Learning and memory enhancing activity of ficus carica (fig) and phoenix dactylifera




Дата канвертавання25.04.2016
Памер81.37 Kb.
LEARNING AND MEMORY ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF FICUS CARICA (FIG) AND PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA (DATE): AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN RATS.

SYNOPSIS FOR

M.PHARM DISSERTATION


SUBMITTED TO

RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES

KARNATAKA


BY

MAMATHA.K

I M.PHARM

DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY

VISVESWARAPURA INSTITUTE OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

BANGALORE-560070

(2012-2013)

RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEA LTH SCIENCES

KARNATAKA

ANNEXURE-II




PROFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECTS FOR DISSERTATION







1.0


NAME OF THE CANDIDATE
AND ADDRESS(IN BLOCK
LETTERS)


MAMATHA K

W/O G.J.VENKATEGOWDA

NO-16, 1ST FIOOR,,F-2,8TH MAIN,BALAJI LAYOUT,NAGASHETTIHALLI,

BANGALORE-560094


2.0

NAME OF THE INSTITUTION

VISVESWARAPURA INSTITUTE OF

PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

BANGALORE-560070



3.0



COURSE OF STUDY AND SUBJECT

MASTER OF PHARMACY IN

PHARMACOLOGY






4.0



DATE OF THE ADMISSION




27/07/2011



5.0

TITLE OF THE TOPIC:



LEARNING AND MEMORY ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF FICUS CARICA (FIG) AND PHOENI DACTYLIFERA (DATE): AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN RATS .









BRIEF RESUME OF THE INTENDED WORK
    1. NEED FOR THE STUDY

Learning is defined as acquisition of information and skills. Subsequent retention of this information is called as memory. Memory is the ability of an individual to record the information and recall it whenever needed. In Ayurveda there are three aspects of mental

Ability.


1. Dhi (Process of acquisition/Learning)

2. Dhuti (Process of retention)

3. Smriti (Process of recall)

Any disturbance in these aspects resulted in the loss of mental ability. Memory is the most common and most important cognitive ability that is lost. Other mental faculties may also be affected such as attention, judgment, comprehension, orientation, learning, calculation, problem solving, mood, and behavior. Agitation or withdrawal, hallucinations, delusions, insomnia, and loss of inhibitions are also common. Memory is a complex function of the brain that has fascinated philosophers and scientists for centuries. Memory is currently viewed as a mental process that uses several storage buffers of differing capacity and duration1.

The central cholinergic pathways play a prominent role in learning and memory processes. Centrally acting antimuscarinic drugs (e.g. scopolamine) impair learning and memory both in animals and human beings2,3.

Nootropics, also referred to as smart drugs, brain steroids, memory enhancers, cognitive enhancers, and intelligence enhancers, are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that improve mental functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration4.

In the recent years, there has been a rise in the interest of scientific community and pharmaceutical laboratories to explore the pharmacological actions of herbs. Several plants have been reported to possess nootropic activity. The Indian system of medicine is replete with medicinal plants claimed to promote learning, memory and intelligence. Plants like Bacopa monniera, Azadirachta indica, Withania somnifera, as well as Ocimum sanctum, have been investigated for their effect on cognitive functions1.



Phoenix dactylifera(date palm) belonging to the family Areaceae called ‘Nakhla’ and the tree of life by the Arabs, is considered as one of the oldest cultivated fruit trees. It is believed to be indigenous to the countries around the Arabian gulf. Different parts of the plant are traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of ailments including memory disturbances, fever, inflammation, paralysis, loss of consciousness and nervous disorder5. Ficus carica (Common fig) belonging to the family Moraceae, is a deciduous tree growing to heights of up to 6 m (19 ft). It is native to the Middle East, later cultivated all over the world6. Several studies indicated Antipyretic6, antimicrobial7, osteoclast differentiation8, Hepatoprotective9, anthelmentic10, permeation enhancing 11,immunomodulatory activity12, antiulcer13, lipid lowering14, antioxidant15 , antioxidant and antimutagenic16 activity of Ficus carica and Phoenix dactylifera.

