Management of stored grain pests using aluminium phosphide: importance of food grains and storage




Дата канвертавання24.04.2016
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MANAGEMENT OF STORED GRAIN PESTS USING ALUMINIUM PHOSPHIDE:

  1. IMPORTANCE OF FOOD GRAINS AND STORAGE:

India has made progressive growth in terms of agriculture production. The credit for this impressive growth goes to millions of farming families. Policy support, planning for production, research, extension work and marketing of produce has helped for better growth of the produce. Today India is the second largest country in terms of agriculture production globally (IMF 2014 and WTO International Trade Statistics 2013).

Rich bio-diversity, arable land, climate, strong research and extension system are strengths available for better future of food production. However pressure of population on land, skewed distribution of operational holdings, land degradation, depletion of water table or water balance, poor mechanization, poor or untimely usage of input are major challenges in present situation.

Under such situation the production as well as its post harvest management plays an important role. Where post harvest management need necessary measures to save the losses for the period between crop maturities to actual consumption of the crop which are estimated to be around 12-16 million tons each year worth 50,000 crores (Singh(2010) cited in Journal of Post Harvest Technology, Jan 2014).

One such requirement is to keep the crop produce in a viable mode of consumption so that quality, quantity doesn’t deteriorate; the food grain is secure against stored insect-pests and is accessible whenever required.

Whereas about 70% of the produce is stored for consumption during the year using different types of storage structures from locally available material Agricultural warehouse constitutes 15% of the warehousing markets in India. The attention is given with efforts being given on warehousing development in agricultural sector. The need is to develop organized and quality warehouse which can be helpful minimizing the storage losses of agricultural produce. Presently out of the total warehouses about 40% are run by state warehousing corporations like FCI, CWC, SWC etc. and about 30% are run by small players.

Production has been steadily increasing due to advancement in production technology, but losses have remained static at 10%. This means that the loss of food grains is also increasing with the increase in food production. The main reason for this is improper storage, and an average of 6% out of a total 10% loss takes place during storage of food grains.

In the real consumption we need the storage in an organized way with quality standards to save the commodities from stored grain insect pest.

Insect pests are major agents causing loss of about 10-15% within one season to stored commodities. However the losses may vary depending upon geography and climatic conditions (Lal and Srivastava, 1985). Following are the losses caused by insects in stored commodities:
  1. Weight loss

  2. Loss in quality/ market value.

  3. Promotion of mould development

  4. Reduced germination in seed material

  5. Reduced nutritional value

So to minimize all such losses the fumigation of the stored commodities is utmost requirement and the recent developments in the promotion of warehousing will certainly help to minimize the losses during storage.


II. STORED COMMODITIES AND FUMIGATION:

We at Excel Crop Care Limited are solution provider for controlling stored grain pests. We started manufacturing of Aluminium Phosphide (CELPHOS) in early 70’s and are continuously developing new concepts of application by identifying customer needs.

In India and the world over Aluminium Phosphide in tablets, pellets and in granular/powder form (packed in sachets) is used as a fumigant for the control of various stored commodities insects pests in empty structures (warehouse, silos, food processing plants, food and feed mills) and in different food commodities (raw and processed), animal products and non-food commodities (e.g. Tobacco) in sealed structures or containers. Shipping containers and ship’s holds are also routinely fumigated with Aluminium Phosphide.

Phosphine or hydrogen phosphide is liberated by the action of atmospheric moisture on CELPHOS (Aluminium Phosphide). Phosphine gas is toxic and considered to be the most potent fumigant insecticide for control of stored grain insects, rodents and other pests. Phosphine released from CELPHOS has excellent diffusion characteristics and, therefore, achieves uniform gas distribution rapidly during fumigation. Another major advantage is that phosphine does not persist in the environment and gets quickly degraded (5-28 hrs) in the atmosphere. It has no adverse effect on the ozone layer. Despite the requirement of longer exposure period, phosphine fumigation is popular throughout the world as it is most cost effective and convenient to use. CELPHOS is an ideal seed fumigant too, as it does not impair seed viability. In recent years , there has been a greater reliance on phosphine fumigation world over in view of the phase out of methyl bromide fumigant on account of its adverse effect on the environment as an ozone depleting substance.

The cost effective and easy to apply CELPHOS treatment has the added advantage of least residue problem left behind. CELPHOS when applied at the recommended dosage rates has no adverse effect on fumigated food commodities, their organoleptic properties and end-use parameters.

CELPHOS tablets, pellets and granules and sachets is a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP) in many countries and this means only government organizations, government licensed/accredited/approved fumigators or certified applicators can buy and use the fumigant. Such regulated uses vary widely from one country to another. For example, CELPHOS packed in small sachets are approved for sale in India by Central Insecticide Board for fumigating farm stored commodities.

