Luca Zavagno, Ph. D. Spring Semester 2015/6 Department of History T. H

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Bilkent University Luca Zavagno, Ph.D.

Spring Semester 2015/6 Department of History

T.H. : Tuesday 14.40-16.40/ Friday 12.40-14.40

e-mail : luca.zavagno@bı

Web-site :

Office Hours: Mon. 09.40-10.30/ 15:40-16.30 Tu. 13.40-15.30

Byzantine History I (324-1025 C.E.)

(HIST 413)

Handbook: Gregory, T., A History of Byzantium (Chichester, 2010)

Week 1 (29 January)

Introduction. How to build a proper bibliography (the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium). How to read a primary document. Sailing to Byzantium.
Readings: Harrin J., Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire (London, 2007), 3-17. or Whittow, M., The Making of Orthodox Byzantium 600-1025 (Basingstoke-New York 1996), 1-14. (handouts)
Also have a look at the following internet site:
Topics for Discussion: Where is Byzantium? Who were the Byzantines? How did the Byzantines saw themselves? Which are the main sources for the study of Byzantine history?

Week 2 (2-5 February)

Geography of the Byzantine world. The nature of ancient empires

Role of Byzantium in world history: why study a dead civilization anyway?
Readings: A good atlas of the climate and topography of the region;

Braudel, F., The Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II (Berkley, 1995), Ch. I; Mango, C., Studies on Constantinople (Aldershot, 1993), I, 117-133.

Topics for discussion: How do physical setting and climate affect the development of a

civilization? Has that changed between pre-industrial and modern times? Did empires in pre-industrial times share common structures, pre-conditions for existence, forms of economy, religion and culture? Was there a Byzantium before Constantinople? Why was Byzantium so relevant? What were the main features of Pre-Constantine Constantinople? What those of Post-Constantine Constantinople? Was the mid-fifth century a turning point in Constantinople’s history?

Week 3 (9-12 February)

Constantine and the foundation of Constantinople; World Chronicles: the Paschal Chronicle and the foundation of Constantinople; the fall of the Roman Empire and the beginning of the Byzantine era (from Constans I to Justin)
P.Sarris, ‘The Eastern Roman Empire from Constantine to Heraclius’, in Mango, C.A. (ed.), The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002), 19-42.

  • Eusebius, Life of Constantine, chapters XLVIII-LIV:

  • Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, ‘On the founding of Constantinople’:

  • Paschal Chronicle:

[Constantine arrived in the town of] Byzantium. He renewed the first wall of the city of Byzas, and after making considerable extensions also to the same wall he joined them to the ancient wall of the city and named it Constantinople; he also completed the Hippodrome, adorning it with works in bronze and with every excellence, and made in it a box for imperial viewing in likeness of the one which is in Rome. And he made a great Palace near the same Hippodrome, and the ascent from the Palace to the box in the Hippodrome by way of the Kochlias, as it is called. And he also built a Forum which was large and exceedingly fine; and he set in the middle a great porphyry column of Theban stone, worthy of admiration, and he set on top of the same column a great statue of himself with rays of light on his head, a work in bronze which he had brought from Phrygia. The same emperor Constantine secretly took away from Rome the Palladium, as it is called, and placed it in the Forum built by him, beneath the column of his monument, as certain of the Byzantines say who have heard it by tradition. And after making bloodless sacrifice, he named the Tyche of the city renewed by him Anthusa.

The same emperor also built two fine porticoes from the entrance of the Palace as far as the Forum, adorned with statues and marbles, and he named the place of the porticoes Regia. Nearby he also built a basilica with an apse, and set outside great columns and statues; this he named the Senate, and he named the place Augustaeum because he had also set up opposite his own a monument of his mother, lady Helena Augusta, on a porphyry column….

