Maryville college




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MARYVILLE COLLEGE

Education 301

Lesson Plan Template
Student Teacher Craig Owens

Grade Level and/or Subject 10th Angiosperm & Gymnosperm

Instructional Model Cooperative Lesson

Date/Time Thursday 8:00-8:45 am


Tennessee Curriculum Standard(s)
CLE 3216.7.1 Describe different plant types plants based on their anatomy and physiology.



Instructional Objectives

Psychomotor, Affective or Cognitive Domain (level of objectives in each

Domain)
Cognitive:

  • Understanding- Students will be able to describe the differences between different plant types through anatomy and physiology

  • Analyzing- Students will be able to compare the anatomy and physiology of the different plant types.

Psychomotor



  • Mechanism- Students will be able to organize plants based on their anatomy and physiology.

Affective



  • Organization- Students will be able to organize with other members of a group

  • Internalizing Values- Students will be able to listen to other members of their group.



Essential Question(s)
What might be the benefits of the evolutionary adaptations of gymnosperms and angiosperms?



Materials/Technology

Powerpoint/board, handout gymnosperm and angiosperm diagram




Pre-Instructional Assessment

Do the students understand the difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms?





Bell Ringer

There are two types of seed plants: Angiosperms and Gymnosperms. Using prior knowledge list all you know about these two types of seed plants, and why you think there are two distinct groups.





Focus

Activate Background Knowledge (review)

Go over what the makeup of a seed is.

A seed is a ripened ovule. The seed is made up of an embryo sporophyte, stored food, and tough water-proof seed coat.

Relate to Real Life

Angiosperms and Gymnosperms are used for food sources and in everyday products we consume.



Jobs/Professions/Uses: Botanist, Agriculturist, Horticulturist, Arborist, Landscape Design, Manufacturing, Logger, and Source of Wood pulp we use. Rosin is used in baseball bats, ballet slippers, and bows for stringed instruments.

Involve all Students

Have the students each name one job or product that might possible use Angiosperms or Gymnosperms.




Label the Learning – How will you state the objectives?

Today, we are going to learn the difference between Angiosperms and Gymnosperms. There will be a group project at the end of class.























Instruction (you may need additional pages)
Seeds- A seed is a ripened ovule.
A seed becomes a ripened ovule by having pollen grains which contain male gametophytes transported to the eggs of the female through wind, animals, or insects.
Gametophytes- are haploid cells of seed plants. They are called haploids because they contain half of the chromosomes needed to form a new plant.
Seeds consist of: An embryo sporophyte, A supply of stored food, and A tough, water-proof seed coat.
Seed plants are divided into two separate groups: Angiosperms & Gymnosperm

  • Angiosperms- Ovules are enclosed so pollen does not interact directly with them.

  • Gymnosperms- Pollen interacts directly with ovules


Gymnosperm

  • Gymnosperm literally means “naked seed”.

  • Oldest Seed plants

  • Do not have an outer covering or shell around seeds.

  • Do not produce flowers (except one particular division)

  • Heterosporous- Two different kinds of spores

  • Produce cones

  • Do not bear fruits

  • Propagate through wind pollination, animals, and insects.

Gymnosperms are called heterosporous because they produced two different kinds of spores. These spores are called Microspores and Megaspores.


Microspores- a male gametophyte develops within the microspore which is called “Pollen”
Megaspores- a female gametophyte that is housed inside the “ovule”
The Four Divisions of Gymnosperms


Division Coniferophyta

Coniferophyta are called “Conifers”. Conifers are trees and shrubs that produce seeds in cones. Today conifers make up around 1/3 of all of Earth’s forests. A few members of the Coniferophyta are pines, yews, spruces, junipers, and cedars.


The tallest living plants known to man are Conifers. They are the Giant Redwoods of the pacific coast. They can reach heights over 350 feet and their trunks can be 36 feet in diameter with a circumference of 100 feet.
Conifers are also the oldest known living organisms. The bristlecone pines are estimated to be 4,900 years old.
Conifers leaves are “Needle Shaped”. These needles occur in bundles and in some species can live two to four years. The needles in conifers are constantly replaced year around and stay green year around. Giving rise to the name “Evergreens”.

An image of a Douglas-fir cone. Most conifers have this same basic format but with physiological and morphological differences in the shape and size of their seeds and cones.




Conifers are entirely dependent upon the wind in order to propagate. Because of this conifer species must be close together in order to insure continuation of their species. As an adaptation Conifers produce high wasteful amounts of pollen to insure seeds are produced

Division Cycadophyta

Cycads are palm like gymnosperms. Like all gymnosperms they produced seeds in cones. Most of the worlds living species of cycads are tropical with one native species living in Florida. Cycads are typically poisonous to humans and animals if consumed.


Cycads are not dependent upon wind in order to propagate their species. Cycads rely on beetles to transport pollen from plant to plant. It is largely believed that Cycads are the first plants to be pollinated by insects.
Cycads are also a slow growing plant and usually have the characteristic of the leaves being on the top of the trunk. The seeds of cycads are contained on the surface scales of their cones.
Cycads are extremely resilient having known to survive in some of the harsh semi desert climates, sand, and rock.

Below we have an image of a typical Cycad




Division of Ginkgophyta aka “Ginkgoes”

There is only one surviving species of Ginkgo on the planet. Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgoes are either male or female. The ginkgoes are not evergreens and as such their leaves turn yellow during the autumn months.
The Ginkgoes were largely thought to be extinct in the wild and were only seen maintained as temple trees in China and Japan. Recently there was a Ginkgo tree discovered in a remote part of China.
Ginkgo females when they produced seeds have an extremely strong foul odor. This foul odor comes from an oily coat that covers the seeds that give it the smell of rancid butter.
Ginkgo males however are often planted in cities due to an unnaturally high resistance to air pollution. The males do not produce seeds and as such do not produce the obnoxious odor. Below is an image of Ginkgo males in a city.


