), early Oligocene (MP21-24)

30

47

44

Pantropical

Tropical

T

Trogoniformes

Trogonidae

 

 

Frauenweiler (Germany), early Oligocene

30

49.5

43

Pantropical

Tropical

T

Trogoniformes

Trogonidae

 

 

St-Gérand-le-Puy (France), early Miocene (MN2a)

19.5

46.5

43

Pantropical

Essentially tropical, although also marginally subtropical

T

Piciformes

Capitonidae

 

 

Wintershof-west (Germany), early Miocene (MN3)

18

48

20

Pantropical

Essentially tropical, although also marginally subtropical

T

Piciformes

Capitonidae

 

 

La-Grive-St-Alban (France), middle Miocene (MN7-8)

12.5

45.5

20

Pantropical

Essentially tropical, although also marginally subtropical

T

Piciformes

Capitonidae

 

 

Steinberg, Nordlinger Ries (Germany), middle Miocene (MN6)

14

49

45

*Derived from Sinclair & Ryan, and Del Hoyo et al. [refs. 46-53].


More general syntheses were used as background references for the fossil records, localities and ages [refs. 7, 16, 18, 33, 54-59].
Ages follow time scale as for the table S1.
†T, ecologically tropical; TS, ecologically tropical or subtropical.

Derived from ‘Modern ecology’ as follows:

Category T includes:

-Tropical

-Essentially tropical although also marginally subtropical or marginally present in subtropical southern Africa

Category TS includes:

-Tropical, and also subtropical in southern Africa

-Tropical and subtropical

-Tropical in Africa; tropical and subtropical in southern Asia
‡Some fossil occurrences are grouped by age, or by location, when they are very close in time or space.
§Most precise age estimation, or mean age of stage or MN/MP zone.
║Latitude, or mean latitude of several very close contemporaneous localities.
Ostriches (Struthionidae) are excluded because they are flightless.
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