Extensive literature search revealed that Phoenix dactylifera and Ficus carica have learning and memory enhancing activity17,18., but failed to get the scientific, documentary evidence. Hence, present study is taken up to investigate learning and memory enhancing activity of Ficus carica and Phoenix dactylifera.




    1. REVIEW OF LITERATURE




  1. Patil VV et al., (2010) reported anti-pyretic potential of Ficus carica leaves. The ethanol extract of Ficus carica, at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt. p.o., showed significant dose-dependent reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature. The effect extended up to five hours after drug administration6.

  2. Mukesh CS et al., (2010) reported antimicrobial activity of methanolic, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl ether, ethanol extract of Citrus paradisi and Ficus carica which was based on the inhibition of growth of microorganisms 7.

  3. Young RP et al.,(2009) reported that hexane-soluble fraction of Ficus carica, inhibits Osteoclast differentiation in Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and RAW 264.7 Cells. It was found that the hexane soluble fraction of the common fig Ficus carica (HF6-FC) is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). HF6-FC exerts its inhibitory effects by suppression of p38 and NF-κB but activation of ERK. In addition, HF6-FC significantly decreased the expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos, the master regulator of osteoclast differentiation. The data indicate that components of HF6-FC may have therapeutic effects on bone-destructive processes such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontal bone resorption 8.

  4. Gond NY et al., (2008) reported hepatoprotective activity of Ficus carica leaf extract on rifampicin-induced hepatic damage in rats. There was significant reversal of biochemical(glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, bilirubin), histological and functional changes induced by rifampicin treatment in rats by petroleum ether extract treatment, indicating good hepatoprotective activity 9.

  5. Sawarkar HA et al., (2011) studied of invitro anthelmentic activity of Ficus Benghalensis, Ficus carica and Ficus religiosa, and reported that Ficus bengalensis is more potent than F. religiosa and F. carica. The study was done on Pheretima Posthuma with Piperazine hydrate as a positive control and normal saline solution as a negative control10.

  6. Hindustan AA et al., (2010) reported that Ficus carica fruit mucilage is suitable for use as a matrix former in the manufacture of transdermal patches. In a study to develop matrix-moderated transdermal systems of Indomethacin using various proportions of Ficus carica fruit mucilage, using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell across hairless albino rat skin11.

  7. Vikas VP et al., (2010) reported immunostimulant activity of Ficus carica. It was found that administration of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Ficus carica remarkably increase both cellular and humoral antibody response in mice12.

  8. Qarawi AA et al.,(2005) reported ameliorative effect of Dates on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from date fruit and pits, given 4 ml/kg orally to rats for 14 consecutive days, were effective in ameliorating the severity of gastric ulceration and mitigating the ethanol-induced increase in histamine and gastrin concentrations, and the decrease in mucin gastric levels. The basis of the gastro protective action of date extracts may include it’s anti-oxidant action 13.

  9. Nawal SH et al., (2010) reported that dates improve the plasma Lipid Profiles of Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits. He analyzed blood sample in rabbit after 10 weeks of dates extract administration for plasma Total Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein and Triglycerides levels. He found that, the Atherogenic Index and sdLDL values were lower in date extract treated groups compared to hypercholesterolemic rabbits 14.

  10. Khanavi M et al., (2009) compared the antioxidant activity and total phenol content of 10 different varieties of date palm fruits extracts in water, methanol 50%, DMSO, and mixture of water-methanol-acetone-formic acid (20:40:40:0.1). Antioxidant activity of extracts were measured by two tests: inhibition of 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power). Among 10 different varieties which were examined, the DMSO extract of Khenizi showed the highest antioxidant activity with the FRAP value of 3279.48 μmol/100 g of the dry plant and DPPH inhibitory percentage of 56.61%. DPPH scavenging radical and FRAP values of some varieties including Khenrizi, Sayer, Shahabiand Maktub showed a significant increase and were comparable to α-tocopherol (10 mg/L) when extracted by DMSO. Formic acid extract of Shahabi variety with 276.85 mg GAE/100 g of the dry plant showed the highest total phenolic content compared to other varieties. There was no correlation between accumulation of total phenol and antioxidant activity of extracts, explaining existence of other antioxidant components in date15.