Division Gnetophyta

These gymnosperms are unique because they are flowering gymnosperms which is only seen among angiosperms. Gnetophyta are also unique because they have pollen-producing structures that are similar to the stamen in angiosperms.


Because of these unique structures and characteristics it is believed that Gnetophyta is the link between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.
Gnetophyta are divided further into three separate groups. They are Gnetum, Ephedra, and Welwitschia.
Gnetum exist as about 30 confirmed species. They are exclusively found in the tropics and grow as trees are vines. The Gnetum have a common characteristic of large leathery leaves.
Ephedra exist as about 35 confirmed species. They are mostly shrub-like in nature with small scale like leaves jointed stems. Ephedra mostly grows in arid or desert like areas.
Welwitschia grows in the Southwestern area of Africa. They have two long strap-like leaves that grow over many years. The ends fray but the meristem center add new materials and repair it.
Welwitschia



Angiosperms- Ovules are enclosed so pollen does not interact directly with them
Angiosperm literally means “Vessel seed”. Angiosperms all belong to the division known as Anthophyta. They are also known as “Flowering Plants” because they produce flowers. Angiosperms’ ovules are produced inside a carpel.
Carpel


Flowering plants are the most abundant and most dominant vegetation on the earth presently. More than 90% of all vegetation on the earth is Angiosperms. There are large numbers present in the tropic and subtropics.
Angiosperms are the source of virtually all of our vegetable food sources. They are used in fabrics, paper, cooking oils, hardwoods for construction, spices, preserve meat, flavor food. They are used in the production of beverages such as juices. Orange juice, grape juice, cranberry juice, pineapple juice, and mango juice to name just a few.
Angiosperms are extremely diverse ranging from herbs, shrubs, vines, and to trees. Angiosperms also have a wide range of sizes. The duckweed is .1 inches tall while the gum trees of Australia are 300 ft tall.
Angiosperms are Heterosporous producing both Microspores and Megaspores. Both of these spores are produced in the flower of the angiosperm.
Flower- the flower is a modified stem and consists of four set parts: Sepals, petal, stamens, and carpels.



Sepals

  • Outermost and lowest group of parts of the flower

  • Usually green and leaf-like

  • Protect spore-producing parts of flower

  • Collectively together all the sepals together are called the “Calyx”


Petals

  • Usually brightly colored showy in nature

  • Attracts pollinators

  • All petals together are called the “corolla”


Stamens

  • Consist of a stalk called a “filament”

  • Topped by an “anther” that produces microspores (pollen)

  • All stamens together are the “androecium”


Carpels

  • Innermost part of flower

  • Usually vase-shaped

  • Carpel has three parts

    • Stigma- sticky traps pollen

    • Style- connects the stigma and ovary

    • Ovary- contains ovules

      • Every Ovule contains a megaspore

      • Every megaspore contains a female gametophyte

      • Every female gametophyte produces an egg

  • All carpels together are called the “gynoecium”

Angiosperms rely on insects as pollinators and have become extremely successful because of it.




Closure

Did the students gain an intimate knowledge of the differences between Angiosperms and Gymnosperms?


Can the students take the information presented to them and using context clues gather whether the plant in front of them is an angiosperm or gymnosperm? Can the students further divide the plant into divisions of angiosperms and gymnosperms based upon the structures?



Guided Practice
Graffiti Model
Students will be broken up into the five groups. They will be given a large sheet of paper and a marker. Each group will be assigned either one of the four divisions of Gymnosperms or the one division of Angiosperms.
Group 1: Division Coniferophyta

As a group list the defining characteristics of Gymnosperms.

As a group list the characteristics of the Division Coniferophyta. You should include examples of different conifers along with interesting facts and information on conifers.
Group 2: Division Cycadophyta

As a group list the defining characteristics of Gymnosperms.

As a group list the defining characteristics of the Division Cycadophyta. You should include examples of different cycads along with interesting facts and information on the cycads.

Group 3: Division Ginkgophyta

As a group list the defining characteristics of Gymnosperms.

As a group list the defining characteristics of the Division Ginkgophyta. You should include an example of a Ginkgo and list the defining characteristics of the male and female.
Group 4: Division Gnetophyta

As a group list the defining characteristics of Gymnosperms.

As a group list the defining characteristics of the Division Gnetophyta. You should include an example of Gnetophyta and further give examples and characteristics of the three sub-groups.
Group 5: Division Anthophyta

As a group list the defining characteristics of Angiosperms.

As a group list the defining characteristics of the Division Anthophyta. You should include examples and interesting facts about Anthophyta. Along with this list the uses of angiosperms.
The students will have 4 minutes to complete their prompt. At the end of four minutes the students will exchange their prompts with another group. The students will be asked to add any and all bits of information missing from their new prompts. All five groups will have all five prompts.
The students will then receive their original prompt back once all five groups have seen all five prompts. They will then have 3 minutes to review any new information. They then will present their information to the class.
After all the groups have gone there will be a class discussion with the teacher as the facilitator. The teacher will use this time to assess how well the students have assimilated the knowledge and if further instruction needs to be given.
Individual grades will be given based on contribution to the group and participation in presenting their individual prompts to the class.





Independent Practice

The students will only be given independent practice if during the discussion the teacher has assessed the students have not assimilated the knowledge clearly or properly. Students will be asked to compare and contrast the structures, functions, and characteristics of angiosperms and gymnosperms.








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