Medicinal Plant Species




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Appendix A
Provided below is a list of the common and scientific names of nearly all of the living organisms found in the main text of this book. The species are listed alphabetically by scientific name (genus and species), and some of the common names are also provided.

Medicinal Plant Species
Acacia farnesiana Sweet acacia

Achillea millefolium Common yarrow

Amaranthus spp. Amaranth

Artocarpus incise Breadfruit

Artocorpus altilis Breadfruit

Asarum canadense Canadian wild ginger

Atropa belladonna Bella-donna

Bixa orellana Annatto or lipstick tree

Calligonum comosum Abal

Cecropia peltata Trumpet tree

Chondrodendron tomentosum Curare or pareira

Eleutherococcus senticosus Siberian ginseng

Gaylussacia spp. Huckleberry

Glycorrihza glabra Licorice

Hamamelis virginiana Witch hazel

Hydrastis canadensis Goldenseal

Lobelia inflate Indian tobacco

Mirabilis jalapa Clavillia or marvel of Peru

Panax quinquefolius Ginseng

Peumus boldus Boldo leaves

Pfaffia paniculata Suma

Pinus strobus White pine

Podophyllum peltatum Mayapple

Quillaja saponaria Soapbark tree

Rauwolfia serpentine Serpent wood

Rubus spp. Blackberry

Sanguinaria canadensis Bloodroot

Sassafras albidum Sassafras

Smilax spp. Sarsaparilla

Theoboma cacao Cocoa tree

Vaccinium spp. Blueberry
Non-Tree Species, Grasses, Berries, Mushrooms
Abrus precatorius Jequirity or rosarypea

