Lipids and Glucose Reduction

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Lipids and Glucose Reduction

Ghosal, S., unpublished work

A human clinical study was performed involving subjects with Type II hyperlipidemia. Test subjects in group A were given a Capros® capsule (250 mg) twice per day. Subjects in group B were given two 250 mg Capros® capsule (500 mg total) twice per day for a period of six weeks.

The study measured total serum cholesterol (TC), serum low density lipoproteincholesterol (LDLC), serum high density lipoproteincholesterol (HDLC) and serum triglyceride (TG). The results clearly showed that Capros® assisted in modest reduction of TC and LDLC with no dose-dependant effects. The study also noted a significant reduction in fasting glucose levels and that the dosage was well tolerated by all subjects. The cholesterol-lowering effects of Emblica extracts have also been demonstrated in numerous animal trials.

Rao, T.P. et al. "Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extracts reduce oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats"
J Med Food 8 (3): 362-8, 2005
In an animal study, Phyllanthus emblica extracts showed strong free radical scavenging activity. The extract also showed strong inhibition of the production of advanced glycosylated end products. The oral administration of Phyllanthus emblica extracts to diabetic rats slightly improved weight gain and alleviated various oxidative stress indices of the serum of the diabetic rats significantly. The elevated serum levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, a glycosylated protein, an indicator of oxidative stress, were significantly dose-dependently reduced in the diabetic rats that were fed the Phyllanthus emblica extract. Similarly, the serum level of creatinine, another oxidative stress parameter, was also reduced. Furthermore, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels were significantly reduced with Phyllanthus emblica extract, indicating a reduction in lipid peroxidation. In addition, the decreased albumin levels in diabetic rats were significantly improved with Phyllanthus emblica extract. With this, the serum adiponectin levels also improved significantly. These results form the scientific basis supporting the efficacy of Phyllanthus emblica extract for relieving oxidative stress and improving glucose metabolism in diabetes.

Prevention of Platelet Aggregation

Ghosal, S., "Method of inhibiting blood platelet aggregation"

US 6,290,996
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) can result in lipid peroxidation of membranes. This generates fragments that bind to platelet aggregation factor receptors (PAFs) resulting in platelet aggregation. Capros®, because of its outstanding antioxidant properties, was tested to determine how effective it is in preventing platelet aggregation.

In an in-vitro study, blood platelet aggregation was induced using either ADP or Adrenalin. A series of inhibition samples containing either Capros® or other materials were added to the pre-aggregated blood samples or, in some cases, platelet rich plasma.

The result demonstrated that even at a lower dose than vitamin C or pine bark extract, Capros® by itself, or in combination with vitamin C, inhibited the aggregation of blood platelets significantly more than either vitamin C or pine bark extract samples alone.

Al-Rehaily, A.J. et al. "Gastroprotective effects of Amla' Emblica officinalis on in-vivo test models in rats"

Phytomedicine, 9(6): 515-522, 2002
An extract of Phyllanthus emblica was examined for its anti-secretory and anti-ulcer activities. In rat models, including pylorus ligation Shay rats, indomethacin, hypothermic restraint stress-induced gastric ulcer and necrotizing agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl) were employed. Oral administration of Phyllanthus emblica extract at doses 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited the development of gastric lesions in all test models. It also caused significant decrease of the pyloric-ligation induced basal gastric secretion, titratable acidity, and gastric mucosal injury. In addition, Phyllanthus emblica offered protection against ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus and reduction in nonprotein sulfhydryl concentration. Histopathological analyses are in good agreement with pharmacological and biochemical findings. The results indicate that Phyllanthus emblica extract possesses anti-secretory, anti-ulcer, and cytoprotective properties.

Sairam, K. et al. "Antiulcerogenic effect of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis: an experimental study"

