Mammal fauna in forest ecosystems of chisinau city

Дата канвертавання18.04.2016
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Institute of Zoology, Academy of Sciences of Moldova,

Reviewer: Nistreanu V., dr., ass.professor
Key-words: forest ecosystems, mammals, Chisinau city.

In the last decades the natural ecosystems, especially forest ones, located near cities are subjected to rather high anthropogenic pressure. The consequences of urbanization and of recreational zone development are usually negative for animal communities. In such conditions the adaptation of animal species, including mammals, to new environment occurs and this process is developing now. The wild mammal fauna is indispensable component of urban ecosystems. At the same time mammal species can serve as ecological indicators of ecosystem stability and of the urban cenoses status. There are only few studies concerning urban fauna in the past century [3, 4]. In the last years the study of Chisinau mammal fauna was more intense, especially the small mammal species [1,2,5,6].

The studies were accomplished during spring-autumn period of 2012 in forest ecosystems of Chişinău city and its surroundings. The forests ecosystems are represented by city parks, Botanical garden, forest plantations and remains of natural forests around the city (Durleşti, Dănceni, Băcioi, Suruceni, Sociteni, Vadul-lui-Voda). The used methods were the direct observations during several days each month (March-October), collecting and determination of trophic remains, catching with traps (small mammals).

The mammal fauna of Chisinau city and its surroundings is rather rich, being registered 35 mammals species. There were recorded 6 insectivore species (Erinaceus concolor, Talpa europaea, Sorex araneus, S. minutus, Crocidura leucodon and C. suaveolens), 12 rodent species (Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Sciurus vulgaris, Apodemus sylvaticus, A. uralensis, A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, Mus musculus, Arvicola terrestris, Microtus rossiaemeridionalis, Pitymys subterraneus and Clethrionomys glareolus), 1 lagomorph species (Lepus europaeus), 5 carnivorous species (Vulpes vulpes, Meles meles, Mustela nivalis, Mustela putorius, Martes foina), 9 bat species (Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis mystacinus, M. daubentonii, Nyctalus noctula, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus, Eptesicus serotinus, Plecotus auritus, P. austriacus) and 2 artiodactyl species (Capreolus capreolus and Sus scrofa). The semi-aquatic water vole was recorded in or near various water basins (lakes, ponds, rivers, swamp sectors) within forest biotopes from city surroundings and in city parks. The majority of the species have rather well adapted to anthropic disturbances and recreational activity of people, while other species became very rare in surroundings of the city, such as pigmy shrew, brown long-eared bat, badger, pine marten, roe deer.

After the ecological analysis of mammal groups, it was emphasized that the species diversity (Shannon index) is rather low, ranging from 0.17 to 0.78, the highest being recorded in the woods surrounding Chisinau city and the lowest – in urban parks. The forest ecosystems are constatly inhabited by small rodents, insectivores, bats and some carnivorous with large limits of ecological valence (fox, stone marten, polecat etc.).

The studies were performed within the project for young researchers 12.819.18.06A “Diversity, importance and adaptive peculiarities of terrestrial vertebrate fauna (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians) in recreational and urban ecosystems”, financed by Academy of Sciences of Moldova.

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