Kingdom plantae terms




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KINGDOM PLANTAE TERMS

GAMETOPHYTE – in organisms undergoing alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation
SPOROPHYTE – in organisms undergoing alternation of generation, the multicellular diploid form that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation
ALTERNATION OF GENERATION – a life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte, characteristic of plants and some algae.
PROTONEMA – a mass of green, branched, one-cell-thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores
RHIZOIDS – long tubular single cell or filament of cells that anchors bryophytes to the ground. They are not composed of tissues, lack specialized conducting cells, and do not play a primary role in absorption of water and minerals.
SETA – the elongated stalk of a bryophyte sporophyte, such as in a moss
CAPSULE – the sporangium of a bryophyte
THALLUSthe simple body an alga, fungus, or nonvascular plant that lacks roots, stems or leaves
ARCHEGONIUMin plants, the female gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop
ANTHERIDIUM – in plants, the male gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop
ZYGOTE – a fertilized egg
GAMETANGIA – multicellular plant structures in which gametes are formed. (female are called archegonia and male are called antheridia)
HOMOSPOROUS – a term referring to a plant species that has a single kind of spore, which typically develops into a bisexual gametophyte
HETEROSPOROUS – a term referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spore: microspores that develop into male gametophytes and megaspores that develop into female gametophytes
MEGASPORANGIA – produce megaspores
MICROSPORANGIA – produce microsporres
MONOECIOUS – having male and female reproductive parts in separate flowers or cones on the same plants
DIOECIOUS – having male and female reproductive structures on separate plants
SPOROPHYLL – a leaf specialized for reproduction
SPORE - in the life cycle of a plant or alga undergoing alternation of generations, a meiotically produced haploid cell that divides mitotically, generating a multicellular individual, the gametophyte, without fusing with another cell
SORUS (pl.=sori): a cluster of sporangia on a fern sporophyll.
STROBILI – the technical term for clusters of sporophylls known commonly as cones, found in most gymnosperms and some seedless vascular plants
MICROPYLE - a pore in the integument of an ovule
POLLEN GRAINS – the structures that contain the male gametophyte of seed plants
OVULES – structures that develop within the ovaries of seed plants and contain the female gametophyte
PARENCHYMA CELL – a relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differentiated cell type
COLLENCHYMA CELL – a flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the plant without restraining growth
SCLERENCHYMAL CELL – a rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking protoplasts and possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity
ROOT CAP – a cone of cells at the tip of a plant root that protects the apical meristerm
APICAL MERISTEM - embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length
MERISTEM – plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth
CASPARIAN STRIP – a water-impermeable ring of wax in the endodermal cells of plants that blocks passive flow of water and solutes into he stele by way of cell walls
ENDODERMIS – the innermost layer of the cortex in plant roots; a cylinder one cell thick that forms the boundary between the cortex and the vascular cylinder
CORTEX – ground tissue that is between the vascular tissue and dermal tissue in a root or dicot stem
VASCULAR CYLINDER/STELE – the central cylinder of vascular tissue in a root
VASCULAR TISSUE – plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body
XYLEM – vascular tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from the roots to the rest of the plant
VESSEL ELEMENT – a short, wide, water-conducting cell found it the xylem of most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants
TRACHEID – a long, tapered, water-conducting cell that is dead at maturity and is found in the xylem of all vascular plants
PHLOEM – vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant
SIEVE TUBE ELEMENTS – cells that conduct dissolved sugar in the phloem of flowering plants
SEED – an adaptation for terrestrial plants consisting of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a resistant coat
SEED COAT – a tough outer covering of a seed, formed from the outer coat of an ovule. In a flowering, plants, the seed coat encloses and protects the embryo and endosperm
COTYLEDON – a seed leaf of an angiosperm embryo. Some species have one and others have two
ENDOSPERM – a nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm cell with two polar nuclei during double fertilization, which provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds.
FLOWER – in an angiosperm, a short stem with up to four sets of modified leaves, bearing structures that function in sexual reproduction
ANTHER – in an angiosperm, the terminal pollen sac of a stamen, where pollen grains with male gametes form
FILAMENT – the stalk of a stamen
PISTIL – a single carpel or group of fused carpels
CARPEL – the ovule-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of stigma, style, and ovary
STIGMA – the sticky part of a flower’s carpel, which traps pollen grains
STYLE – the stalk of a flower’s carpel, with the ovary at the base and the stigma at the top
SEPAL – a modified leaf in angiosperms that helps enclose and protect a flower bud before it opens
CALYX – the structure formed by the fused sepals
COROLLA – the structure formed by the fused petals
FRUIT – a mature ovary of a flower that protects dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal
PERICARP – the thickened wall of a fruit
DICOT– a term used to refer to flowering plants that have two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons.
MONOCOT - a term used to refer to flowering plants that have one embryonic seed leaf, or cotyledon
CUTICLE – a waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as a an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
MESOPHYLL – the ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis
STOMATA – pores in leaves through which carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged
VEIN – a vascular bundle in a leaf

TEN PHYLA OF EXTANT PLANTS


BRYOPHYTES

PHYLUM HEPATOPHYTA – LIVERWORTS


PHYLUM ANTHOCEROPHYTA – HORNWORTS
PHYLUM BRYOPHYTA – MOSSES

VASCULAR PLANTS



SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS
PHYLUM LYCOPHYTA – LYCOPHYTES (CLUB MOSSES, SPIKE MOSSES, QUILLWORTS)
PHYLUM PTEROPHYTA – FERNS, HORSETAILS, WHISK FERNS
SEED PLANTS

GYMNOSPERMS:
PHYLUM GINGKOPHYTA – GINGKOES
PHYLUM CYCADOPHYTA – CYCADS
PHYLUM GNETOPHYTA – WELWITSCHIA, EPHEDRA, GNETUM
PHYLUM CONIFEROPHYTA – CONIFERS

ANGIOSPERMS:

PHYLUM ANTHOPHYTA – FLOWERING PLANTS


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