Mark Granovetter



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Mark Granovetter
Источник: http://www.stanford.edu/dept/soc/people/faculty/granovetter/granovet.html

Joan Butler Ford Professor and Department Chair


Bldg. 120 - Room: 128
Stanford University
Tel.: (650) 723-4664; Fax: (650) 618-0301
Email: mgranovetter@stanford.edu
Curriculum Vitaedocuments/resumark_000.doc

Professor Mark Granovetter is currently concentrating on three main projects. The first is a general treatment of economic sociology with the preliminary title Society and Economy: The Social Construction of Economic Institutions, to be published by Harvard University Press. The theoretical scheme that will inform the book is laid out in his 1985 American Journal of Sociology paper, "Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness".

The second is a study of the origins and early development of the electricity industry in the United States. Illustrating the general argument on the embeddedness of economic institutions, he argues that while this industry obviously evolved in the context of important political and economic constraints, there were nonetheless a variety of ways it might have been organized. Through extensive archival and secondary research, funded in part by the National Science Foundation, the research shows that individuals mobilizing financial, technical and political resources through their social and professional networks pushed the industry in certain directions rather than others, with substantial historical contingency and path dependence throughout the process. Consequently, popular functionalist assertions that the technology and organizational forms were simply responses to technical or economic exigencies cannot be supported. Technical and organizational forms that were shunted aside in this period, and then forgotten, were far more plausible technically and economically than usually supposed. Some such forms, such as the decentralized production of power in homes and factories, and the separation of distribution from production, are re-appearing in recent years as the "wave of the future"; ironically, the study shows these to be, in fact, the wave of the past.

Granovetter is also conducting a project entitled "The Networks of Silicon Valley". Though everyone agrees that the most crucial aspect of Silicon Valley's dramatic success is its networks, there has been virtually no systematic study of their history, structure and functioning. This project attempts to map these networks and their evolution over time. Using relational database methods developed in the study of the electricity industry, the plan is to track the affiliation of company principals, trace the "genealogies" of new firms, and show how movements of people among firms continuously shapes and reshapes networks of both individuals and organizations. The research group also intends to study the institutional complex that supports local industrial activity, including financial, educational, legal, and political sectors. The end result should be the first comprehensive sociological account of an "industrial district".

More detailed information on the second and third projects can be found at www.stanford.edu/group/esrg

Granovetter's main teaching interests and workshops lie in the areas of Economic Sociology (see http://www.stanford.edu/class/soc114) , Social Stratification and Sociological Theory.



Selected Publications

1973. "The Strength of Weak Ties." American Journal of Sociology, 78 (May): 1360-1380.

1978. "Threshold Models of Collective Behavior." American Journal of Sociology, 83 (May): 1420-1443.

1985. "Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness." American Journal of Sociology, 91(November): 481-510.

1988. "Inequality and Labor Processes" (With Charles Tilly). In Neil Smelser, ed., Handbook of Sociology, pp. 175-221. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

1988 "Threshold Models of Diversity: Chinese Restaurants, Residential Segregation and the Spiral of Silence." (With Roland Soong). In Clifford Clogg, ed., Sociological Methodology , pp. 69-104.

1995. "Coase Revisited: Business Groups in the Modern Economy". Industrial and Corporate Change 4(1): 93-130.

1995. Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers, 2nd Edition (with a new Preface and a new chapter updating research and theory since the 1974 edition). University of Chicago Press (paperback).

1998. "The Making of an Industry: Electricity in the United States". With Patrick McGuire. Pp. 147-173, in Michel Callon, editor, The Laws of The Markets, Oxford: Blackwell.

2000. "Social Networks in Silicon Valley". With Emilio Castilla, Hokyu Hwang and Ellen Granovetter. Pp. 218-247 in Chong-Moon Lee, William F. Miller, Marguerite Gong Hancock, and Henry S. Rowen, editors, The Silicon Valley Edge. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

2001. The Sociology of Economic Life, 2nd edition, edited with Richard Swedberg. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

2002. "A Theoretical Agenda for Economic Sociology". Pp. 35-59 in Mauro Guillen, Randall Collins, Paula England and Marshall Meyer, editors. The New Economic Sociology: Developments in an Emerging Field. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

2003. "Ignorance, Knowledge and Outcomes in a Small World". Science 301 (8 August, 2003): 773-774. (Perspective on Dodds, Muhammad and Watts' "An Experimental Study of Search in Global Social Networks", Science, same issue. )

2005. "The Impact of Social Structure on Economic Outcomes". Journal of Economic Perspectives, Winter.