Achillea millefolium Common yarrow

Adhatoda vasica Malabar nut

Agropyron pungens Sea couch grass

Ammophila breviligulata arram grass or American beachgrass

Anaphalis margaritacea early everlasting

Andropogon virginicus Broomsedge bluestem

Arceuthobium spp. Dwarf mistletoe

Arctium lappa Greater burdock

Asarum canadense Canadian wild ginger

Atropa bella-donna Belladonna

Berberis spp. Barberry

Bixa orellana Annatto or lipstick tree

Bobgunnia madagascariensis Mecherekese

Catharanthus roseus Rosy periwinkle

Cecropia peltata Trumpet tree

Chondrodendron tomentosum Curare or pareira

Cirsium arvense Canada thistle

Coriandrum sativum Coriander

Cynodon dactylon Bermuda grass

Cyperus rotundus Nut-grass

Dichanthelium commutatum Variable panicgrass

Digitaria sanguinalis Crab-grass

Diodia teres Buttonweed or poorjoe

Epilobium angustifolium Fireweed

Euthamia tenuifolia Goldenrod

Gaylussacia dumosa Dwarf huckleberry

Glycyrrhiza glabra Licorice

Gnaphalium obtusifolium Rabbit-tobacco

Gnaphalium purpureum Purple cudweed

Hamamelis virginiana Witch-hazel

Haplopappus divaricatus Yellow aster

Heterotheca subaxillaris Camphorweed

Hydrastis canadensis Goldenseal

Hypericum gentianoides Pineweed or orange grass

Imperata cylindric Cogongrass

Justicia adhatoda Malabar nut

Lechea villosa Pinweed

Leptilon (or Erigeron) canadensis Horseweed

Leymus arenarius Lyme grass or sand ryegrass

Linaria canadensis Blue toadflax

Lobelia inflate Indian tobacco

Mahonia spp. Mahonia
Mirabilis jalapa Clavillia or marvel of Peru

Myrothamnus flabellifolius Resurrection bush

Oenothera laciniata Evening-primrose

Oligostchyum lubrium Bamboo

Panaz quinquefolius Ginseng

Pfaffia paniculata Suma

Photinia fraseri Red robin photinia

Photinia serrulata Chinese photinia

Pityopsis graminifolia Narrowleaf silkgrass

Plectranthes spp. Spurflowers

Poaceae spp. Wiregrass

Podophyllum peltatum Mayapple

Polypremum procumbens Juniper leaf

Pueraria montana var. lobata Kudzu

Quercus suber Cork oak

Rauwolfia serpentine Snakeroot or serpent wood

Rhynchospora spp. Beak-rush

Rosa egalanteria Sweetbriar rose

Rubus fruticosus Blackberry

Rubus spectabilis Salmonberry

Rubus spp. Dewberry

Rubus strigosus Raspberry

Rubus trivialis Southern dewberry

Rumex acetosella Sheep-sorrell

Sanguinaria canadensis Bloodroot

Sarracenia oreophila Green pitcher plant

Smilax regelii Sarsaparilla

Solanum spp. Nightshade

Theobroma cacao Cocoa tree

Tillandsia usneoides Spanish moss

Typha spp. Cattails

Vaccinium spp. Blueberry

Viscum album Mistletoe

Zingiber officiale Ginger
Tree Species
North American Trees
Abies balsamea Balsam fir

Abies fraseri Fraser fir

Abies grandis Grand fir

Abies procera Noble fir

Acer marcophyllum Big-leaf maple

Acer negundo Boxelder

Acer rubrum Red maple

Acer saccharinum Silver maple

Acer saccharum Sugar maple

Acer spp. Maples

Alnus rubra Red alder

Bambusa spp. Bamboo

Betula alleghaniensis Yellow birch

Betula lenta Sweet birch

Betula papyrifera Paper birch

Betula spp. Birch

Brosimum alicastrum Breadnut

Calocedrus decurrens Incense cedar

Carya illinoinensis Pecan tree

Carya spp. Hickories

Castanea dentata American chestnut

Cedrela odorata Cedro rojo or Spanish cedar

Cercis canadensis Eastern redbud

Chamaecyparis lawsonia Port-Orford-cedar

Chamaecyparis thyoides Southern Atlantic white cedar

Cornus florida Dogwood

Fagus mexicana Mexican beech or haya

Fraxinus americana White ash

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Green ash

Ilex opaca American holly

Juglans cinerea Butternut

Juglans nigra Black walnut

Juniperus spp. Juniper

Juniperus virginiana Eastern red cedar

Larix laricina Tamarck

Larix occidentalis Western larch

Leucaena leucocephala Leucaena or white leadtree

Liquidambar styraciflua Sweetgum

Liriodendron tulipifera Yellow poplar or tulip tree

Lonchocarpus violaceus Balché tree

Maclura pomifera Osage orange

Magnolia grandiflora Southern magnolia

Magnolia virginiana Sweetbay magnolia

Manilkara zapota Sapodilla

Metrosideros polymorpha ‘Ohi ‘a lehua

Nyssa spp. Tupelo

Nyssa sylvatica Black gum

Picea glauca White spruce

Picea mariana Black spruce

Picea pungens Blue spruce

Picea rubens Red spruce

Picea sitchensis Sitka spruce

Pinus banksiana Jack pine

Pinus contorta Lodgepole pine

Pinus echinata Shortleaf pine

Pinus elliottii Slash pine

Pinus lambertiana Sugar pine

Pinus montícola Western white pine

Pinus palustris Longleaf pine

Pinus ponderosa Ponderosa pine

Pinus quadrifolia Pinyon pine

Pinus resinosa Red pine

Pinus spp. Pines

Pinus strobus Eastern white pine

Pinus taeda Loblolly pine
Populus balsamifera Balsam poplar

Populus deltoids Eastern cottonwood

Populus grandidentata Bigtooth aspen

Populus tremuloides Quaking aspen or trembling aspen

Populus trichocarpa Black cottonwood

Prunus pensylvanica Pin cherry

Prunus serotina Black cherry

Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir

Quercus alba White oak

Quercus falcate Southern red oak

Quercus geminate Sand oak

Quercus nigra Water oak

Quercus robur Pedunculate oak or English Oak

Quercus spp. Oaks

Quercus virginiana Live oak
Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust

Sabal palmetto Palm or cabbage palmetto

Salix nigra Black willow

Salix spp. Willows

Sassafras albidum Sassafras

Sequoia sempervirens Redwood

Swietenia macrophylla Caoba or mahogany

Taxodium distichum var. nutans Pondcypress

Taxodium distichum var. distichum Baldcypress

Taxus brevifolia Pacific yew

Terminalia amazonia White olive

Terminalia oblonga Guava or Peruvian almond

Thuja occidentalis Northern white cedar or arborvitae

Thuja plicata Western red cedar

Tilia americana Basswood

Tsuga canadensis Eastern hemlock

Tsuga heterophylla Western hemlock

Ulmus alata Winged elm

Ulmus americana American elm

Ulmus spp. Elms
Central American Trees
Anacardium excelsum Wild cashew or espave

Bambusa spp. Bamboo

Brosimum utile Cow tree or ampa

Calophyllum brasiliense Guanandi

Carica papaya Papaya

Cavallinesia platanifolia Cuipo

Cedrela odorata Spanish-cedar

Cordia alliodora Spanish elm or Ecuador laurel

Dalbergia retusa Rosewood

Elaeis spp. Oil palm

Enterolobium cyclocarpum Guanacaste tree or ear tree

Erisma uncinatum Cambara or cedrinho

Gliricidia sepium Mata raton or quickstick

Gmelina arborea White teak or beechwood

Hymenaea courbaril Jatobá or guapinol or stinkingtoe

Leucaena leucocephala Leucaena

Pachira quinata Pochote

Parkia spp. Faveira or locust-bean

Pinus ayacahuite Mexican white pine or pino blanco

Pinus caribaea Caribbean pine or pino costanero

Pinus hartwegii Hartweg's pine or pino de Montana

Pinus maximinoi Thinleaf pine

Pinus oocarpa Mexican yellow pine or Honduran yellow pine

Pinus pseudostrobus Smooth-bark Mexican pine or pinabete

Pinus tecunumanii Pino rojo or red pine

Prioria copaifera Cativo

Swietenia macrophylla Big leaf mahogany
South American Trees
Acacia mangium Mangium

Alnus acuminate Andean alder or aliso

Amburana ceasrensis Ishpingo

Araucaria araucana Chilean pine or monkeypuzzle tree

Asidosperma macrocarpon Pumaquiro

Astronium urundeuva Urendel

Bambusa spp. Bamboo

Bertholletia excelsa Brazil nut

Bombacopsis quinata Saqui-saqui

Brosimum utile Cow Tree or ampa

Calophyllum brasiliense Guanandi

Carica papaya Papaya

Cedrela odorata Spanish-cedar

Cinchona spp. Cinchona tree

Elaeis spp. Oil palm

Erisma uncinatum Cambara or Cedrinho

Eucalyptus globulus Blue gum

Hevea brasiliensis Rubber tree

Hura crepitans Sandbox tree

Hymenaea courbaril Jatoba or guapinol

Juglans australis Walnut

Lauraceae spp. Laurels

Lonopterygium huasango Hualtaco

Meliaceae spp. Mahogany

Nothofagus spp. Beeches

Parkia spp. Faveira

Pinus maximinoi Thinleaf pine

Pinus patula Patula pine

Pinus radiata Radiata pine

Piptadenia macrocarpa Curupay

Prosopis pallida Huarango or mesquite or kiawe

Simarouba amara Marupa

Swietenia macrophylla Mara or mahogany

Tectona spp. Teaks
European Trees
Abies alba European silver fir

Acer opalus Italian maple

Aesculus hippocastanum Horse-chestnut, or conker tree

Alnus glutinosa Europe black alder

Betula pendula Silver birch or European white birch

Carpinus betulus European hornbeam

Castanea sativa European chestnut

Cedrus libani Lebanon cedar

Eucalpytus globules Eucalyptus or blue gum

Eucalyptus globules Blue gum

Fagus sylvatica Dwarf beech or European beech

Fraxinus spp. Ashes

Ilex opaca American holly

Larix deciduas European larch

Larix spp. Larch

Mangifera indica Indian mango

Picea abies Norway spruce

Picea sitchensis Sitka spruce

Pinus halepensis Aleppo pine

Pinus pinaster Maritime pine or mesogean

Pinus pinea Stone pine

Pinus radiata Radiata pine or Monterey pine

Pinus sibirica Siberian pine

Pinus sylvestris Scot's pine

Populus nigra European black poplar or Lombardy poplar

Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir

Quercus patraea Sessile oak

Quercus pyrenaica Rebello oak

Quercus robur English oak or pedunculate oak

Quercus suber Cork oak

Taxus brevifolia Yew

Tilia americana Basswood

Ulmus spp. Elms
Asian Trees
Abies fargesii Farges fir

Abies sibirica Siberian fir

Aleurites fordii Tung-oil tree

Alnus spp. Alder

Bambusa spp. Bamboo

Calocedrus formosana Incense cedar

Calocedrus macrolepis Chinese incense cedar

Caryota urens Kitulpalm tree or jaggery palm

Cedrus deodara Deodar cedar

Chamaecyparis obtusa Hinoki or Japanese cypress

Cinnamomum camphora Camphor laurel

Cornus florida Dogwood

Cryptomeria japonica Sugi or Japanese cedar

Cunninghamia lanceolata Chinese fir

Gonystylus bancanus Ramin

Hevea brasiliensis Rubberwood

Ilex opaca American holly

Larix olgensis Olgan larch

Larix sibirica Siberian larch

Larix spp. Larch

Lithocarpus spp. Beech

Nerium indicum Oleander

Phoebe nanmu Nanmu

Picea obovata Siberian spruce

Picea asperata Dragon spruce

Pinus koraiensis Korean pine or Chinese pinenut

Pinus merkusii Sumatran pine

Pinus rigida Pitch pine

Pinus strobus White pine

Pinus yunnanensis Yunnan pine

Populus adenopoda Chinese aspen

Populus davidiana Korean aspen

Populus spp. Poplar

Pseudotsuga sinensis Chinese Douglas-fir

Pterocarpus santalinus Zitan or red sandalwood

Quercus acutissima Sawtooth oak

Quercus mongolica Mongolian oak

Robinia psuedoacacia Black locust

Shorea albida Light red meranti

Shorea almon Philippine mahogany

Shorea robusta Sal

Styrax benzoin Kemenyan or styrax

Tectona grandis Teak

Tilia americana Basswood

Viburnum odoratissimum Arrowwood
African Trees
Acacia mearnsii Black wattle

Bambusa spp. Bamboo

Bombax flammeum Gold Coast bombax

Casuarina equisetifolia Filao tree or beach sheoak

Ceiba pentandra Kapok

Ceibia pentandra Fromager

Chlorophora excelsa Iroko or African teak

Diospyros spp. Ebony or mabolo

Elaeis spp. Oil palm

Entandrophragma angolense Tiama

Entandrophragma candollei Kosipo

Entandrophragma cylindricum Sapelli

Entandrophragma utile Sipo

Eucalyptus spp. Eucalypts

Gambeya africana Longhi or longui rouge

Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo or maidenhair tree

Gossweilerodendron balsamiferum Agba or tola

Grevillea robusta Southern silky oak

Guarea cedrata Bossé or guarea

Guibourtia pellegriniana Bubinga

Hymenaea verrucosa East African copal

Khaya ivorensis Lagos mahogany

Lovoa trichilioides African walnut or dibétou or African walnut

Mangifera indica Indian mango

Mansonia altissima Mansonia or ofun

Milicia excelsa African teak

Millettia laurentii Wengé

Mitragyna ciliata Elolom or subaha

Nauclea diderrichii Bilinga

Nesogordonia papaverifera Danta or otutu

Ocotea bullata Stinkwood

Olea capensis Ironwood

Olinia ventosa Hard pear

Pericopsis elata Afrormosia

Platylophus trifoliatus White alder

Podocarpus latifolius Yellowwood

Quercus suber Cork oak

Sclerocarya birrea Marula

Tectona grandis Teak

Terminalia superba Limba

Tieghemella heckelii Makore

Triplochiton scleroxylon Obeche or wawa

Uapaca spp. Yeye
Oceania Trees
Acacia spp. Acacia

Agathis australis Kauri

Alectryon excelsus Titoki

Araucaria hunsteinii Klinki

Bambusa spp. Bamboo

Beilschmiedia tawa Tawa

Cordyline australis Cabbage tree

Corynocarpus laevigatus Karaka or New Zealand laurel

Dacrydium cupressinum Rimu or red pine

Elaeocarpus dentatus Hinau

Eucalyptus obliqua Australian oak or messmate

Eucalyptus saligna Saligna eucalyptus or Sydney bluegum

Eucalyptus spp. Eucalypts

Griselinia littoralis Kapuka or broadleaf

Intsia bijuga Kwila or ifil

Juglans nigra Black walnut

Leptospermum scoparium Manuka or tea tree

Melaleucas spp. Melaleucas

Meryta sinclairii Puka

Metrosideros robusta Northern rātā

Metrosideros umbellate Southern rātā

Pinus radiata Radiata pine or Monterey pine

Pometia pinnata Taun

Pseudopanax crassifolius Horoeka or lancewood

Sequoia sempervirens Redwood

Toona ciliata Australian red cedar

Ulmus spp. Elms
Mammals
Ailuropoda melanoleuca Giant panda

Alces alces Moose

Antilocapra americana Pronghorn antelope

Apodemus sylvaticus Wood mice

Arctonyx collaris Hog badger

Bison bison athabascae Wood bison

Blarina carolinensis Southern short-tailed shrew

Blarina spp. Short-tailed shrew

Canis latrans Coyote

Canis lupus Gray wolf

Castor canadensis Beaver

Cervus canadensis Elk

Dasycyon hagenbecki Andean wolf

Didelphis virginiana North American opossum

Elephas maximus maximus Sri Lankan elephant

Eutamias sibiricus Siberian chipmunk

Gulo gulo Wolverines

Herpestes vitticollis Stripe-necked mongoose

Lama guanicoe Guanaco

Lemur catta Ring-tailed lemurs

Lepus mandschuricus Manchurian hare

Lontra canadensis North American river otter

Loxodonta africana cyclotis Forest elephant

Lycalopex culpaeus Andean fox or culpeo

Lycalopex griseus South American gray fox or grey zorro

Macropus rufogriseus Red-necked wallaby

Mapudungun pudu Pudu

Marmota flaviventris Yellow-bellied marmot

Marmota monax Groundhog or woodchuck

Martes martes European pine marten

Meles meles European badger

Mephitis mephitis Striped skunk

Mustela spp. Weasel

Neotamias minimus Western least chipmunk

Neovison vison American mink

Ochotona princeps American pika

Odocoileus hemionus Mule deer

Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer

Panthera pardus pardus African leopard

Panthera tigris tigris Bengal tiger

Peromyscus leucopus White-footed mouse

Procyon lotor Raccoon

Puma concolor Cougar or mountain lion

Rangifer tarandus Reindeer or caribou

Rhinopithecus roxellana Golden snub-nosed monkey

Sciurus carolinensis Eastern gray squirrel

Sylvilagus floridanus Eastern cottontail rabbit