Before using CELPHOS tablets, pellets or sachets, read the product label for information and authorized uses which may differ from country to country. While using CELPHOS, appropriate personal protective equipment must be used during handling, application and waste disposal.

The details of formulated product are as under:



Characteristics

Solid Formulation

Granular (Powder) Formulation in




Tablets

Pellets

sachets

Aluminium phosphide (active ingredient) content *


56% w/w

56% w/w

56- 57% w/w

Other ingredients

(ammonium compounds, binding materials, other fillers)




44% w/w

44% w/w

43-44% w/w

Weight

3 g

0.6 g

5 g; 10 g; 34 g; 204 g

Size: Diameter

Thickness



20 mm

6 mm


9 mm

7mm


Size varies as per weight

Phosphine content

1 g

g

1/3 of its weight

*As per the Insecticide Act, 1968 and conforming to BIS standard IS 6438:1980 (Tablets) , IS 15219:2002 (Powder) and its amendments

Features of CELPHOS:



  • Globally registered, highly effective, economical, easy to use, fumigant for the control of wide range of insect pests of stored commodities.

  • CELPHOS decomposes to release Phosphine gas upon contact with moisture in the air.

  • Easy to use. No special applicator is required.

  • Phosphine quickly spreads and penetrates into commodity being fumigated.

  • Reaches insects by diffusing through air space between stored grains and stacks of packaged material.

  • Kills all stages of insect- eggs, larvae, pupa and adults.

  • Phosphine is practically insoluble in water, fats and oils and therefore has no appreciable reaction on the fumigated commodities.

  • Phosphine disappears completely after fumigation from the treated area upon aeration.

  • Phosphine does not adversely affect the quality of the agricultural commodities including seed material being fumigated.

  • Requires warm temperature (>15 C) and air tight enclosures for effective fumigation and insect control.

  • Increasingly recognized as an ideal alternative for Methyl Bromide fumigation in certain situations including pre shipment container fumigation, wood fumigation etc.

  • Unlike Methyl Bromide, Phosphine is neither an Ozone depleting gas nor is persistent in the atmosphere.

  • A new and emerging application is use of pure Phosphine gas for fresh fruits and vegetables fumigation in cooling chambers.

  • Available in soild formulations – tablets, pellets and in powder.

Stored commodities like cereals, pulses, oilseeds & oilcakes, dried fruits & tree nuts, beverage crops, spices and spices products, processed foods, tubers, animal products, tobacco etc. are commonly infested by number of stored grain pests.

Major Stored Product Insect Pests



III.TYPES OF COMMODITIES FUMIGATED WITH CELPHOS AND MAJOR INSECT & RODENT PESTS CONTROLLED


Commodities

Scientific name

Common name



1. Cereals

Barley, maize, oats, paddy, pearl millet, rice (raw and parboiled), rye, sorghum, triticale, wheat



INSECTS










Corcyra cephalonica

Rice moth

Cryptolestes spp.

Grain beetles

Ephestia cautella

Tropical warehouse moth

Ephestia elutella

Tobacco moth

Liposcelis spp.

Psocids

Nemapogon granella

European grain moth

Oryzaephilus surinamensis

Saw-toothed grain beetle

Plodia interpunctella

Indian meal moth

Prostephanus truncatus

Larger grain borer

Rhyzopertha dominica

Lesser grain borer

Sitophilus granarius

Granary weevil

Sitophilus oryzae

Rice weevil

Sitophilus zeamais

Maize weevil

Sitotroga cerealella

Angoumois grain moth

Tenebrio spp.

Meal worm

Tenebroides mauritanicus

Cadelle beetle

Tribolium spp.

Flour beetles

Trogoderma granarium

Khapra beetle

2.Pulses

Butter beans, chickpea, cowpea, field beans, French beans, green gram, horse gram, lentil, peas, pigeon pea, white gram










Acanthoscelides obtectus

Dried bean beetle

Callosobruchus chinensis

Adzuki bean weevil

Callosobruchus maculatus

Cowpea beetle

Zabrotes subfasciatus

Mexican bean weevil

3.Oilseeds and Oilcakes

Copra, cotton seeds, mustard,

oil cakes (seed cakes),

peanuts (in-shell and shelled), rapeseed, safflower seeds, sesame seeds, soybeans, sunflower seeds










Araecerus fasciculatus

Coffee bean weevil

Caryedon serratus

Groundnut borer

Ephestia cautella

Tropical warehouse moth

Necrobia rufipes

Red legged ham beetle

Oryzaephilus mercator

Merchant grain beetle

Oryzaephilus surinamensis

Saw-toothed grain beetle

Tribolium spp.

Flour beetles

Trogoderma granarium

Khapra beetle


4.Dried fruits and tree nuts

Almonds (in-shell and shelled), apricots, Brazil nuts, cashews, dates (edible or dried), figs, filberts, hazel nuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pistachio nuts (in-shell and shelled), prunes,

raisins, sultans, walnuts (in-shell and shelled)








Amyelois transitella

Navel orange worm

Carpophilus spp

Dried fruit beetle

Corcyra cephalonica

Rice moth

Cydia pomonella

Codling moth

Ephestia calidella

Oasis dates moth

Ephestia cautella

Tropical warehouse moth

Ephestia elutella

Tobacco moth

Ephestia figulilella

Raisin moth

Lasioderma serricorne

Cigarette beetle

Oryzaephilus mercator

Merchant grain beetle

Oryzaephilus surinamensis

Saw-toothed grain beetle

Paralipsa gularis

Stored nut moth

Plodia interpunctella

Indian meal moth

Spectrobate ceratoniae

Carob moth

Stegobium paniceum

Drugstore beetle

Tribolium spp.

Flour beetle

Vitula edmandsae serratilinella

Dried fruit moth


5.Beverage crops
Cocoa beans/powder,

coffee beans, processed tea









Araecerus fasciculatus

Coffee bean weevil

Ephestia cautella

Tropical warehouse moth

Ephestia elutella

Tobacco moth

Hypothenemus hampei

Coffee berry borer

Lasioderma serricorne

Cigarette beetle

Oryzaephilus mercator

Merchant grain beetle

Ptinus tectus

Australian spider beetle













6.Spices and spices products
Cardamom, chilies, coriander, cumin, curry powder, dried ginger, fennel, mace, nutmeg, poppy seeds, powdered chilies/ coriander/ turmeric, tamarind pulp, turmeric (bulbs and fingers)







Araecerus fasciculatus

Coffee bean weevil

Ephestia cautella

Tropical warehouse moth

Lasioderma serricorne

Cigarette beetle

Plodia interpunctella

Indian meal moth

Rhyzopertha dominica

Lesser grain borer

Stegobium paniceum

Drugstore beetle

Tribolium spp.

Flour beetles


7.Processed foods
Animal feed and feed ingredients, cereals foods (macaroni, vermicelli, noodles, pasta, snack foods and spaghetti), chickpea flour, corn grits, corn flour, dhals (split pulses), dehydrated vegetables, malted foods, rice bran, sago, semolina, soybean flour, tapioca flour/ starch, wheat flour (whole/refined), white oats, yeast








Cryptolestes spp.

Grain beetles

Ephestia cautella

Tropical warehouse moth

Ephestia kuehniella

Mediterranean flour moth

Lasioderma serricorne

Cigarette beetle

Liposcelis spp.

Psocids

Oryzaephilus surinamensis

Saw-toothed grain beetle

Plodia interpunctella

Indian meal moth

Stegobium paniceum

Drugstore beetle

Tribolium spp.

Flour beetles

8.Tubers
Cassava









Araecerus fasciculatus

Coffee bean weevil



Lasioderma serricorne

Cigarette beetle

Prostephanus truncatus

Larger grain borer


9.Animal products
Food products: Cured and dried meat products and dried fish, dried eggs, dried milk powder.

Non-food products: animal hides and furs, feathers, human hair, hoof and horn, leather products, wool and woolen products








Dermestes frischii

Hide beetle

Dermestes lardarius

Larder beetle

Dermestes maculatus

Hide beetle

Tribolium spp.

Flour beetles

Lasioderma serricorne

Cigarette beetle

Necrobia ruficollis

Red-shouldered ham beetle

Necrobia rufipes

Red-legged ham beetle


10.Others








Tobacco

Ephestia elutella

Tobacco moth




Lasioderma serricorne

Cigarette beetle


Cotton wool, bales


Anthonomus grandis

Cotton boll weevil

Herbs and medicinal plants (dried)









Lasioderma serricorne

Cigarette beetle

Stegobium paniceum

Drugstore beetle

Seed materials (grass seed, seeds of cereal grains and ornamental plants, vegetable seeds)