Curriculum Vitae
MARK GRANOVETTER
November, 2004

Address: Department of Sociology

Stanford University

Stanford, CA 94305-2047


Telephone: 650-723-4664 (office)

650-856-2066 (home)


Fax: 561-760-0496

Electronic Mail: mgranovetter@stanford.edu


EDUCATION
Ph.D. Sociology, 1970, Harvard University

A.B. American and Modern European History, 1965, Princeton University


POSITIONS
2002- Chair, Department of Sociology, Stanford University

1997- Joan Butler Ford Professor in the School of Humanities and Sciences, Stanford University.

1995- Professor of Sociology, Stanford University

1992-1995 Professor of Sociology, Northwestern University; Professor of Organization Behavior, Kellogg Graduate School of Management (by courtesy)

1994-1995 Director of the Program in Business Institutions, College of Arts and Sciences, Northwestern University

1977-1992 Associate Professor to Professor of Sociology, State University of New York at Stony Brook

1989-1992 Chair, Department of Sociology, State University of New York at Stony Brook

1989 Visiting Research Professor, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin fur Sozialforschung (WZB) (Summer).

1986-1987 Distinguished Visiting Professor of Research, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University

1973-1977 Assistant to Associate Professor and Director of the Undergraduate Program in Sociology, Harvard University

1970-1973 Assistant Professor of Social Relations, Johns Hopkins University
HONORS AND AWARDS
1996 Doctor of Philosophy honoris causa, Stockholm University

1995 Elected to Johns Hopkins University Society of Scholars

1985 American Sociological Association annual Theory Section Prize, for the paper "Economic Action and Social Structure" (November, 1985 AJS)

1985 Elected to Sociological Research Association

1982-1983 National Science Foundation Science Faculty Professional Development Award

1981-1982 Member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ

1981-1982 John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship

1980-1981 Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, Faculty Development Award

1976-1977 Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California
RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS
1999-2003 Bechtel Foundation, “The Networks of Silicon Valley”.

1997-1999 National Science Foundation grant: “Reciprocity in the Russian Labor Market: Its Role in the Transition from State Socialism”.

1996-1998 National Science Foundation grant: “The Social Construction of Industry: Electricity in the United States, 1880-1925.

1989-1991 Russell Sage Foundation grant: "Society and Economy"

1979-1981 National Science Foundation grant: "Threshold Models of Collective Behavior: Empirical Applications"

1976-1978 National Science Foundation grant: "Models of Collective Behavior"



EDITORIAL POSITIONS
Book Series
1985- Editor, Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences series, Cambridge University Press
Journal Editorial Boards
1999- Journal of Consumer Culture

1996-1998 American Sociological Review

1975-1977, 1992-1994 American Journal of Sociology

1995- Acta Sociologica (Journal of the Scandinavian Sociological

Association)

1991- Journal of Socio-Economics

1990-1998 Sociological Forum

1991-1996 Administrative Science Quarterly

1988-1995 Rationality and Society

1983-1987 Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

1982-1985 Social Forces

1981-1984 Social Psychology Quarterly


ORGANIZATION MEMBERSHIPS
American Sociological Association

American Economic Association

International Network for Social Network Analysis (INSNA)

Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics

European Association for Evolutionary Political Economy
OTHER PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
1998 Keynote speaker and instructor, Summer School for Graduate Students and Recent PhDs, European Association for Evolutionary Political Economy, Kenmare, Ireland.

1995 Member, Committee to draft questions on economic sociology for the General Social Survey.

1989 Member, Selection Committee, National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator Award, Social Sciences

1984-1986 Member, National Science Foundation Sociology Awards Panel

1979-1985 Executive Committee, Economic Research Bureau, State University of New York at Stony Brook

1977-1981 Member, Placement Research Steering Committee, Human Resources Center, Albertson, NY (Committee advises on research for placement of rehabilitated handicapped workers)


