Kingdom: Monera and Archaea

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Know These Taxa

Marine Biology 2005

Kingdom: Monera and Archaea – similar on the outside, worlds apart on the inside, but familiarly (and misleadlingly) lumped as “bacteria.”
What to know: what makes each prokaryote phylum distinct, and how and where each functions in marine ecosystems.
Phylum: Cyanobacteriaphotosynthetic bacteria, wrongly called “bluegreen


Phylum: Chemoautotrophic bacteria

Phylum: Fermenting bacteria

Phylum: Chloroxybacteria

Phylum: Thiopneutes

Phylum: Methanocreatices
Kingdom: Protoctista- sometimes called “Protista”- commonly known as protozoans.
What to know: what each of these are, what they look like, and how they function in marine ecosystems.
Phylum: Sarcomastigophora - amoeba-like organisms

Phylum: Ciliophoraciliated organisms

Phylum: Dinophyta - dinoflagellates - lack a nuclear envelope

Phylum: Chrysophyta - golden algae

Phylum: Chlorophyta - green algae

Phylum: Phlaeophyta - brown algae

Phylum: Rhodophyta - red algae

Phylum: Bacillariophyta - diatoms

Phylum: Chrysophyta - silicoflagellates

Phylum: Haptophyta - coccolithophorids

Phylum: Cryptophyta - cryptomonads

Phylum: Foraminifera – amoeba-like organisms usually with a calcareous shell

Phylum: Polycystina - radiolarians

Kingdom: Animalia
What to know: You should know how to recognize members of each phylum, and be familiar with and know examples of all the common marine animals down to the level of class.
Phylum: Porifera – the sponges

Class: Calcarea -

Class: Hexactinellida -

Class: Demospongiae -

Subclass: scleraspongiae -

Phylum: Cnidaria - coelenterates

Class: Hydrozoa - medusa and polyp stages both important

Class: Scyphozoa - jellyfish (lion’s mane) - medusa usually dominant

Class: Anthozoa - sea anemones, corals- polyp usually dominant

Class: Placozoa – secondarily reduced to the simplest of all metazoans

Class: Cubozoa- sea wasps, cubomedusae (recently given their own class)

Phylum: Ctenophora - like Cnidaria, but no stinging cells – largest organisms to

rely on cilia as primary means of locomotion

Phylum: Platyhelminthes – flatworms

Phylum: Nematoda - roundworms

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Polyplacophora – chitons- serial, separate plates, like armor suite

Class: Gastropoda - snails, slugs, etc.

Class: Scaphopoda - tusk/tooth shells

Class: Bivalvia - left/right shell structure (scallop, clam, oyster)

Class: Cephalopoda - external shell (nautilus), internal remnants of a shell

(squids), or no shell (octopus)

Phylum: Chaetognatha - arrow worms

Phylum: Annelida - true worms

Class: Polychaeta - marine segmented worms

Class: Hirudinea - leeches

Class: Oligochaeta - earthworms, sewer worms

Phylum: Arthropoda- organisms with segmented exoskeleton

Class: Merostomata - horseshoe crabs

Class: Pycnogonida - sea spiders

Class: Crustacea

Subclass: Branchiopoda -

Subclass: Ostracoda- shrimp-like bivalved creatures

Subclass: Copepoda- often comprise most of the zooplankton

Subclass: Cirripedia - barnacles

Subclass: Malacostraca

Order: Stomatopoda - mantis shrimp

Order: Mysida – small shrimp

Order: Euphausiacea - krill

Order: Decapoda -

Swimming decapods (shrimp)

Walking decapods (lobsters, crabs)

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Echinodea - sea urchins, sand dwellers

Class: Asteroidea - starfish

Class: Ophiuroidea - brittle stars

Class: Crinoidea - feather stars

Class: Holothuriodea - sea cucumbers

Phylum: Chordata

Subphylum: Urochordata

Class: Ascidiacea

Subph!ylum: Cephalochordata


Subphylum: Vertebrata

Class: Agnatha - jawless fishes

Class: Chondrichthyes = Elasmobranchiomorpha- sharks, rays,

chimaeras, and probably placoderms

Class: Osteichthyes - THE BONY FISHES

Paraphyletic group: Chondrostei

Paraphyletic group: Holostei

Subclass Teleostei

Subclass Sarcopterygii

Class: Amphibia

Class: Reptilia

Class: Dinosauria (including Aves)

Class: Mammalia

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