Ephestia cautella

Tropical warehouse moth

Sitophilus granarius

Granary weevil

Sitophilus oryzae

Rice weevil

Sitophilus zeamais

Maize weevil

Rhyzopertha dominica

Lesser grain borer

Bamboo products, dried flowers and plants, hay and straw , wood, wood products









Agrilus planipennis

Emerald Ash borer

Flat-headed borers



Anobium punctatum

,

Furniture beetles

Anoplophora glabripennis


Asian Longhorn beetles,

Round-headed Borers



Bursaphelenchus spp

Pinewood nematode

Calotermes spp

Termites

Lyctus africanus

Powder post beetles

Scolytus spp

Ambrosia/Bark beetles

Sinoxylon anale

Ghoon borers

Sirex spp

Wood wasp







RODENTS


Fields crops and

stored food commodities



Bandicota bengalensis,

Bandicota indica

Lesser Bandicoot rat

Larger/Greater Bandicoot rat




Mouse booduga

Rattus meltada

Little Field mouse

Soft-furred Field rat






Tatera indica

Indian Gerbil


IV. CELPHOS DOSAGES/APPLICATION RATES:

The dosages varies from 1-8 g/m3 with a exposure period of 3-15 days with target terminal concentration of 100-1500 ppm at lower temperature limit of 5-15°C, for an effective fumigation. The dosages depend upon the temperature, commodity type, insect pest species and gas tightness level (Rajendran 2007).

The susceptibility of insect life stages to phosphine is in the decreasing order of adult>larva>pupa>egg. Egg and pupal stages are relatively tolerant to phosphine due to their lower respiratory rate and hence lower rate of uptake of phosphine. Therefore, the exposure period has to be extended up to 7 or more days in phosphine treatments in order to allow penetration of the gas at lethal concentration into all stages of the insect pests. While dealing with Trogoderma granarium (Khapra beetle) larvae, a predominantly tolerant insect, higher concentration as well as longer exposure time will be needed to achieve adequate mortality. Furthermore, for treating highly sorptive commodities such as paddy rice, pulses, almonds, tobacco etc higher dosage is required. For best results, CELPHOS products must be applied when commodity temperature is ≥15°C, humidity inside the enclosure is >25% and grain moisture is >9% as evolution of phosphine from CELPHOS is influenced by humidity as well as temperature inside fumigation enclosure.

CELPHOS dosages must be calculated on the volume of the enclosure/space to be fumigated. However, for convenience, the dosage is calculated or expressed based on tonnage of the commodity. The fumigant must be applied including for the unoccupied space to achieve desired results.

Ideally, the CELPHOS tablets/pellets should be applied by keeping them in trays, Kraft paper, paper envelops, cloth bags so that they don’t come in direct contact with the commodities. Use of CELPHOS sachets automatically achieves this and hence it is preferred in most situations.

Convenience of application:

CELPHOS products are used for all types of fumigations viz., chamber or vault fumigation, vehicle fumigation (trucks, railcars), tarpaulin fumigation of bag-stacks, spot fumigation, empty structure fumigation (mill, food processing plants, grain elevator, warehouse), in-transit fumigation (ship hold), vertical and flat storage fumigation and rodent burrow fumigation. To start any fumigation, it is necessary to read the “label” in the first instance. This is followed by preparation of a Fumigation Management Plan (FMP) which is an organized written description of the required steps necessary to ensure a safe, effective and legal fumigation. The FMP comprises: 1. Preliminary planning and preparations, 2. Engaging trained people to handle the fumigant 3. Notification, 4. Sealing procedures, 5. Application procedures & Fumigation period, 6. Monitoring, and 7. Post-application procedures. FMPs are mandatory in some advanced countries.

It is convenient to use CELPHOS products as Tarpaulin/Cover fumigation, Empty space fumigation, Shipping container fumigation, Ship hold fumigation, Soil fumigation, Flat storage fumigation, Tobacco fumigation, Burrow fumigation and On farm fumigation,

The fumigation using CELPHOS sachets have following benefits:



  • Easy to use and apply.

  • Saves considerable time and labour

  • No direct contact with fumigant.

  • Slow release of Phosphine ensures proper distribution and penetration.

  • Aluminium Phosphide residues and its residues do not come in contact with commodity fumigated.

Customer convenience:

CELPHOS (Aluminium Phosphide) is available in 5g, 10g, 34g, 204 g packs. We are in the process of launching of 340 g pack. This helps to address all sizes of containers conveniently.



V. PRECAUTIONS:

- Never transport CELPHOS in same transport vehicle along with people, animal or food-stuffs.

- CELPHOS should be transported in a properly protected truck or trailer from the rain.

- CELPHOS should always be in a cool and well ventilated place waay from combustibles.

- CELPHOS should always be stored away from moisture, water and strong acids.

- CELPHOS should be stored preferable below 30°C always under lock and key.



- CELPHOS should not be stored in a building inhabited by humans or domestic animals. Never keep opened sachets for future use.


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