Mammalogy Lab October 20, 2009 Orders: Insectivora, Dermoptera, Chiroptera, Primates, Tubilidentata

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Mammalogy Lab October 20, 2009
Orders: Insectivora, Dermoptera, Chiroptera, Primates, Tubilidentata

* indicates you need to know to genus and species, # indicates you need to know to family

Order : Insectivora

  • generally small, primitive mammals

  • usually plantigrade

  • most species are terrestrial, but some also fossorial, semi-aquatic, and arboreal

  • usually have a long narrow snout, low braincase, and small ears and eyes

  • pelage usually consists of only one kind of hair of rather uniform length

  • dentition usually simple, tritubercular or quadritubercular

  • highly variable dental formulae

  • widely distributed: N. America, northern S. America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Madagascar

  • about 400 species

  • Insectivora families include: hedgehogs (Erinaceidae), moles (Talpidae), tenrecs (Tenrecidae), golden moles (Chrysochloridae), solenodons (Solenodontidae), and shrews (Soricidae)

- in insectivores, olfaction is primary sense, and dentition is specialized for insectivorous diet, and locomotion is of quadrupedal type
Family Erinaceidae Hedgehogs

*Erinaceus europeus Eurasian hedgehog

Family Soricidae

Scientific Name

Common Name


*Sorex cinereus

Common shrew

3rd unicuspid equal to or larger than 4th (AK spp)

*Sorex monticolus

Dusky shrew

3rd unicuspid smaller than 4th (AK spp)

Sorex hoyi

Pygmy shrew

Only three unicuspids, AK species

Sorex palustris

Water shrew

3rd and 4th unicuspids equal, bristles on feet, aquatic (AK spp)

Sorex yukonicus

Alaska tiny shrew

Smallest AK shrew, less than 3g

Blarina brevicauda

Short-tailed shrew

Lead color, short tail, no external ears, eyes barely apparent

Sorex tundrensis

Tundra shrew

Bicolored from above, 3rd unicuspid is => 4th

Sorex trowbridgei

Trowbridge’s shrew

Large shrew, gray to brown, bicolored tail

Family Talpidae Moles

*Scalopus aquaticus Eastern mole

Family Macroscelididae Elephant shrews

Elephantulus sp. Elephant shrew (skull)
Order Dermoptera Colugos or flying lemurs

  • only one family, 1 genus, 2 species

  • furred patagium stretches over almost entire body

  • pointed snout, large, protruding eyes, short broad ears

  • sharp, curved claws

  • pectinate (comblike) lower incisors

  • mainly feeds on leaves, buds, flowers and fruits

  • arboreal and primarily nocturnal, can glide using patagium

  • found in rainforests of Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Philippines

Family Cynocephalidae

*Cynocephalus volans Philippine colugo (skull)

Order Chiroptera --- Bats

  • only mammal capable of sustained flight

  • most are insectivorous, some eat fruit, nectar, pollen, flowers, fish, small vertebrates, blood (sanguinivorous vampire bat)

  • most are nocturnal, use echolocation

  • some long lived, up to 20 years

  • world-wide distribution, absent only from some small remote islands, most diverse and abundant in tropics

  • most temperate species are obligate hibernators, a few migrate

  • 850 species

  • 2 suborders: Megachiroptera – 1 family

Microchiroptera – 17 families

  • forelimb modified for flight

  • metacarpals and phalanges of digits 2-5 are elongate and joined by a membrane of skin:

propatagium: from shoulder to wrist, anterior to upper arm and forearm

dactylpatagia: between digits

plagiopatagium: from 5th digit to side of body and hind leg

uropatagium: between hind legs, usually incorporates tail

  • 1st manual digit is clawed, 2nd clawed in Megachiroptera only, 3-4-5 never clawed

  • pedal digits are clawed

  • calcar (cartilaginous spur on inner side of ankle) supports uropatagium in some species

  • well developed clavicle

  • keeled sternum

Suborder Megachiroptera

#Family Pteropodidae Old World fruit bats

Acerodon jubatus Flying fox
Suborder Microchiroptera

#Family Vespertilionidae Common Bats

*Myotis lucifugus Little brown bat

*Eptesicus fuscus Big brown bat

Lasiurus borealis Red bat

Pipistrellus Subflavus Eastern Pipistrelle
#Family Desmodontidae Vampire Bats

Desmodus rotundus Vampire bat
Family Phyllostomidae New World leaf-nosed bats

Sturnira lilium Yellow shouldered bat

Family Molossidae Free tailed bats

Tadarida brasiliensis Mexican free tailed bat

Order Tubilidentata -- Aardvarks

  • digits partially syndactylous

  • ever-growing cheekteeth

  • elongated snout

  • cheekteeth homodont, columnar, vertical tubes of dentine in a pulp matrix, no enamel present

  • only one genus, one species

  • found in sub-Saharan Africa

#Family Orycteropodidae Aardvark

Orycteropus afer aardvark

Order Primates

  • one of the oldest orders of mammals (Cretaceous)

  • most are arboreal species, but some are terrestrial

  • most successful in tropics and subtropics

  • plantigrade

  • soles of feet naked with enlarged pads

  • nail almost always present on hallux (big toe), usually also on other digits

  • pollex (thumb) and/or hallux opposable, used for grasping

  • braincase relatively large

  • radius and ulna, tibia and fibula separate

  • well developed clavicle

  • 13 families, 230 + species

Suborder Strepsirhini

#Family Lemuridae Lemurs

Family Cheirogaleidae Dwarf, mouse lemurs

Family Megaladapidae Sportive lemurs

Family Indridae Indrid lemurs

Family Daubentoniidae Aye-Aye

Family Loridae Lorises, potto, angwantibos

Family Galagonidae Galagos or bushbabies

Suborder Haplorhini

Family Tarsiidae Tarsiers

#Family Callithrichidae Marmosets, tamarins

Family Cebidae New World monkeys

Family Cercopithecidae Old World monkeys

Family Hylobatidae Gibbons

#Family Hominidae Gorilla, chimpanzees, orangutan, humans

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