Microlife Study Guide Biology = the study of living things Microbiology




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Microlife Study Guide

Biology = the study of living things

Microbiology = the study of living things t0o small to be seen with the naked eye

Microscopes

  • Parts of a microscope

    • Base- sturdy bottom piece of microscope that keeps it sitting upright

    • Arm – sturdy upright piece that is used to carry a microscope

    • Stage – rectangular area with a hole in it where you place the microscope slide to be viewed

    • Eyepiece – lens that you look into; 10x on our microscopes

    • Objective lens – series of three lenses that can be rotated to change the magnification; 4x, 10x and 40x on our microscopes

    • Stage clips – used to hold a microscope slide in place on the stage

    • Diaphragm – controls the amount of light; 5 is the most, 1 is the least

    • Light source – provides the light necessary to see specimen

    • Focus knob – adjusts distance between lens and specimen

    • Microscope slide – what the specimen is placed on to be viewed

    • Cover Slip – placed over a specimen when making a wet mount slide

  • Types of microscopes

    • Optical (light) – what we have; the most common; uses light to see object

    • Electron – able to view very small objects

    • Simple microscope = 1 lens; magnifying glass or hand lens

    • Compound microscope = at least 2 lenses combined

  • Lens

    • Piece of glass or other transparent material that is curved to bend light

    • Convex lens curves outward ()

    • Concave lens curves inward )(

  • Use of the microscope

    • Microscopes flip an image upside down and backwards

    • Focusing

      • Find and center the specimen first on low power

      • Start with the most light (diaphragm at 5)

    • Carrying

    • Precautions

      • Never touch the lens

      • Be careful when switching from the low power to the high power lens so that it does not hit the specimen or slide

      • Handle microscope slides by the edges

  • Power of magnification

    • (eyepiece lens) x (objecti ve lens)

    • our microscopes go from 40x (low) to 400x (high)

  • Field of View

    • the area that is visible when you look into the eyepiece of a microscope

    • the higher the power of magnification, the smaller the field of view

Germ Theory

  • Germ = microbe that causes disease

  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek

    • Father of microscopy; developed best microscope of the time

    • Observed moving things in pond water and called them animalcules or very little animals

  • Robert Hooke

    • Coined the term cell after looking at a piece of cork

  • Matthius Schleiden

    • Said that all plants are made of cells

  • Theodor Schwann

  • Karl Theodor Ernst von Siebold

    • Said that microbes are made up of cells

  • Rudolph Virchow

    • Said that all living cells arise from other living cells

  • Cell theory = all living things are made up of cells

  • Ignaz Semmelweiss

  • Louis Pasteur

    • Microbes (germs) cause infectious disease

    • Microbes can be killed with heat (pasteurization)

  • Robert Koch

    • Specific microbes cause specific diseases

  • Florence Nightingale

    • Cleanliness is important in patient care

  • Joseph Lister

    • Chemicals can kill microbes (Listerine mouthwash)

  • William Halsted

Cells/Cells Structure

  • Organisms can be made of unicellular (1 cell) or multicellular (more than 1 cell)

  • Cells = the basic building blocks of all living things

  • Tissues =

  • Organs =

  • Organelles = structures that make up a cell

    • Chloroplast

      • Only found in plant cells; make the plant green

      • Uses the sun’s energy to make food (photosynthesis)

    • Cell wall

    • Nucleus

      • Control center (brain) of the cell

    • Nuclear membrane

      • Separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell

    • Cell membrane

    • Cytoplasm

      • The liquid substance between the nuclear membrane and the cell membrane

      • Where the organelles are located

    • Ribosomes

      • Make protein; made in the nucleus and then located in the endoplasmic reticulum

    • Endoplasmic reticulum

      • Transports proteins throughout the cell

    • Vacuole

    • Mitochondria

      • Powerhouse of cell; energy producer

Classification Study Guide

Microbes

  • Protist

    • Can be seen even on low magnification (40x)

    • Single celled or multicelled organisms

    • Control the earth’s bacteria population; they eat bacteria

    • Eukaryotic (have a nucleus)

      • Protozoans = animal like protists

        • Rhizopods

          • Move with pseudopods or false feet; Amoeba

        • Cilliates

          • Move with tiny hair-like projections called cilia; Paramecium

        • Flagellate

        • Parasite (sporozoa)

          • Lives off of another living object

      • Plant-like protists (algae)

        • Make their own food through photosynthesis like a plant

        • Producers of oxygen

      • Fungi

  • Virus

    • Can only be seen with an electron microscope

    • Not living; must have a ‘host’ cell to function

    • Not made up of cells

    • Viruses that make you sick are called pathogenic

  • Bacteria

    • Can be seen on an optical microscope at high magnification (400x)

    • Single celled; Prokaryotic (no nucleus)

    • Most common microbe; oldest form of life

Classification

  • Grouping living things according to similar characteristics; also called taxonomy

  • Aristotle first classified things as either plant or animal

  • Binomial nomenclature = 2 name naming system; genus and species; developed by Carolus Linnaeus



  • Kingdom King (largest)

  • Phylum Phillip

  • Class Came

  • Order Over

  • Family From

  • Genus Geneva

  • Species Switzerland (smallest)



  • There are six kingdoms in the classification system – plants, animals, protists, fungi, bacteria, and archaebacteria


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