PUBLICATIONS
2005 “Shifting Boundaries and Social Construction in the Early Electricity Industry, 1878-1915”. With Patrick McGuire. Forthcoming in Joseph Porac and Marc Ventresca, editors, Constructing Industries and Markets, Elsevier Press.
2005 “Business Groups and Social Organization”. Forthcoming in N. Smelser and R. Swedberg, editors, Handbook of Economic Sociology, 2nd edition. Russell Sage Foundation and Princeton University Press.
2005 “The Impact of Social Structure on Economic Outcomes”. Forthcoming in Journal of Economic Perspectives, Winter, 2005.
2003 “Ignorance, Knowledge and Outcomes in a Small World”. Science 301 (8 August 2003): 773-774.
2002 “A Theoretical Agenda for Economic Sociology”. Pp. 35-59 in Mauro Guillen, Randall Collins, Paula England and Marshall Meyer, editors. The New Economic Sociology: Developments in an Emerging Field. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
2000 “Social Networks in Silicon Valley”. With Emilio Castilla, Hokyu Hwang and Ellen Granovetter. Pp. 218-247 in Chong-Moon Lee, William F. Miller, Marguerite Gong Hancock, and Henry S. Rowen, editors, The Silicon Valley Edge. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
2000 “Introduction pour le Lecteur Français” (Introduction for the French Reader). Introductory essay to a volume of my papers translated into French, edited by Jean-Louis Laville, published by Desclée de Brouwer, Paris.
1999 “Coase Encounters and Formal Models: Taking Gibbons Seriously”. Administrative Science Quarterly 44: 158-162.
1998 “The Making of an Industry: Electricity in the United States”. With Patrick McGuire. Pp. 147-173, in Michel Callon, editor, The Laws of The Markets, Oxford: Blackwell.
1997 “Social Networks, Organizational Politics and Governance Coalitions: The Relationship Between Industrial Associations and the American Electricity Industry: 1885-1910”. With Chi-nien Chung. Sun Yat-Sen Management Review 6 1997 (243-286).
1995 Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers, 2nd Edition (with a new Preface and a new chapter updating research and theory since the 1974 edition). University of Chicago Press (paperback).
1995 "The Economic Sociology of Firms and Entrepreneurs". Pp. 128-165 in Alejandro Portes, editor, The Economic Sociology of Immigration: Essays in Networks, Ethnicity and Entrepreneurship. New York: Russell Sage Foundation .
1995 “Coase Revisited: Business Groups in the Modern Economy”. Industrial and Corporate Change 4(1): 93-130.
1994 "Business Groups". Chapter 22 of the Handbook of Economic Sociology, edited by Neil Smelser and Richard Swedberg. Russell Sage Foundation and Princeton University Press.

1993 "Thomas Edison and the Social Construction of the Early Electricity Industry in America". With Patrick McGuire and Michael Schwartz. In Richard Swedberg, editor, Explorations in Economic Sociology, pp. 213-246. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.


1993 "The Nature of Economic Relationships". In Richard Swedberg, editor, Explorations in Economic Sociology, pp. 3-41. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
1992 The Sociology of Economic Life (co-edited with Richard Swedberg). Boulder CO: Westview Press.
1992 "The Nature of Economic Relations". In Sutti Ortiz and Susan Lees, Editors, Understanding Economic Process: Monographs in Economic Anthropology, No. 10, pp. 21-37. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
1992 "Problems of Explanation in Economic Sociology". In Nitin Nohria and Robert Eccles, Editors, Networks and Organizations: Structure, Form, Action, pp. 25-56. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
1992 "Economic Institutions as Social Constructions: A Framework for Analysis". Acta Sociologica 35(1): 3-11.
1991 "The Social Construction of Economic Institutions". In Amitai Etzioni and Paul Lawrence, editors, Socio-Economics: Toward a New Synthesis, pp. 75-81. Armonk and London: M.E. Sharpe.
1990 "The Myth of Social Network Analysis as a Separate Method in the Social Sciences". Connections 13 (1-2), Spring-Summer, pp. 13-16.
1990 "The Old and the New Economic Sociology: A History and an Agenda". In R. Friedland and A.F. Robertson, eds., Beyond the Marketplace: Rethinking Economy and Society, pp. 89-112. New York: Aldine.
1988 "Threshold Models of Diversity: Chinese Restaurants, Residential Segregation and the Spiral of Silence." (With Roland Soong). In Clifford Clogg, ed., Sociological Methodology, pp. 69-104.
1988 "The Sociological and Economic Approaches to Labor Market Analysis: A Social Structural View". In George Farkas and Paula England, eds., Industries, Firms and Jobs: Sociological and Economic Approaches, pp. 187-216. New York: Plenum Press.
1988 "Inequality and Labor Processes" (With Charles Tilly). In Neil Smelser, ed., Handbook of Sociology, pp. 175-221. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
1986 "Threshold Models of Interpersonal Effects in Consumer Demand. (With Roland Soong). Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 7: 83-99.
1986 "The Microstructure of School Desegregation." In J. Prager, D. Longshore and M. Seeman, eds., School Desegregation Research: New Directions in Situational Analysis, pp. 81-110 . New York: Plenum Press.
1986 "Labor Mobility, Internal Markets and Job-Matching: Comparison of the Economic and Sociological Approaches." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, pp. 3-39.
1986 "Japanese Firm Size: A Small Note." Sociology and Social Research, 71 (October): 27-28.
1985 "Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness." American Journal of Sociology, 91(November): 481-510.
1984 "Small is Bountiful: Labor Markets and Establishment Size." American Sociological Review 49 (June): 323-334.
1983 "Threshold Models of Diffusion and Collective Behavior" (With Roland Soong). Journal of Mathematical Sociology (November): 165-179.
1983 "The Strength of Weak Ties: A Network Theory Revisited." Sociological Theory 1: 201-233.
1982 "Alienation Reconsidered: The Strength of Weak Ties." Connections 5 (Summer): 4-16.
1981 "Toward a Sociological Theory of Income Differences." In Ivar Berg, ed., Sociological Perspectives on Labor Markets, pp. 11-47. New York: Academic Press.
1979 "The Theory-Gap in Social Network Analysis." In P. Holland and S. Leinhardt, eds., Perspectives on Social Network Research, pp. 501-518. New York: Academic Press.
1979 "The Idea of `Advancement' in Theories of Social Evolution and Development." American Journal of Sociology, 85 (November):489-515. See also related exchange with Patrick Nolan, AJS 87 (January, 1982): 942-950.
1979 "Placement as Brokerage: Information Problems in the Labor Market for Rehabilitated Workers." In D. Vandergoot and J. Worrall, eds., Placement in Rehabilitation: A Career Development Perspective, pp. 83-101. Baltimore: University Park Press.
1978 "Threshold Models of Collective Behavior." American Journal of Sociology, 83 (May): 1420-1443.
1976 "Network Sampling: Some First Steps." American Journal of Sociology 81 (May): 1287-1303. See also related exchange with D. Morgan and S. Rytina, AJS 83, 1977: 722-729.
1974 Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
1973 "The Strength of Weak Ties." American Journal of Sociology, 78 (May): 1360-1380. See also related exchange with Herbert Gans in September, 1974 AJS, and my Citation Classic feature on the origins of the article, in Current Contents (Social and Behavioral Sciences and Arts and Humanities editions), December 8, 1986, p. 24.