In year 301 from the Ascension to heaven of the Lord and year 25 of his reign [AD 330], Constantine the most pious, father of Constantine II Augustus and of Constantius and Constans Caesars, after building a very great, illustrious, and blessed city, and honouring it with a Senate, named it Constantinople, on day five before the Ides of March [11 May], on the second day of the week, in the third indiction, and he proclaimed that the city, formerly names Byzantium, be called second Rome. He was first to celebrate a chariot-racing contest, wearing for the first time a diadem of pearls and other precious stones. And he made a great festival, and commanded by his sacred decree that the anniversary of his city be clelbrated on the same day, and that on the 11th of the same month Artemisius [May] the public bath Zeuxippon be opened, which was near the Hippodrome and the Regia of the Palace. He made for himself another gilded monument of wood, bearing in its right hand a Tyche of the same city, itself also gilded, and commanded that on the same day of the anniversary chariot races, the same monument of wood should enter, escorted by the troops in mantles and slippers, all holding white candles; the carriage should proceed around the further turning post and come to the arena opposite the imperial box; and the emperor of the day should rise and do obeisance to the monument of the same emperor Constantine and this Tyche of the city….

There are from the foundation of Rome until Constantinople was inaugurated 1080 years.
From: Michael Whitby and Mary Whitby, trans., Chronicon Paschale 284-628 AD, Translated texts for historians 7 (Liverpool, 1989), 15-19.

  • Find the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (1991) and use it to answer these questions:

  • Who was Eusebius?

    1. When did he write his Life of Constantine?

  • Who was Sozomen?

    1. When did he write his Ecclesiastical History?

  • What is a World or Universal Chronicle?

  • What is the Paschal Chronicle (also called the Chronicon Paschale)?

    1. Who wrote it?

    2. When does it date?

    3. Why is it called the Paschal Chronicle?

    4. When does it start and when does it end?

  • When, according to the Paschal Chronicle, did the world begin? Why is this important?

  • What is an indiction?

  • What is a Tyche?

Topics for Discussion:

Read the Paschal Chronicle (selection); Eusebius’s Life of Constantine (selection); Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History (selection), and be prepared to discuss the following:

  • How are these three accounts similar? How can one account for these similarities?

  • How are these accounts different? How can one account for this?

  • What is a Palladium? What is the significance of Constantine’s transfer of Rome’s Palladium to Constantinople?

  • What is the relationship between Constantine’s Constantinople and Rome? Why is this important?

  • What does the Roman god Helios represent? Why was Helios important to Constantine?

  • According to these accounts, what was Constantine’s main aim in establishing Constantinople?

  • What did Constantine have built in Constantinople? What type of building is conspicuous by its absence?

  • Was Constantinople a ‘Christian’ capital?

Suggestions for further reading:

Week 4 (16-19 February)

Justinian’s era; the dream of the re-conquest; Justinian’s buildings; the Sixth Century: end or beginning?

  • P.Sarris, ‘The Eastern Roman Empire from Constantine to Heraclius’, in Mango, C.A. (ed.), The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002), 42-51.

  • Prokopios on Justinian’s church of Hagia Sophia:

  • Paul the Silentiary on Justinian’s church of Hagia Sophia:


  • Go to the library, search and find a book on Byzantine architecture that includes a plan of Justinian’s church of Hagia Sophia: photocopy the plan (or scan it and print it) and a paragraph of the text describing it and bring both to seminar along with a full bibliographical reference to the book you found it in.

  • Get on the web and find a photograph of the interior of Justinian’s church of Hagia Sophia: download and print it, and bring it to seminar along with a full bibliographical web reference to the site you found it in.

Topics for discussion:

Be prepared to discuss the following:

    • What is ekphrasis? (The ODB or the articles by James and Webb

    • Who were Prokopios and Paul the Silentiary? Who was their main audience?

    • What do Prokopios and Paul focus on in their discussions of Hagia Sophia? Do they ‘describe’ what you can see in your plan and interior view of the church? Why or why not?

    • How are the two discussions similar? How are they different? Why?

Suggestions for further reading:

  • Mark, R., Hagia Sophia from the age of Justinian to the present (Cambridge, 1992).

  • R Macrides and P Magdalino, ‘The architecture of ekphrasis: construction and context of Paul the Silentiary’s ekphrasis of Hagia Sophia’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 12 (1988), 47-82.

  • R Mainstone, Hagia Sophia: architecture, structure, and liturgy of Justinian's Great Church (London, 1988).


Week 5 (23-26 February)

Church and Society in Byzantium; Monks and Priests; the Church and the Emperor; Hagiography: the Life of Maria, a transvestite saint


  • C.Mango, ‘New Religion, Old Culture’, in Mango, C.A. (ed.), The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002), 19-27.

