Latreille, 1809




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SUPERFAMILY HESPERIOIDEA

Latreille, 1809




FAMILY HESPERIIDAE
Latreille, 1809



SUBFAMILY PYRGINAE
Burmeister, 1878



Celaenorrhinus mokeezi. Photo courtesy Jeremy Dobson

Genus Loxolexis Karsch, 1895
Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 21: 320 (289-322).

Type-species: Loxolexis percnoptera Karsch, by monotypy.


= Ortholexis Karsch, 1895. Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 21: 319 (289-322). Type-species: Ortholexis melichroptera Karsch, by monotypy.
= Acallopistes Holland, 1896. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1896: 95 (2-107). Type-species: Erionota holocausta Mabille, by original designation.
Treated as a synonym of Katreus Watson, 1893 by Ackery et al., 1995 but re-instated as a valid genus by Larsen, 2005a: 469, stat. nov.. There are four species in this wholly Afrotropical genus.

Loxolexis dimidia (Holland, 1896)
Acallopistes dimidia Holland, 1896. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1896: 97 (2-107).

Katreus dimidia (Holland, 1896). Ackery et al., 1995.

Loxolexis dimidia (Holland, 1896). Larsen, 2005a: 469.


Loxolexis dimidia. Left – female, upperside, Cameroon (x1.85). Right – female, underside, Cameroon (x1.85). Photo ex Torben Larsen.
Type locality: Gabon: “Gaboon”.

Distribution: Ghana, Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon, Gabon.

Specific localities:

Ghana – Bia N.P. (ABRI teste Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Calabar (Larsen, 2005a); Ikom (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup N.P. (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Black scarce sprite.

Habitat: Dense primary forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: This is an extremely rare butterfly (Larsen, 2005a). Males display by flying rapidly in tight circles in forest clearings and along forest paths. Every few minutes they alight with expanded wings on the underside of leaves, less than a metre above the ground (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Loxolexis hollandi (Druce, 1909)
Ortholexis hollandi Druce, 1909. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909: 407 (406-413).

Synonym of Katreus dimidia (Holland, 1896). Ackery et al., 1995.



Loxolexis hollandi (Druce, 1909). Larsen, 2005a: 470.

Type locality: Cameroon: “Bitje, Ja River, Cameroons, 2000 feet”; Democratic Republic of Congo: “Upper Kasai District, Congo Free State”.

Distribution: Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia.

Specific localities:

Liberia – Fish Lake (Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Yapo (Larsen, 2005a); Lamto (Larsen, 2005a); Abengourou (Larsen, 2005a); Banco (Larsen, 2005a); Tai N.P. (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Ankasa (Larsen, 2005a); Bia (Larsen, 2005a); Cape Three Points (Larsen, 2005a); Atewa (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Awka (Larsen, 2005a); Mamu Forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Bitje (TL).

Angola – Casuallala (Evans, 1937).

Zambia: Known only from the Zambezi Rapids, near Ikelenge (Heath et al., 2002).

Common name: Holland’s scarce sprite.

Habitat: Mainly in wetter forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A little commoner than other members of the genus (Larsen, 2005a). The flight pattern is extremely fast, and close to the ground, with periodic rests on the underside of broad leaves (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Strophantus sarmentosus (Apocynaceae) [Vauttoux teste Larsen, 2005a (Lamto, Ivory Coast)].
karschi Evans, 1937 (as f. of Katreus dimidia). A catalogue of the African Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum: 17 (212 pp.). Angola: “N. Angola (Casuallala)”. According to Larsen (2005a: 470) this taxon is perhaps an aberrant L. hollandi but it may be a valid subspecies.

Loxolexis drucei (Larsen, 2002)
Katreus dimidia f. drucei Evans, 1937. A catalogue of the African Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the Brithish Museum 17: (212 pp.). Cameroon: “Cameroons”.

Synonym of Katreus dimidia (Holland, 1896) in Ackery et al. 1995.



Katreus drucei Larsen, 2002: vii, 2.

Loxolexis drucei (Larsen, 2002). Larsen, 2005a.

Loxolexis drucei. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 39mm. Maan, Cameroon. 2/1997. S. Collins. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).

Loxolexis drucei. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 38mm. Londji/Kribi, S. Cameroon. 2/97. S. Collins. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).
Type locality: Cameroon: “Cameroons”.

Distribution: Cameroon.