UNPUBLISHED WORKING PAPERS
2002 “Electric Charges: The Social Construction of Rate Systems”. With Valery Yakubovich and Patrick McGuire. Earlier version delivered at the 1998 meeting of the American Sociological Association.
2001 “Trade Associations as an Organizational Form: NELA and the Development of the Early American Electricity Industry, 1885-1910”. With Chi-nien Chung. Earlier version delivered at the 1999 meeting of the American Sociological Association.
1998 “Business and Bias in Public Policy Formation: The National Civic Federation and Social Construction of Electric Utility Regulation, 1905-1907”. With Patrick McGuire. Delivered at the 1998 meeting of the American Sociological Association.
1988 "Threshold Models of Jury Decision-Making" (With Roland Soong).
TRANSLATIONS
2000 Le Marché Autrement: Les Réseaux dans l’économie (The Market Seen Differently: Networks in the Economy). Edited by Jean-Louis Laville, with an introduction by Mark Granovetter and another by Jean-Louis Laville, Benoit Levesque and Isabelle This-Saint Jean. (A volume of my papers, translated into French.) Paris: Desclée Brouwer.
1998 La Forza dei Legami Deboli e Altri Saggi (The Strength of Weak Ties and Other Essays). Edited and translated into Italian, with an Introduction by Massimo Follis. Naples: Liguori.
1998 Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers. Japanese translation of 1995 University of Chicago Press edition, with an introduction by Shin Watanabe, translator, and a new Foreword by the author (Granovetter). Minerva Press: Tokyo.
1995. "Trovare Laboro" (excerpt from Getting a Job). Pp. 147-165 in Fortunata Piselli, editor, Reti: L'analisi di network neele scienze sociali. Rome: Donzelli Editore. Italian translation by Oreste Ventrone.
1994. “Les Institutions Économiques Comme Constructions Sociales: Un Cadre d’Analyse”. Pp. 79-94 in André Orléan, editor, Analyse Économique des Conventions. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. French translation by André Orléan and Serge Grunberg.
1989. “Nuova e Vecchia Sociologia Economica: Evoluzione Storica E Prospettive di Ricerca”. Economica e Politica Industriale 61: 135-163. Italian translation by Mario Benassi.
SHORT PAPERS, COMMENTS, REVIEWS AND REVIEW ESSAYS
2005 “Comment on Liverani and Bedford”. Chapter 4 (pp. 84-88) in J. Manning and I. Morris, editors, The Ancient Economy: Evidence and Models. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
1990 Review essay on Arne Kalleberg's and James Lincoln's Culture, Control and Commitment: A Study of Work Organization and Work Attitudes in the United States and Japan. Contemporary Sociology 19 (November)
1989 Foreword to Patricia Barchas, ed., The Sociophysiology of Social Relationships. New York: Oxford University Press.
1984 Review essay on Randall Collins's Sociology Since Midcentury. American Journal of Sociology 89 (January).
1982 Review essay on Christopher Jencks et. al., Who Gets Ahead? Theory and Society 11 (March).
1978 Review of Edward Laumann and Franz Pappi's Networks of Collective Action: A Perspective on Community Influence Systems. American Journal of Sociology 83 (May).
1977 Review essay on Jacob Mincer's Schooling, Experience and Earnings. Sociological Quarterly (Autumn).
1976 Review essay on William Sewell and Robert Hauser's Education, Occupation and Earnings. Harvard Educational Review (February).
1975 Review of F. Stuart Chapin's Human Activity Patterns in the City: Things People Do in Time and Space. American Journal of Sociology 80 (September).
1975 Comment on Orlando Patterson's "Ethnicity and the Pluralist Fallacy". Change 7 (Summer).
1974 Review of Johan Galtung's Members of Two Worlds: A Development Study of Three Villages in Western Sicily. American Journal of Sociology 79 (January).