  11. Praveen KV et al., (2002) reported the antioxidant and antimutagenic properties of aqueous extract of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera). There was a dose-dependent inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by an aqueous extract of date fruit. The amount of fresh extract required to scavenge 50% of superoxide radicals was equivalent to 0.8 mg/mL of date fruit in the riboflavin photoreduction method. An extract of 2.2 mg/mL of date fruit was needed for 50% hydroxyl-radical-scavenging activity in the deoxyribose degradation method. Concentrations of 1.5 and 4.0 mg/mL completely inhibited superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Aqueous date extract was also found to inhibit significantly the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. The high Fe2+/ascorbate induction system a concentration of 2.3 mg/mL inhibited carbonyl formation measured by DNPH reaction by 50%.. Date fruit extract also produced a dose-dependent inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced mutagencity on Salmonella tester strains TA-98 and TA-100 with metabolic activation. Extract from 3.6 mg/plate and 4.3 mg/plate was found required for 50% inhibition of His+ revertant formation in TA-98 and TA-100, respectively. These results indicate that antioxidant and antimutagenic activity in date fruit is quite potent 16.

  12. Alhassan AW et al.,(2010), reported that ethanolic extract of Phoenix dactylifera L. prevents lead induced injury in rats. The toxic effect of lead on blood was investigated, and ethanolic extract of Phoenix dactylifera L. (EPD) was administered orally, for eight weeks, to prevent lead’s toxicity. The results showed that lead caused a significant decrease in hematocrit, RBC, WBC, haemoglobin concentration; mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, and lymphocyte and monocyte count; and significant increase in neutrophil count. These were prevented in the EPD treated rats 18.

  13. Abuelgassiem OA et al., (2010) reported significant decrease in serum concentration of glucose and lipids in alloxan diabetic rat by Date palm leaves and Flax seed Extracts. The extract shows significant decrease in total serum concentration of glucose from 17.20±2.33 to 8.14 ±0.54 and cholesterol concentration from 40% to 31% respectively. Date palm leaves and flax seed extract have protective effect against diabetes complications and hyperlipidemia.19.

  14. El-Sayed Saleh AH (2008) reported free radical scavenging activity of certain Egyptian Ficus species leaf sample. The methanol extracts of the leaves were subjected to free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH_) method. They also reported Linear correlation s

  15. Alicia S et al., (1998) reported hypoglycemic action of an oral Fig decoction. C-peptide, 2 h pre- and post-prandial glycemia, HbA1c, cholesterol, lipid fractions and hematology data of type-1 Diabetic patients were analyzed during each visit.. Post-prandial glycemia was significantly lower during supplementation with FC Average insulin dose was 12% lower during FC in the total group. The addition of FC to diet in IDDM could be of help to control postprandial glycemia 21.

  16. Kaksaheb JK et al., (2011) reported that hydro alcoholic extract of Ficus carica (HEFC) retard the progression of certain types of cancers, cardiovascular and renal disorders. Gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity(increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) was recorded in rats. GM increased MDA level whereas decreased catalase, reduced glutathione. In contrast, HEFC alone increased CAT concentration, GSH content and decreased MDA level. HEFC supplementation ameliorated GM-induced specific metabolic alterations and oxidative damage due to its intrinsic biochemical/antioxidant properties 22.

  17. Hindustan AA et al., (2010) performed In vitro permeation studies for penetration of Diclofenac sodium from Ficus carica fruit mucilage matrices, for transdermal delivery, using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell across hairless Albino rat skin. The transdermal patches were subjected to various physicochemical parameters viz. mechanical properties, permeation studies and skin irritation studies. The prepared patches possessed satisfactory pre formulary and formulary characteristics. Non-ionic surfactants Span 80 was used as permeability enhancer23.


6.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
To evaluate the learning and memory enhancing activity of Ficus carica and Phoenix dactylifera in rats

By using following models.