Recorded, erroneously, (misidentified) from Zambia (Heath et al., 2002: 2).



Specific localities:

Cameroon – Bitje (Larsen, 2005a); Maan (S. Collins); Londji/Kribi (S. Collins).

Habitat: Forest.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Loxolexis holocausta (Mabille, 1891)
Erionota holocausta Mabille, 1891. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 35: 111 (59-88, 106-121, 168-187).

Katreus holocausta (Mabille, 1891). Ackery et al., 1995.

Loxolexis holocausta (Mabille, 1891). Larsen, 2005a: 469.

Loxolexis holocausta. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 48mm. Hillwood, N.W. Zambia. 19.IV.2000. TCE Congdon. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).

Loxolexis holocausta. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 52mm. Lisombo Stream, N.W. Zambia, 4000 ft. Nov., 1981. I. Bampton. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).
Type locality: Cameroon: “Barombi-Station”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast (Warren-Gash, pers. comm., 2002), Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia (north-west).

Specific localities:

Sierra Leone – Guma Valley, Freetown (C. Belcastro teste Larsen, 2005a); Tiwai Island (C. Belcastro tetse Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Alepe (H. Warren-Gash tetse Larsen, 2005a); Tai N.P. (H. Warren-Gash teste Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Ankasa N.P. (C. Belcastro teste Larsen, 2005a); Atewa Range (C. Belcastro teste Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – near Ikom (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Barombi Station (TL).

Zambia: Known only from the Lisombu River (Heath et al., 2002). Also found at Hillwood (Congdon & Bampton, unpublished 2003).

Common name: Cinnamon scarce sprite.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: An extremely rare butterfly (Larsen, 2005a). Individuals settle with the wings held flat, sometimes under overhanging rocks (Belcastro teste Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
melichroptera Karsch, 1895 (as sp. of Ortholexis). Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 21: 320 (289-322). Cameroon: “Victoria in Kamerun”.

Genus Katreus Watson, 1893
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1893: 115 (3-132).

Type-species: Astictopterus johnstonii Butler, by original designation.


= Choristoneura Mabille, 1890. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France (6) 9: 156 (149-150, 155-156, 167-169, 183-184). Type-species: Choristoneura apicalis Mabille, by monotypy. [Invalid; junior homonym of Choristoneura Lederer, 1859].
= Daratus Lindsey, 1925. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 18: 84 (75-106). [Replacement name for Choristoneura Mabille.]
An Afrotropical genus containing a single species.

Katreus johnstonii (Butler, 1888)
Astictopterus johnstonii Butler, 1888. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887: 573 (567-574).


Katreus johnstonii. Male upperside, Ghana (x1.5). Photo ex Torben Larsen.
Type locality: Cameroon: “Rio del Rey”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo.

Specific localities:

Sierra Leone – Guma Valley near Freetown (Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Gagnoa (Larsen, 2005a); Abengourou (Larsen, 2005a); Yeale (Larsen, 2005a); Tai N.P. (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Atewa Range (Larsen, 2005a); Ankasa (Larsen, 2005a); Likpe (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Sapoba (Larsen, 2005a); Ahoada (Larsen, 2005a); Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a); Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Rio del Rey (TL).

Common name: Giant scarce sprite.

Habitat: Primary, undisturbed forest only (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: This is a rare skipper (Larsen, 2005a). Both sexes patrol territories between 10:00 and 12:00, flying in loops of about five metres in diameter, approximately a metre above the ground (Larsen, 2005a). When resting they do so on the underside of a broad leaf, with the wings held flat (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
apicalis Mabille, 1890 (as sp. of Choristoneura). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France (6) 9: 156 (149-150, 155-156, 167-169, 183-184). Sierra Leone: “Sierra-Leone”.
percnoptera Karsch, 1895 (as sp. of Loxolexis). Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 21: 322 (289-322). Cameroon: “Barombi-Station am Elefantensee in Kamerun”.

Genus Celaenorrhinus Hübner, 1819
In Hübner, [1816-[1826]. Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge: 106 (432 + 72 pp.) Augsburg.

Type-species: Papilio eligius Stoll, by subsequent designation (Scudder, 1875. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 10: 137 (91-293).) [extralimital].


= Apallaga Strand, 1911. Entomologische Rundschau 28: 143 (143-144). Type-species: Apallaga separata Strand, by monotypy.

Synonyms based on extralimital type-species: Ancistrocampta Felder & Felder, Gehlota Doherty, Hantana Moore, Narga Mabille.