INTERVIEWS
1998 Masudur Rahman, interviewer. “NET-society: Mark Granovetter on Network, Embeddedness and Trust”. Sosiologi Idag [Sociology Today, Oslo, Norway] 28(4): 87-113.
1990 Richard Swedberg, editor and interviewer. Economics and Sociology: Redefining their Boundaries. Conversations with Economists and Sociologists. Princeton University Press, pp. 96-114.
1987 Richard Swedberg, interviewer. On Economic Sociology: An Interview with Mark Granovetter. Research Reports Vol. 1987: 1, Department of Sociology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, SWEDEN.
1983 Lorne Tepperman, editor and interviewer, Formal and Informal Career Structures: A Preface and Seven Interviews. Working Paper Series #41, Structural Analysis Programme, University of Toronto, pp. 55-75.
WORK IN PROGRESS
1. I am writing a book with the preliminary title Society and Economy: The Social Construction of Economic Institutions, to be published by Harvard University Press. The general theoretical scheme that will inform the book is laid out in my 1985 American Journal of Sociology paper, "Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness". Some material related to the projected book is contained in my paper for the Friedland/Robertson volume, in the Acta Sociologica paper, and in the papers in five volumes edited, respectively, by Nohria and Eccles, Swedberg, Ortiz and Lees, Portes, and Guillen et al.
2. Funded by the Bechtel Initiative at Stanford University, I am conducting a project entitled “The Networks of Silicon Valley”. Though everyone agrees that the most crucial aspect of Silicon Valley’s dramatic success is its networks, there has been virtually no systematic study of their history, structure and functioning. In this project, we propose to map these networks and their evolution over time. Using relational database methods developed in our study of the electricity industry, we will track the affiliation of company principals, trace the “genealogies” of new firms, and show how movements of people among firms continuously shapes and reshapes networks of both individuals and organizations. We also intend to study the institutional complex that supports local industrial activity, including financial, educational, legal, and political sectors. We hope that the end result will be the first comprehensive sociological account of an “industrial district”.
3. With Patrick McGuire (University of Toledo) , I am studying the origins and early development of the electricity industry in the United States. Illustrating my general argument on the embeddedness of economic institutions, we argue that although it obviously evolved in the context of important political and economic constraints, there were nonetheless a variety of ways this industry might have been organized. Through extensive archival and secondary research we show that individuals mobilizing financial, technical and political resources through their social and professional networks pushed the industry in certain directions rather than others, with substantial historical contingency and path dependence throughout the process. Consequently, popular functionalist assertions that the technology and/or organizational forms were simply responses to technical or economic exigencies cannot be supported. We find, further, that technical and organizational forms that were shunted aside in this period, and then forgotten, were far more plausible technically and economically than usually supposed. Some such forms, such as the decentralized production of power in homes and factories, and the separation of distribution from production, began to re-appear in the late twentieth century as the “wave of the future”; ironically, our study shows these to be, in fact, the wave of the past.

More detailed information on items 2. and 3. can be found at www.stanford.edu/group/esrg


OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES
Since 1986 I have been the editor of a Cambridge University Press series, Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences. This is the only social science series that emphasizes explanation by reference to relations among concrete social entities such as persons or organizations. More than twenty-five volumes have appeared to date, in sociology, anthropology, political science, history and statistical methods.
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