  • Scopolamine-induced amnesia (Interoceptive Behaviour Model)

  • Elevated plus maze (Exteroceptive Behaviour Model)

  • Hebb-William’s maze (Exteroceptive Behaviour Model)

  • Morris water maze (Exteroceptive Behaviour Model)


MATERIAL AND METHODS

Animals – Young Wistar rats (2-4 weeks old and 4-8 weeks old, weighing around 100g and 150g) procured from approved institutions like Central animal research facility, NIMHANS, No.2900, Hosur Road, Bangalore 29. Reg.no.12/99, or Drugs Testing Laboratory, Bangalore will be used in the current study. Animals will be provided with standard feed and water ad libitium. The animals will acclimatised for at least 5 days to the laboratory conditions before carrying out experiment.

Drugs and chemicals: The drugs used in the present study includes: Scopolamine hydro bromide (0.4 mg/kg i.p.), and Piracetam(400mg/kg i.p). Standardized ethanolic extract of Ficus carica and Phoenix dactylifera fruit procured from Green chem., Herbal extract and formulations, Bangalore, India will be used for the study. The plant extract will suspended in distilled water or 2%w/v gum acacia and administered orally to rats. The dose selected for Phoenix dactylifera (100,200 mg/kg p.o)5 and for Ficus carica (200,400 mg/kg p.o) 6 is based on toxicity studies done.

7.1 SOURCE OF DATA :

The data will be generated by performing experiments on animals. The standard information is collected from various journals, standard text books available in library of Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, RGUHS-digital library and from various standard websites.



Web sites:

www.sciencedirect.com

www.pubmed.com

www.ijp-online.com

www.google.com

www.rguhs.ac.in/j-gate@helinet

www.greenchem.biz

METHOD OF COLLECTION OF DATA:

The data will be generated by performing the experiments using animal models like rats.



    1. METHODOLOGY :

7.2.1 Model 1 Elevated plus maze 3,24

Rats of either sex weighing between 100-150gm will be divided into 11 groups of six animals each.



Treatment

Group I (n=6): Animals serve as control and will receive only vehicle.

Group II (n=6): Animals will be administered Scopolamine, o.4 mg/kg i.p.

Group III(n=6): Animals will be treated with low dose of Ficus carica (100 mg/kg p.o.

x 27 days)



Group IV(n=6): Animals will be treated with high dose of Ficus carica fruit extract

(200 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days)



Group V(n=6): Animals will be treated with low dose of Phoenix dactylifera fruit

extract 200 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days)



Group VI (n=6): Animals will be treated with high dose of Phoenix dactylifera fruit

extract (400 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days)



Group VII (n=6): Animals will be treated with low dose of Ficus carica (100 mg/kg

p.o. x 27 days) + scopolamine (0.4mg/kg), on 27th day.



Group VIII (n=6): Animals will be treated with high dose of Ficus carica fruit extract

(200 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days) +Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) on 27th day.



Group IX(n=6): Animals will be treated with low dose of Phoenix dactylifera fruit

extract 200 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days) +Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) on 27th

day.

Group X(n=6): Animals will be treated with high dose of Phoenix dactylifera fruit

extract (400 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days) +Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) on

27th day.

Group XI(n=6): Animals will be treated with standard drug Piracetam(400mg/kg i.p.)

STUDY CHART: From day 1-15 Animals will be administered with drugs as mentioned above. On day 16, 17 and 18, animals will be trained once daily on Elevated plus Maze (EPM); and drug administration is continued.

On day 19, scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg I.P.) is administered to all animals (except group I) 30 min after the respective treatment, After 45 min assessment of final TL (transfer latency) will be done using EPM.

The respective treatment with drug(s) will be continued for 1week.(Days 20-26)

On day 27, scopolamine 0.4 mg/kg i.p. is injected to all the animals, 30min prior to the last drug treatment. Assessment of learning and retention of memory is done after 45min using EPM.



PROCEDURE

In this model the change in the latency to go from open arm to closed arm of the Elevated Plus Maze is an indicator of learning and memory.