A large genus containing 90 species, with 39 Afrotropical species and the rest in the Oriental and Neotropical Regions. Aspects of the genus have been dealt with by de Jong (1982).

Celaenorrhinus ambra Evans, 1937
Celaenorrhinus ambra Evans, 1937. A catalogue of the African Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum: 20 (212 pp.).

Type locality: Madagascar: “Madagascar (Forêt d’Ambre, 3,000 ft)”.

Distribution: Madagascar (north).

Apparently endemic to the Montagne d’Ambre area. The most recent record (1966) is from Foret d’Ambre, about 540 m (J. Minet teste Lees et al., 2003).



Habitat: Forest.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Celaenorrhinus ankasa Larsen & Miller, 2005
Celaenorrhinus ankasa, 2005. In: Larsen, 2005. Butterflies of West Africa: 555.


Celaenorrhinus ankasa. Male (holotype), Ghana (x2.5). Left – upperside; right – underside. Photo ex Torben Larsen.

Celaenorrhinus ankasa. Female, Ghana, upperside (x2.5). Photo ex Torben Larsen.
Type locality: Ghana: “Kibi, Atewa Range”. Holotype (male) November, 1973 (T. Maessen leg., coll. Allyn Museum, Sarasota, Florida, USA.

Diagnosis: Similar to C. homeyeri but the ochreous markings are of a paler orange tone, especially on the hindwing, and it lacks a dark hindwing margin (Larsen, 2005a).

General remarks: Named after Ankasa National Park in Ghana (Larsen, 2005a).

Distribution: Ghana.

Specific localities:

Ghana – Kibi, Atewa Range (TL); Takoradi (Maessen); Ankasa National Park (Larsen).

Common name: Ankasa sprite.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: A species that is rarely encountered (known only from two pairs) (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Celaenorrhinus aureus Collins & Larsen, 2005
Celaenorrhinus aureus Collins & Larsen, 2005. In: Larsen, 2005. Butterflies of West Africa: 557.


Celaenorrhinus aureus. Male (holotype), Congo (x1.8). Left – upperside; right – underside. Photo ex Torben Larsen.
Type locality: Congo: “Vouka”. Holotype (male) May, 1973 (P. Moretto leg., coll. African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi). Known only from the male holotype (Larsen, 2005a).

Diagnosis: Similar to C. illustris and C. perlustris but differs in the following respects: larger; less reddish orange scaling on the upperside; hindwing with orange marginal spots in spaces 5 and 6 (in other two species spots also in spaces 2 to 4); hindwing underside without orange spotting (present in the other two species) (Larsen, 2005a). The male genitalia of all three species are indistinguishable (Larsen, 2005a).

General remarks: Named for the large orange discal band on the forewing (Larsen, 2005a).

Distribution: Congo.

Specific localities:

Congo – Vouka (TL).

Habitat: Nothing published.

Habits: Nothing published.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Celaenorrhinus bakolo Miller, 1964
Celaenorrhinus bakolo Miller, 1964. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 26: 640 (640-647).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Efulen”.

Distribution: Cameroon.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Celaenorrhinus beni Bethune-Baker, 1908
Celaenorrhinus beni Bethune-Baker, 1908. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 2: 479 (469-482).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Makala-Beni, Congo Free State”.

Distribution: Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Celaenorrhinus beni beni Bethune-Baker, 1908
Celaenorrhinus beni Bethune-Baker, 1908. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 2: 479 (469-482).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Makala-Beni, Congo Free State”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (north-east - Ituri).
Celaenorrhinus beni jacquelinae Miller, 1971
Celaenorrhinus beni jacquelinae Miller, 1971. Bulletin of the Allyn Museum (2): 2 (17 pp.).

Type locality: Congo: “French Congo, Etoumbi”.

Distribution: Congo. Known only from the type.

Celaenorrhinus bettoni Butler, 1902
Celaenorrhinus bettoni Butler, 1902. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 9: 32 (31-34).

Celaenorrhinus bettoni. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 32mm. Laurenceville, Vumba, S. Rhodesia. 12.iv.1961. K.M. Pennington. (Transvaal Museum - TM2762).
Type locality: Tanzania: “E. Quaso, Masai”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe (eastern border).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Obudu Cattle Ranch (R. Warren teste Larsen, 2005a; single female).