  • Ivanov, S. A., Holy fools in Byzantium and beyond (Oxford-New York, 2006), 43-8.

  • The Life of Maria/Marinos: http:/


  • Prepare a bibliography (use the Library if the Congress’ internet site - - and the EMU’ library internet site to find the books you want to include in it), using correct bibliographical format, of at least 10 books, articles and web sites (include at least one of each) on one of the following topics:

    • Byzantine saints (4th-9th century)

    • Byzantine women (4th-9th century)

    • Byzantine monasticism (4th-9th century)

    • Byzantine church architecture (4th-9th century)

    • Constantine’s Constantinople

    • Justinian’s Constantinople

Topics for Discussion:

Be prepared to discuss the following:

    • What is hagiography?

    • To what extent does the life of Mary/Marinos echo the life of Christ?

    • What does the Life text tell us about ‘family values’ in Byzantium?

    • What assumptions about the status of women does the text make?

    • What is the role of tears in the Life?

    • What is the role of food?

    • What signs point to Mary’s/Marinos’s holiness before her death?

    • What signs prove Mary’s/Marinos’s holiness after her death?

    • Are secondary characters named in the Life? Why or why not?

    • Why does Mary/Marinos go out into the world?

    • How is Mary/Marinos attacked? Why are these two forms of attack chosen by the author of the Life?

Suggestions for further reading:

  • Geanakoplos, D.J, Byzantium :church, society, and civilization seen through contemporary (Chicago,1984)

  • Walter, C., Art and ritual of the Byzantine Church (London,1982)


Week 6 (1-4 March)

Justinian and Theodora; Prokopios and his works; The end of antiquity (Historiography of Late Antiquity).
P.Sarris, ‘The Eastern Roman Empire from Constantine to Heraclius’, in Mango, C.A. (ed.), The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002), 51-59.

  • Selections from Prokopios, Secret History:

Different groups will read different sections of the text: see below.


Web evaluation

  • Find at least three sites pertaining to Justinian and Theodora on the web and write a short (300 words) evaluation of them. A useful site to help you with this is

Questions for general discussion:

  • How does Prokopios develop the relationship between Justinian and Theodora? Do you see any patterns here?

  • How does Prokopios picture the relationship between men and women? What attitudes does he develop toward women? …toward men?

Group 1: read Sections 8-10


  • What is the point of comparing Justinian with Domition? Why bring in Domition’s wife?

  • What is Prokopios’s definition of the perfect wife?

  • What words does Prokopios use to describe Justinian?

  • What words does Prokopios use to describe Theodora?

  • How does Prokopios describe the relationship between Justinian and Theodora?

Group 2: read Sections 11-13


  • What horrible things does Prokopios say Justinian has done? What about Justinian and Theodora? Theodora alone?

  • According to Prokopios, what happened during the Nika rebellion?

  • How does Prokopios ‘demonise’ Justinian and Theodora?

Group 3: read Sections 15-16


  • How does Prokopios describe Theodora?

  • When Prokopios compares Theodora and Justinian, what is the point of the comparison?

  • According to Prokopios, who is more powerful – Justinian or Theodora?

Suggestions for further reading (if some of these are in the library, ask me for a copy):

Brubaker, L, ‘Gender and society’, in M Maas, ed., The age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2005).

Brubaker, L, ‘Sex, lies and textuality:  the Secret History of Prokopios and the rhetoric of gender in sixth-century Byzantium’ in L Brubaker and J Smith, Gender in Society, 300-900 (Cambridge, 2004), 83-101.

Cameron A, Procopius and the sixth century (Berkeley, 1985), especially chapter 5 (‘Procopius and Theodora’).

Week 7 (8-11 March)
The Struggle for Survival; Life in Cities: continuity or discontinuity; Representations: images as historical documents/ Essay feedback tutorial

  • Foss, C., ‘Life in City and Country’, in Mango, C., The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002), 71-88.

  • Treadgold, W., ‘The Struggle for Survival’, in Mango, C., The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002), 129-150.

Topics for Discussion: How much did the repeated invasions of the seventh century affect the basic population and economy of the empire? What did the late ancient city look like? How did it differ from the classical city? Did it disappear? How have archaeologists described the decline of cities? What arguments are there over the fate of cities in the early middle ages? How did Byzantine cities compare with western cities in that period? What is a kommerkiarios? Who is a strategos? How did Byzantine society develop in the late 7th and early 8th century?

Suggestions for further reading: (unfortunately, at present non of these are in the library, ask me for a copy):

  • R Cormack, Writing in gold: Byzantine society and its icons (Oxford, 1985).

  • E D Maguire, et al., Art and holy powers in the early Christian house (Urbana, 1989).

  • L Safran, ed., Heaven on Earth. Art and the church in Byzantium (University Park, 1998).


Week 8 (15-18 March)


Week 9 (22-25 March)

Mid-Term Essays’ correction/

The Slavs; The Persian war; Constantinople Sieged; Heraclius’s triumphs and defeat; Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquest; Byzantium viewed by the Arabs.
Hoyland, R., ‘The Rise of Islam’, in Mango, C., The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002), 121-29.

El Cheikh N.M., Byzantium viewed by the Arabs (Cambridge, Mass., 2004), 21-34.

Kaegi, W., Byzantium and the early Islamic conquest ( Cambrdge, Mass., 1992), 26-46.

Sarris, P.,‘The Eastern Roman Empire from Constantine to Heraclius’, in Mango, C.A. (ed.), The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002), 51-59.

Topic for discussion:

Who were the Slavs? What was their relationship with the Avars? Why Slavs and Avars succeed in taking over many areas from Imperial hands? What differences allowed the Slavs to eventually become part of the “Byzantine Commonwealth”? How much did the repeated invasions of the seventh century affect the basic population and economy of the empire? Why was Islam so successful in taking over Byzantine territory? How did the Qur’an depict the Byzantines? What was the impact of the Islamic invasion upon the populations of the Near East? How Byzantium managed to survive?

Week 10 (29 March- 1 April)

Greek Fire; the military reorganization: Themes and Themata; Miracle stories: relics, saints and the Miracles of St Artemios


  • Miracles of St Artemios (7th century), miracles 10, 11, 12, 21: handouts

  • Gregory of Nyssa (4th century), on the relics of St Theodore:

Those who behold them embrace them as though the very body were living and flowering, and they bring all the senses – eyes, mouth, ears – into play; then they shed tears for his piety and suffering and they address to the martyr their prayers of intercession as though he were present and whole”.


  • Haldon. J., The Palgrave Atlas of Byzantine History (New York, 2010), pp. 68-73.


  • Be prepared to discuss the following:

    • What is Greek Fire?

    • Do you think Greek fire contribute to the survival of the Empire?

    • What does the word Theme mean? What are its origins?

    • What are the main differences between Themes and Themata?

    • What is a relic?

    • What is intercession?

    • Why were the bodies of saints, and their tombs, special?

    • Why were miracles a sign of sanctity?

    • How do saints appear to ordinary people?

    • How do saints heal?

    • How important is physical contact in people’s relationship with saints?

    • What can we learn about daily life in Byzantium from miracle stories?

Suggestions for further reading:

  • P Brown, The cult of the saints. Its rise and function in Latin Christianity (Chicago, 1981).


Week 11 (5-8 April)

The Medieval Empire; “Constantinople Medièvale”; Church Canons: the Council in Trullo


  • Magdalino, P., ‘The Medieval Empire’, in Mango, C., The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002), 169-180.

  • Magdalino, P., ‘Medieval Constantinople: Built Environment and Urban Development, in A.Laiou (ed.), The Economic History of Byzantium (Dumbarton Oaks, 2002),

  • The Council in Trullo, canons 3-6, 24, 37, 54, 62, 65, 71, 73, 74, 75, 82, 83, 87, 91, 92, 95, 96, 97: http:/ or (better edition) (the space between P6974 and 1481526 has an underscore = P6974_1281526).

Be prepared to discuss the following:

How did Constantinople develop in the 9th and 10th century? What were the main causes of this change? Were there differences between the Byzantine Empire and the Western Kingdoms?

    • What is an ecumenical council?

    • What is a ‘canon’?

    • Why was this Council convened? Where? When?

    • Why is it called the Council in Trullo?

    • Why is it sometimes called the Quinisext Council?

    • Why was this Council and its canons not recognised as ecumenical by the west?

    • What range of issues is represented by the canons?

    • What conclusions do you draw from a comparison of the new canons (canons 5, 65, 71, 73, 74, 82, 96) and the canons repeated from earlier councils (all the rest)?

Suggestions for further reading (not in the library; ask me for a copy):

  • J Herrin, ‘Femina byzantina: the Council of Trullo on women’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 46 (1991), 97-105.

  • G Nedungatt and M Featherstone, eds, The council in Trullo revisited, Kanonika 6 (Rome, 1995).


Week 12 (12-15 April)

Iconoclasm: iconoclasts (destroyers of images) versus iconophiles (lovers of images)
There is no good overview of Iconoclasm (which means, literally, the destruction of images) currently available. The following are the critical points:

  • Around the year 680, holy portraits took on the attributes of relics: i.e. the Byzantines began to believe that prayers to images of Christ, the Virgin or a saint were channelled directly to Christ, the Virgin or the saint depicted.

  • In the 690s, the church responded to the new importance of images (icons) with the first canons legislating the role of art in the Orthodox church. You read these last week.

  • In the 720s, opposition to this new role of icons becomes evident, though nothing official was done.

  • In 754, the emperor Constantine V called a church council and, for the first time, officially denounced images. The Horos (or definition) of that council is one of your readings.

  • In 787, the emperor Constantine VI, his mother, the regent Eirene, and the patriarch Tarasios held the seventh ecumenical council and condemned iconoclasm. This is your second reading.

  • In 815, iconoclasm was reintroduced, and continued until the death of the emperor Theophilos. His young son, Michael III, and his widow, the regent Theodora, worked with the patriarch Nikephoros and reinstated the veneration of images in 843, the so-called Triumph of Orthodoxy.

The main arguments:

  • Iconoclasts believed that sacred portraits went against the second commandment (‘Thou shalt not create graven images’) and that portraits of Christ confused his human and diving natures and were therefore heretical.

  • Iconophiles believed that the coming of Christ had overturned the laws of the Old Testament, so that the second commandment was no longer valid (they pointed out that God had ordered images on other occasions), and that Christ’s incarnation (his taking on of human form) meant that he could be seen by humans, and therefore he could be represented – to say that he couldn’t be shown was to deny the incarnation and was therefore heretical.

  • I.e. both sides accused each other of heresy.


  • Karlyn-Hayter, P., ‘Iconoclasm’, in Mango, C., The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002), 169-180.

  • The council of 754: http:/

  • The council of 787: http:/


Group presentations: the iconoclasts versus the iconophiles.

Topics for discussion: What were icons, and why did they become the basis for a major crisis? Was iconoclasm related to developments in Islam or the west? What were the social bases of iconoclasm? How can we figure out the Iconoclast side of the story?

Suggestions for further reading:
Maguire, H., The icons of their bodies: saints and their images in Byzantium
(Princeton, 1996)

John of Damascus, On the Holy Icons: http:/; extracts from the same at http:/

Week 13 (19-22 April)

Byzantine missions; The Macedonian Era: Imperial Recovery

  • Mango, C.,’The Revival of Learning’, in Mango, C. (ed.), The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002), 214-229.

  • Shepard, J., ‘Spreading the Word: Byzantine Missions’, in Mango, C.A. (ed.), The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002), 230-247.

  • McCormick, M., Origins of the European Economy (Cambridge, 2001),181-197 (an useful account of Cyril and Methodius’ Missions)- [Handout]

Be prepared to discuss the following:

What was the role of the first Byzantine missionaries? Who they were and where did they head to? What was their relationship with the Pope? How did the first mission in Moravia end up? What is a “renaissance”? Was there one in Byzantium in the 9-10th centuries? How did Byzantine recovery compare with Justinian’s empire? In which terms can we define the cultural revival in the Macedonian period? Who were the main characters of this revival?

Week 14 (26-29 April)

Bulgars, Russians, Normans and other disasters: Basil II and Byzantium on the eve of the Crusades

  • Chrysobulls of Romanus I and Law of Nicephoros Phokas (From Geanakopoulos, D., Byzantium. Church, Society and Civilizations seen through contemporary eyes (Chicago, 1984), pp, 238-4.

  • Basil II protects peasant Properties 996 (From Geanakopoulos, D., Byzantium. Church, Society and Civilizations seen through contemporary eyes (Chicago, 1984), pp, 245-7.

  • Stephenson, P., The Legend of Basil the Bulgarslayer (Cambridge 2003), pp. 81-96.

Be prepared to discuss the following:

How important was the success of land reform for the army and society?  What were the aims of the legislation passed by emperors from Romanus I (920-944) to Basil II (976-1025)? Basil II and the campaigns against the Bulgars: fiction or reality?

Week 15 (3 May)

Concluding Remarks



You will be given one preliminary exam (class project) during the semester (excluding the mid term and the final). The Mid Term consists of a questionnaire (multiple choice) integrated by a short essay (200 words); it will include all the topics (from the very first week on) I teach in class and generous reference to weekly readings.
The Final exam consists of a long essay to be developed as an answer to one out of five different questions which students will be provided to in advance. Dates for exams will be provided at least two weeks in advance.

Weekly assignments and questions: readings should be completed BEFORE attending the lectures each week. Each student is expected to keep up with the readings in the assigned text. Lectures in class will supplement rather than repeat the material covered in the textbook.  

Course Organization:
Due to the schedule of this course, I will dedicate Tuesday lectures to a detailed survey of the topic of the week. Ideally this should allow you to gain more information and implement the knowledge acquired through the readings and the assessments. Friday’s lesson will be entirely dedicated both to class discussion (based on the analysis of primary sources when available), and review of the assignment of the week. If you come to class unprepared, I reserve the right to ask you to go and complete your assignments and come back for the next class. You will be responsible for the material covered in that particular class.
Books and readings

You will be provided with the weekly-assessed readings either as hand-out or library book or as downloadable article from my website. Photocopy it or do as many copies as you want and pass them around.

Suggestions for further reading are all available at the Main Library or can be provided by your instructor.

Daily Handouts

For most lectures, I will distribute brief review sheets. These contain a list of items (events, ideas, developments, persons, places, etc.) that will be covered that day

Method of Evaluation

Attendance is not compulsory but, it goes without saying that a ‘perfect’ attendance (no-less than 90%) record (no unexcused absences at all) earns you 5% extra credit.

-Participation 10%
Participation and discussion is urged during each class session. Students are expected to have read the assignment from the text and are usually able to answer questions and give personal opinions.
-Class Project 30%

The project will take form of a paper on a topic proposed by the student and approved by the instructor. Undergraduate papers should be between 4 and 8 pages in length and do not need bibliography or footnotes; graduate student papers should be 15-20 pages in length and should include bibliography and footnotes.

The paper may be presented in class and become the basis for further discussion.
Class projects are due at class time on April 1. Late projects will be subject to a considerable reduction in grade. To maximize your success, consult with the instructor at an early date and make sure the project is a viable one. Projects will be graded on the basis of a) critical thinking, b) accuracy, c) insight, and d) care and effectiveness of preparation.

-Mid Term Exam 25%

(Quiz and Short Essay-Type Questions)

-Final Exam 35%

(Long Essay-Type Questions)

Course Policies:
Learning/Teaching Method
Class lectures and Seminar type

Missed & Late Assignments:
A test or an essay may be rescheduled only in the event of a serious and unavoidable cause, i.e. a documented medical or family emergency.
Academic Honesty
Cheating and/or plagiarism could completely ruin your college career. Do not do it. If you are found guilty of cheating or plagiarism during the course, your grade for whatever assignment involved will be the lowest. You will be reported to the appropriate authorities and possibly expelled from the University.

Disruptive Behaviour
I expect mature and respectful behaviour from my students. No cell phones, no pagers, no personal stereo systems, no wireless web-surfing or emailing allowed during class time. Talking while I am lecturing, or while your fellow students are speaking, is unacceptable. Reading materials (i.e. newspapers) other than those related to the class is unacceptable. No tobacco—chewing or smoking. If you do not comply with these rules you will be asked to leave the classroom and you will be responsible for the subject matter you’ve missed.

Office Hours:

I will be available for questions immediately after class, by appointment, by telephone, by e-mail and – especially- during my office hours.

Office Hours:

Monday 09:40-10:30/15:40-16.30

Tuesday 13.40-15.30
You are free to knock on my door whenever you need!!!!


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