On the first day each rat will be placed at the end of an open arm, facing away from the central platform. Transfer latency (TL) is the time taken (in sec) by the animal to move from the open arm into any one of the enclosed arms with all its four legs. TL will be recorded on the first day (training session) for each animal. The rat will be allowed to explore the maze for another 10sec and then returned to its home cage. Retention of this learned-task (memory) will be examined 24h after the first day trial and on 27th day of the treatment. Significant reduction in TL value of retention indicated improvement in memory.

7.2.2 Model 2 Hebb-William Maze 3,24

Rats of either sex weighing between 100-150gm will be divided into 11 groups of six animals each.



Treatment

Group I (n=6): Animals serve as control and will receive only vehicle.

Group II (n=6): Animals will be administered Scopolamine, o.4 mg/kg i.p.

Group III(n=6): Animals will be treated with low dose of Ficus carica (100 mg/kg p.o.

x 27 days)



Group IV(n=6): Animals will be treated with high dose of Ficus carica fruit extract

(200 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days)



Group V(n=6): Animals will be treated with low dose of Phoenix dactylifera fruit

extract 200 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days)



Group VI (n=6): Animals will be treated with high dose of Phoenix dactylifera fruit

extract (400 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days)



Group VII (n=6): Animals will be treated with low dose of Ficus carica (100 mg/kg

p.o. x 27 days) + scopolamine (0.4mg/kg), on 27th day.



Group VIII (n=6): Animals will be treated with high dose of Ficus carica fruit extract

(200 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days) +Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) on 27th day.



Group IX(n=6): Animals will be treated with low dose of Phoenix dactylifera fruit

extract 200 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days) +Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) on 27th

day.

Group X(n=6): Animals will be treated with high dose of Phoenix dactylifera fruit

extract (400 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days) +Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) on

27th day.

Group XI(n=6): Animals will be treated with standard drug Piracetam(400mg/kg i.p.)

STUDY CHART: From day 1-15 Animals will be administered with drugs as mentioned above. On day 16, 17 and 18, animals will be trained once daily on Hebb-William Maze (HWM); and drug administration is continued.

On day 19, scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg I.P.) is administered to all animals (except group I) 30 min after the respective treatment, After 45 min assessment of final TRC (time taken by the animal to reach the reward chamber from the start box) will be done using HWM.

The respective treatment with drug(s) will be continued for 1week.(Days 20-26)

On day 27, scopolamine 0.4 mg/kg i.p. is injected to all the animals, 30min prior to the last drug treatment. Assessment of learning and retention of memory is done after 45min using HWM



Procedure: In this model changes in time taken by the animal to reach reward chamber from start box will be taken as learning and memory enhancing activity.

In this method the rat will be placed in the animal chamber or start box and the door will be opened to facilitate the entry of the animal into the next chamber. The door of the start box will be closed immediately after the animal moves into the next chamber to prevent back-entry. The time taken by the animal to reach the reward chamber from the start box is recorded on the first day (training session) for each animal. Each animal is allowed to explore the maze for 3min with all the doors opened before returning to its home cage.

Retention of this learned task (memory) will be examined 24h after the first day trial and on the 27th day of the treatment.

7.2.3 Model 3 Morris water maze 25

Rats of either sex weighing between 100-150gm will be divided into 11 groups of six animals each.



Treatment

Group I (n=6): Animals serve as control and will receive only vehicle.

Group II (n=6): Animals will be administered Scopolamine, o.4 mg/kg i.p.

Group III(n=6): Animals will be treated with low dose of Ficus carica (100 mg/kg p.o.

x 27 days)



Group IV(n=6): Animals will be treated with high dose of Ficus carica fruit extract

(200 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days)



Group V(n=6): Animals will be treated with low dose of Phoenix dactylifera fruit

extract 200 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days)



Group VI (n=6): Animals will be treated with high dose of Phoenix dactylifera fruit

extract (400 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days)



Group VII (n=6): Animals will be treated with low dose of Ficus carica (100 mg/kg

p.o. x 27 days) + scopolamine (0.4mg/kg), on 27th day.



Group VIII (n=6): Animals will be treated with high dose of Ficus carica fruit extract

(200 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days) +Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) on 27th day.