Cameroon – Alen (Strand, 1913).

Democratic Republic of Congo – Beni (Rebel, 1914).

Kenya – Saiwa Swamp (Larsen, 1991); Meru (Larsen, 1991); Ngong (Larsen, 1991); Thomson’s Falls (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Mpanda; Usambaras; Uluguru Mountains; Nguru Mountains; Kanga Mountains; Uzungwa Range (scarce); Tukuyu (scarce) (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Ikelenge (Heath et al., 2002).

Mozambique – ‘across the border from Penhalonga’ (Pennington).

Zimbabwe – Vumba Mountains (Barnes); on the road to the White Horse Inn, 16 km south of Mutare (Pringle et al., 1994); between Haroni and Lucite (Pringle et al., 1994); Mount Selinda (D. and R. Plowes); Burma Valley (Chitty).

Common name: Betton’s sprite; Betton’s flat.

Habitat: Forest, from 800 to 1 700 m in Tanzania (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Often observed on river banks and along paths through forest (Kielland, 1990). The habits are similar to those of C. galenus. Specimens are seen on road verges, perching on stones, banks and leaves. At midday they tend to rest under leaves, becoming more active later in the afternoon (Pringle et al., 1994). Males are known to mud-puddle (Larsen, 1991).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
obscuripennis Strand, 1913 (as sp. of Celaenorrhinus). Archiv für Naturgeschichte78 (A.12.): 43 (30-84). Cameroon: “Alen”.
modestus Rebel, 1914 (as sp. of Celaenorrhinus). Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 28: 271 (219-294). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Urwalde bei Beni”.
hypoxanthina Mabille & Boullet, 1916 (as sp. of Sarangesa). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 1916: 246 (243-247). “Afrique Orientale, région nord et région sud”.

Celaenorrhinus boadicea (Hewitson, 1877)
Pterygospidea boadicea Hewitson, 1877. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4) 20: 323 (319-328).


Celaenorrhinus boadicea boadicea. Left – male upperside, Cameroon (x2.1). Right – male underside, Cameroon (x2.1). Photo ex Torben Larsen.

Celaenorrhinus boadicea boadicea. Female, Cameroon (x2.1). Photo ex Torben Larsen.
Type locality: Gabon: “Gaboon”.

Diagnosis: Similar to C. galenus but forewing upperside orange discal band nearly evenly curved on inner side, and spots in 1B conjoined and of equal size (Congdon & Collins, 1998).

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia.

Records from west of Nigeria are erroneous (Larsen, 2005a).



Common name: Boadicea’s sprite.

Habitat: Forest. Also in agricultural lands with a full canopy, e.g. kola plantations (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A rather scarce species of sprite (Larsen, 2005a). Specimens are often found along forest paths, usually settling on the underside of leaves of low growing vegetation (Congdon & Collins, 1998).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Celaenorrhinus boadicea boadicea (Hewitson, 1877)
Pterygospidea boadicea Hewitson, 1877. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4) 20: 323 (319-328).


Celaenorrhinus boadicea boadicea. Left – male upperside, Cameroon (x2.1). Right – male underside, Cameroon (x2.1). Photo ex Torben Larsen.

Celaenorrhinus boadicea boadicea. Female, Cameroon (x2.1). Photo ex Torben Larsen.
Type locality: Gabon: “Gaboon”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (except extreme east), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Lagos (Larsen, 2005a); Agege (Larsen, 2005a); Ijebu-Ode (Larsen, 2005a); Benin (Larsen, 2005a); Omo Forest (Larsen, 2005a); Warri (Larsen, 2005a); Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a); Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Zambia: Lisombo, Kalene Hill (A. Gardiner) (Heath et al., 2002).
atratus Mabille, 1891 (as sp. of Pardaleodes). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 35: 74 (59-88, 106-121, 168-187). Cameroon: “Cameroons”; Sierra Leone.
collucens Holland, 1894 (as sp. of Celaenirhinus [sic]). Entomological News 5: 90 (89-95). Gabon: “Valley of the Ogové”.
lucens Mabille; Holland, 1896 (as sp. of Pardaleodes). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1896: 14 (2-107). [Invalid; manuscript name first introduced in synonymy.]
Celaenorrhinus boadicea howarthi Berger, 1976
Celaenorrhinus boadicea howarthi Berger, 1976. Lambillionea 75: 95 (92-96; 76: 21-24).
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