J Ethnopharmacol, 82 (1): 1-9, 2002
The ulcer protective potential of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (EOE) was assessed in different acute gastric ulcer models in rats induced by aspirin, ethanol, cold restraint stress and pyloric ligation and healing effect in chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid in rats. EOE, 10-50 mg/kg administered orally, twice daily for 5 days showed dose-dependent ulcer protective effects in all the above acute ulcer models (36.0-98.3% protection, P < 0.2 to P < 0.001) and significant ulcer healing effect in dose of 20 mg/kg after 5 (control ulcer index: 20.2+/-2.3 mm(2)/rat, % healing 59.6%, P < 0.001) and 10 (control UI: 11.0+/-1.7, % healing 65.5%, P < 0.01) days treatment. Further study on gastric mucosal factors showed that it significantly decreased the offensive factors like acid (acid output-control 118.7+/-12.1 microEq/4 h, EOE% decrease 65.9%, P < 0.01) and pepsin (peptic output-control 738.8 micromol/4 h, EOE% decrease 46.2%, P < 0.001) and increased the defensive factors like mucin secretion (TC:P ratio-control 1.21+/-0.15, EOE% increase 95.0%, P < 0.01), cellular mucus (TC:P ratio-control 1.16+/-0.13, EOE% increase 53.4%, P < 0.05) and life span of mucosal cells (DNA content of gastric juice-control 77.3+/-8.7 microg/m per 100 g body weight, EOE% decrease 42.1%, P < 0.05). EOE showed significant antioxidant effect in stressed animals (control UI 35.8+/-2.5, antioxidant status: LPO 0.58+/-0.03 nmol MDA/mg protein, SOD and CAT 227.8+/-6.3 and 18.4+/-1.2 U/mg protein respectively; EOE% decrease in UI 88.2%, mucosal LPO 69.0%, SOD 53.1% and increase in mucosal CAT 59.8%, P < 0.001 respectively) and did not have any effect on cell proliferation in terms of DNA microg/mg protein or glandular weight. The results showed that EOE had significant ulcer protective and healing effects and this might be due to its effects both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors.
Improving Liver Function

Tasduq, S.A. et al. "Reversal of fibrogenic events in liver by Emblica officinalis (fruit), an Indian natural drug"

Biol Pharm Bull, 28(7): 1304-1306, 2005
An extract of Phyllanthus emblica fruit reduced the severity of hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride CCl4) and thioacetamide (TAA). Improved liver function was observed by measuring the levels of aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin in serum. Hepatic parameters monitored were the levels of glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and hydroxyproline and the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Na+,K+-ATPase, and cytochrome P450 (CYP 450 2E1) (aniline hydroxylation). The results suggested that the Phyllanthus emblica extract reversed the profibrogenic events. This can be rationalized due to the product's powerful antioxidant properties.

Sultana, S. et al. "Emblica officinalis reverses thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress and early promotional events of primary hepatocarcinogenesis" J Pharm Pharmacol, 56(12): 1573-1579, 2004.

In a study conducted on animals, it was found that Phyllanthus emblica fruit inhibits thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress and hyper-proliferation in rat liver. The administration of a single necrotic dose of thioacetamide(6.6 mM kg(-1)) resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels compared to saline-treated control values. Thioacetamide caused hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion and a concomitant increase in malanodialdehyde (MDA) content. It also resulted in an increase (P < 0.001) in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (P < 0.001). Hepatic ornithine decarboxylase activity and thymidine incorporation in DNA were increased by thioacetamide administration. Prophylactic treatment with Phyllanthus emblica for seven consecutive days before thioacetamide administration inhibited SGOT, SGPT and GGT release in serum compared with treated control values[ I don't know what is being said]. It also modulated the hepatic GSH content and MDA formation. The plant extract caused a marked reduction in levels of GSH content and simultaneous inhibition of MDA formation. Phyllanthus emblica also caused a reduction in the activity of GST, GR and G6PD. GPx activity was increased after treatment with the plant extract at doses of 100 mg kg (-1) and 200 mg kg (-1). Prophylactic treatment with the plant caused a significant down-regulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity (P < 0.001) and profound inhibition in the rate of DNA synthesis (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the acute effects of thioacetamide in rat liver can be prevented by pre-treatment with Phyllanthus emblica extract.

Banu, S.M. et al. "Protective effect of Emblica officinalis ethanolic extract against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice"

Hum Exp Toxicol, 23(11): 527-31, 2004.
In a study conducted on animals, oral administration of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract in various concentrations (100, 250, 500 mg/kg b.wt) for seven consecutive days prior to a single intraperitoneal injection of rodent carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) decreased the frequency of bone marrow micronuclei induced in Swiss albino mice. Significant increases in liver antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and detoxifying enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST), were found in the fruit extract treated group. The extract also reduced the hepatic levels of the activating enzymes cytochrome (Cyt) P450 and Cyt b5. These increased in the carcinogen treated group, which emphasizes its protective effect against the carcinogen. There was a dose-dependent effect of the extract against the genotoxin with the maximum effect at 500 mg/kg body weight. The protection afforded by Phyllanthus emblica may be associated with its antioxidant capacity and modulatory effect on hepatic activation and detoxifying enzymes.

Singh, I. et al. "Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Emblica officinalis"

Phytother Res, 19(5): 444-6, 2005.
An extract of Phyllanthus emblica , administered orally at different doses before irradiation was shown to have radioprotective properties against sublethal gamma radiation (9 Gy) in Swiss albino mice. Animals were divided into two groups and irradiated with gamma radiation externally, with or without Phyllanthus emblica extract. The dose of extract found to be most effective against radiation was 100 mg/kg body weight. This dose increased the survival time and reduced the mortality rate of mice significantly. Furthermore, body weight loss in Phyllanthus emblica extract administered irradiated animals was significantly less in comparison with animals who were given radiation only.

Hari Kumar, K.B. et al. "Modulation of hematopoietic system and antioxidant enzymes by Emblica officinalis gaertn and its protective role against gamma-radiation induced damages in mice"

J Radiat Res, (Tokyo), 45(4): 549-555, 2004.
In another study, the radio protective effect of Phyllanthus emblica was studied in adult Swiss albino mice. Mice were treated with 2.5 g/kg body weight of Phyllanthus emblica for ten consecutive days before irradiation and exposed to a single dose of 700 rads (7Gy) of radiation after the last dose. One group was given Phyllanthus emblica continuously for another fifteen days after irradiation. Changes in the total leukocyte count, bone marrow viability, and hemoglobin were studied after whole body irradiation. Administration of Phyllanthus emblica significantly increased these levels, which were lowered by irradiation. Animals were sacrificed at various time points after irradiation and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and levels of glutathione were assayed in the blood. The damage to the cell membrane after whole body irradiation was studied by measuring the tissue lipid peroxides levels. The results showed that administration of Phyllanthus emblica significantly enhanced the activity of the various antioxidant enzymes (catalase CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as glutathione system in the blood. Treatment with Phyllanthus emblica also lowered the elevated levels of lipid peroxides in the serum. Phyllanthus emblica extract significantly reduced the bioeffects of radiation.
Chemopreventive Actions

Sancheti, G. et al. "Chemopreventive action of Emblica officinalis on skin carcinogenesis in mice"

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 6(2): 197-20, 2005.
The inhibition of tumor incidences by implementing Phyllanthus emblica has been evaluated on two-stage process of skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice, induced by a single application of 7, 12-dimethyabenz(a)anthrecene (100 µg / 100 µl acetone), and two weeks later, promoted by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/thrice a week) till the end of the experiment (16 weeks). The tumor incidence, tumor yield, tumor Burdon, and cumulative number of papillomas were found to be higher in the control (without Emblica extract treatment) as compared to experimental animals (emblica extract treated). The differences in the values of the results of experimental groups were statistically analyzed and found to be significant in comparison to the control group (p< 0.05). This demonstrates the chemopreventive potential of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract on DMBA induced skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice.
Cough Suppressant

Nosál'ová, G. et al. "Antitussive activity of the fruit extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Euphorbiaceae"

Phytomedicine,10: 583-589, 2003.
The antitussive activity of Phyllanthus emblica was tested in conscious cats by mechanical stimulation of the laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous areas of airways. The results showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt. perorally, the cough suppressive effect of Phyllanthus emblica is not unambiguous. A higher dose (200 mg/kg body weight) of this substance orally was more effective, especially in decreasing the number of cough efforts (NE), frequency of cough (NE/min-1) and the intensity of cough attacks in inspirium (IA+) and expirium (IA-) was more pronounced. These results show that the cough suppressive activity of Phyllanthus emblica is dose-dependent. It was demonstrated that the antitussive activity of Phyllanthus emblica is less effective than shown by the classical narcotic antitussive drug codeine, but more effective than the non-narcotic antitussive agent dropropizine. It is supposed that the antitussive activity of the dry extract of Phyllanthus emblica is due not only to antiphlogistic, antispasmolytic and antioxidant efficacy effects, but also to its effect on mucus secretion in the airways.

Please see below for additional information on Emblica officinalis, the Indian Gooseberry.


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