Tamiasciurus hudsonicus American red squirrel

Tapirus terrestris South American tapir

Ursus americanus American black bear

Ursus arctos horribilis Grizzly bear

Vombatus ursinus Common wombat

Vulpes vulpes Red foxes
Birds
Aegolius funereus Tengmalm's owl or boreal owl

Aegypius monachus Eurasian black vulture or cinereous vulture

Aix sponsa Wood duck

Ammodramus savannarum Grasshopper sparrow

Ara macao Scarlet macaw

Ardea herodias Great blue heron

Bonasa umbellus Ruffed grouse

Branta canadensis Canada goose

Bubo bubo Eurasian eagle owl

Buteo jamaicensis Red-tailed hawk

Buteo lineatus Red-shouldered hawk

Cardinalis cardinalis Northern cardinal

Carpodacus purpureus Purple finch

Catharus fuscescens Veery

Colinus virginianus Northern bobwhite quail

Corvus corax Common raven or northern raven

Corvus corone Carrion crow

Cygnus olor Mute swan

Ectopistes migratorius Passenger pigeon

Geococcyx californianus Roadrunner or greater roadrunner

Geococcyx velox Roadrunner or lesser roadrunner

Grus japonensis Red-crowned crane

Grus vipio White-naped crane

Gymnogyps californianus California condor

Haliaeetus leucocephalus Bald eagle

Lagopus lagopus Willow ptarmigan

Megalapteryx benhami Flightless moa

Meleagris gallopavo Wild turkey

Melospiza melodia Song sparrow

Melanerpes erythocephalus Red-headed woodpecker

Micrastur ruficollis Barred forest-falcon

Pharomachrus mocinno Resplendent quetzal

Phasianus colchicus Common pheasant

Picoides borealis Red-cockaded woodpecker

Picoides villosus Hairy woodpecker

Poecile cinctus Gray-headed chickadee

Ramphastos sulfuratus Keel-billed toucan

Scolopax minor American woodcock

Sialia sialis Eastern bluebird

Stellula calliope Calliope hummingbird

Strix occidentalis caurina Northern spotted owl

Sturnella magna Eastern meadowlark

Turdus migratorius American robin

Tyto alba Common barn owl

Vultur gryphus Andean condor
Reptiles
Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix Southern copperhead

Amblyrhynchus cristatus Marine iguana

Ambystoma opacum Marbled salamanders

Basiliscus basiliscus Common basilisk

Boa constrictor Boa constrictor

Bufo bufo Common toad

Bufo marinus Cane toad

Bufo periglenes Golden toad

Colostethus flotator Rainforest rocket frog

Corytophanes cristatus Helmeted iguana

Crotalus adamanteus Eastern diamondback

Ctenosaura similis Black spiny-tailed iguana

Dasypeltis fasciata Central-African egg-eating snake

Dendroaspis polylepis Black mamba

Drymarchon couperi Eastern indigo snake

Enyalioides palpebralis Horned wood lizard

Gopherus polyphemus Florida gopher tortoise

Hyla arenicolor Canyon tree frog

Hynobius kimurae Hida salamanders

Iguana iguana Green iguanas

Lachesis muta South American bushmaster

Lampropeltis triangulum Red milk snakes or eastern milk snake

Litoria caerulea Australian green tree frog

Litoria chloris Australian red-eyed tree frog

Micrurus fulvius Eastern coral snakes

Naja naja Indian cobra

Oophaga pumilio Strawberry poison-dart frog

Oplurus cuvieri Madagascan collard iguana or collared iguanid lizard

Phrynosoma platyrhinos Horny toad or desert horned lizard

Plethodon cinereus Red back salamanders

Pseudotriton ruber Red salamander

Rana amurensis Siberian tree frog

Sceloporus occidentalis Fence lizards

Terrapene carolina bauri Florida box turtle

Thamnophis elegans terrestris Coast garter snake
Fish
Micropterus salmoides Largemouth bass

Oncorhynchus kisutch Coho salmon

Oncorhynchus mykiss Rainbow trout

Oncorhynchus nerka Sockeye salmon

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Chinook salmon

Salmo salar Atlantic salmon
Insects
Dendroctonus ponderosae Mountain pine beetle

Ips typographus European bark beetle

Malacosoma disstria Forest tent caterpillar



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