Group IX(n=6): Animals will be treated with low dose of Phoenix dactylifera fruit

extract 200 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days) +Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) on 27th

day.

Group X(n=6): Animals will be treated with high dose of Phoenix dactylifera fruit

extract (400 mg/kg p.o. x 27 days) +Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) on

27th day.

Group XI(n=6): Animals will be treated with standard drug Piracetam(400mg/kg i.p.)

STUDY CHART: From day 1-15 Animals will be administered with drugs as mentioned above. On day 16, 17 and 18, animals will be trained once daily on Morris water maze(MWM) and drug administration is continued.

On day 19, scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg I.P.) is administered to all animals (except group I) 30 min after the respective treatment, After 45 min assessment of latency to find the platform will be recorded by using MWM.

The respective treatment with drug(s) will be continued for 1week.(Days 20-26)

On day 27, scopolamine 0.4 mg/kg i.p. is injected to all the animals, 30min prior to the last drug treatment. Assessment of learning and retention of memory is done after 45min using MWM



PROCEDURE

The water maze consists of a circular tank with 100 cm diameter and a wall 20 cm above the water level. A circular platform (9 cm diameter, covered with white linen aterial for grip) is hidden 2 cm below the water level. The water is made opaque using titanium dioxide suspension and is kept at about 23 °C during the experiment. Training takes place on three consecutive days, with the rats receiving 4 consecutive trials per day with an inter-trial interval of 6–10 min. Each trial is started from one of four assigned polar positions with a different sequence each day. The latency to find the platform is measured as the time of placement of the rat in the water to the time it finds the platform.

If the animal fails to find the platform in any trial within 3 min it is placed on it for 10 s.
7.2.4 STASTICAL ANALYSIS

The results will be expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. Statistical analysis will be done using one way ANOVA, followed by post hock analysis done by Dennett’s test.


7.3 Does the study require any investigation or interventions to be conducted on patients or the human or animals? If so please describe briefly:

YES, Study requires investigation on animals. The effects of the drug will be studied on various parameters using rats as experimental animal model.


7.4 Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case of 7.3?

Yes, Ethical clearance certificate will be attached along with the hard copy.



LIST OF REFERENCES:
1. Jagdeep SD, Prasad DN, Avinash CT, Rajiv G. Role of Traditional Medicine in Neuropsycopharmacology. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2009; 2(2):72-76.

2.Naikwade S, Mule SN, Adnaik RS, Magdum CS. Memory-enhancing activity of Rose alba in mice. Int J Green Pharm 2009;3(3): 239-42.


3. Mani V, Milind P. Memory-Enhancing activity of Thespesia populnea in rats. Pharm Biol 2007; 45: 267-73.

4. Lanni C, Lenzken SC, Pascale A, Del Vecchio I, Racchi M, Pistoia F, Govoni S. Cognition enhancers between treating and doping the mind". Pharmacol Res 2008; 57 (3): 196–213.

5. Rohini RP, Neeraj SV, Virendra GK. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Neuroprotective effect of date palm (phoenix dactylifera) against bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in rat. Ind J Experimental Biol 2011; 49:627-33.

6. Patil VV, Bhangale SC, Patil VR. Evaluation of Anti-pyretic potential of Ficus carica leaves. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2010; 2(2):48-50.


7. Mukesh CS, Smita Sharma. Phytochemical screening and In vitro Antimicrobial activity of combined Citrus paradisi and Ficus carica Linn aqueous extracts. Int J Microbiol Res 2010;1(3):162-65.
8. Young RP, Jae Soon E, Hwa JC, Manoj Nepal, Dae Keun K, Seung-Yong S, et al., Hexane-Soluble fraction of the common Fig, Ficus carica inhibits osteoclast differentiation in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2009; 3(6): 417-24.
9.Gond NY, Khadabadi SS. Hepatoprotective activity of Ficus Carica leaf extract on rifampicin induced-hepatic damage in rats. Indian J Pharm Sci 2008;70(3): 364-66.
10. Sawarkar HA, Mukesh KS, Ajit KP, Deepak B. A comparitive Invitro Anthelmintic activity of Ficus carica, Ficus Benghalensis and Ficus Religiosa. Int J Pharm and Pharma Sci 2010; 3:152-53.
11. Hindustan AA, Sreeramulu, Chitta SK, Anuradha CM, Kishore KR, Sushma, Hari Krishna, Savithri. Fabrication and in-vitro Permeation studies of indomethacin-Ficus carica fruit mucilage patchs. Ind J App Biol Pharma Techonol 2010;1(3):786-92.
12. Vikas VP, Shandavi CB, Vijay RP. Immunomodulatory activities of Ficus carica. Int J Pharm Pharma sci 2010; 2(4):97-99.
13. Qarawi AA. The Ameliorative effects of dates (phoenix dactylifera) on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 98(3):313-17.
14. Nawal SH, Zulkhairi A, Nor AI, Daryl J, Aropac, Azrina A. The role of dates (Phoenix dactylifera) in improving the plasma lipid profiles of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Res J Biol Sci 2010;5(9):632-37.

15. Khanavi M, Saghari Z, Mohammadirad A, Khademi R, Hadjiakhoondi A,

Abdollahi M. Comparison of antioxidant activity and total phenols of some date

varieties. DAR. 2009;17:104-08.


16. Praveen KV. Antioxidant and Antimutagenic properties of aqueous extract of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera). J Agric Food chem 2002;50(3):610-17.

17.Quick flower glossary. [Online]. Available from: URL: http://www.ishalerner.com/home/is2/smartlist_30/urban_essentials_blends.html. As accessed on 24/11/2011.


18. Alhassan AW, Mohammed Abdel AM, Joshua MJ, Salawu EO, Zainab Mahmood B, Ajibade AJ. Ethanolic extract of Phoenix dactylifera L. prevents lead induced injury in rats. Continental J. of Biomed sci 2010;4:10-15.
19. Abuelgassim OA. Effect of flax seeds and date palm leaves extract on serum concentration of glucose and lipid in alloxan diabetes rats. Pak J Biol Sci 2010;13(23):1141-45.
20. El-Sayed Saleh AH. Total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging activity of certain Egyptian Ficus species leaf samples. Food Chem 2009; 114: 1271-77.
21. Alicia S, Federico H, Carmen P, Elisa D, José EC, Marı́a DT. Hypoglycemic action of an oral fig-leaf decoction in type-I diabetic patients. Diabets Res Clin Pract 1998; 39(1): 19-22.
22. Kaksaheb JK, Rajkumar VS, Babasaheb NK and Amit SB. Protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of Ficus carica in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Int J Pharm Life Sci 2011; 2(8):978-82.
23. Hindustan AA, Chitta SK, Anil Kumar B, Amarnath Reddy B, Chandra Shekar A, Vidya Sagar NR, et.,al. Permeation studies of diclofenac sodium from Ficus carica fruit mucilage matrices for transdermal delivery. Int J Phrma Tech Res 2010; 2:1013-17.
24. Dinesh D, Milind P, Kulkarni S.K. Memory Enhancing activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;91:361-65.
25. Gerhard Vogel H. Drug discovery and evaluation: pharmacological assays. 2nd ed. Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York; 2002:64:435.



9.0

SIGNATURE OF THE CANDIDATE




10.

REMARKS OF THE GUIDE




11.



NAME AND DESIGNATION
11.1 GUIDE




Dr. MEERA SUMANTH

PROFESSOR

DEPT. OF PHARMACOLOGY

VIPS, BANGALORE-560 070



11.2 SIGNATURE






11.3 CO-GUIDE (IF ANY)






    1. SIGNATURE

.




    1. HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT


Dr. MEERA SUMANTH

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

DEPT. OF PHARMACOLOGY

VIPS, BANGALORE-560 070



11.6 SIGNATURE





12.

12.1 REMARKS OF THE PRINCIPAL









12.2 SIGNATURE


Prof. Dr. D. H. HARISH KUMAR

PRINCIPAL

VIPS, BANGALORE-560 070



База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка