King Fahd University Of Petroleum and Minerals College Of Computer Science and Engineer Computer Engineer Department coe 305: Microcomputer System Design Term Paper Prepared For dr. Redwan Abd-Elaal Prepared by Atiyah Al-Nakhli

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King Fahd University Of Petroleum and Minerals

College Of Computer Science and Engineer

Computer Engineer Department

COE 305: Microcomputer System Design

Term Paper

Prepared For

DR. Redwan Abd-Elaal

Prepared by

Atiyah Al-Nakhli


Rayyan Al-Harbi


Redhah Al-hashim




Contents 2

Intel 8085: 3

Intel 8086: 3

Intel 8088: 3

Intel 80286: 4

Intel 80386DX: 5

Intel 80386SX: 5

Intel 80486DX: 6

Intel 80486SX: 6

Intel 80486DX2: 8

Intel Pentium classic: 10

Intel Pentium MMX: 11

Intel Pentium Pro: 12

Intel Pentium II: 12

Intel Celeron: 13

Pentium III: 15

Pentium 4: 15

Pentium M: 16

Intel Xeon: 17

Intel Core Duo: 18

Intel Core 2 Duo: 18

References 20

Intel 8085:

  • General Information:

The Intel 8085 was an 8-bit microprocessor made by Intel in the mid-1970s. The range of the speed is between 3.07 MHz to 5 MHZ. The instruction set used on it is pre x86. It has a single core.

  • Evolutions:

The 8085 incorporated all the features of the 8224 (clock generator) and the 8228 (system controller) increasing the level of system integration. Unfortunately, the 8085 was not a success until 8086 processor made.

Intel 8086:

  • General Information:

The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978. The range of the speed is between 4.77 MHz to 10 MHZ. The instruction set used on it is x86. It has around 29,000 transistors. It has a single core.

  • Evolutions:

The architecture and the physical chip were therefore developed very quickly, and were based on the earlier 8080 and 8085 designs with a similar register set. This is because it was originally intended as a temporary substitute for the ambitious iAPX 432 project in an attempt to draw attention from the less delayed 16 and 32-bit processors of other manufacturers (such as Motorola, Zilog, and National Semiconductor).

Intel 8088:

  • General Information:

The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. It can address up to 1 MB of memory. The 8088 was introduced on July 1, 1979, and was used in the original IBM PC. Its speed is 4.77 MHZ. The instruction set used on it is x86. It has a single core.

  • Evolutions:

It was a modified 8085 processor. A factor for using the 8-bit Intel 8088 version was that it could use existing Intel 8085-type components, and allowed the computer to be based on a modified 8085 design.

Intel 80286:

  • General Information:

The Intel's 286, introduced on February 1, 1982, (originally named 80286, and also called iAPX 286 in the programmer's manual) was a 16-bit microprocessor with 134,000 transistors. Its Common manufacturers are Intel, AMD, Harris Corporation and Siemens AG. Its speed range is between 6 MHz to 25 MHZ. The MOSFET channel length is 1.5 µm. The instruction set used on it is x86. It has a single core.

  • Evolutions:

The 80286's performance was more than twice that of its predecessors (the Intel 8086 and Intel 8088) per clock cycle. In fact, the performance increase per clock cycle may be the largest among the generations of x86 processors. Calculation of the more complex addressing modes (such as base + index) had less clock penalty because it was performed by a special circuit in the 286 which make a better performance.

Intel 80386DX:

  • General Information:

The Intel 80386DX is a microprocessor which has been used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers since 1986. Its speed is between 16 MHz to 40 MHZ. Its Common manufacturers are Intel, AMD and IBM. The MOSFET channel length is between 1.5 µm to 1 µm. The instruction set used on it is x86 (IA-32). It has a single core.

  • Evolutions:

The Intel 80386DX was the first true 32-bit processor used on the PC platform. Its internal register size was increased to 32 bits, and its data and address buses were as well, doubling data path width to the processor and increasing addressable memory to 4 GB theoretical. The 80386DX offered more performance than the 80286 processor. That is because the 80386DX was the first to use pipelining.

Intel 80386SX:

  • General Information:

It is a Lower speed version of 80386DX. It uses a 16-bit data bus instead of a 32-bit data bus. It has a 24-bit address bus. It has a speed between 16 MHz to 33 MHz

  • Evolutions:

It was made to move the market away from the 80286 since it had roughly the same interfaces but better performance. It provides more flexibility in running existing DOS applications. Its lower performance than 80386DX because the larger width in bus.

Intel 80486DX:

  • General Information:

The Intel 80486DX made 1989. Its speed is between 16 MHz to 133 MHZ. Its FSB speed is between 16 MHz to 50 MHZ. The MOSFET channel length is 0.8 µm. Its Common manufacturers are Intel, AMD and Texas Instruments. It has a single core.

  • Evolutions:

The performance has change dramatically in this version. This is because the core of the chip can execute instructions in less time than earlier processors. Also, the execution pipeline was increased by one step. The motherboard was more efficient than before.

Intel 80486SX:

  • General Information:

The Intel's 80486SX was a modified Intel 80486DX microprocessor with its floating-point unit (FPU) disconnected. It has a speed between 16MHz to 33 MHZ.

  • Evolutions:

It was made for marketing reason because for its less coast to give the customers more choices. Rather than this, it was same as 80486DX.

Intel 80486DX2:

  • General Information:

The Intel's i486DX2 is a CPU produced by in 1992.

There is more than one version and the 80486DX2-66 is by far the most common version of this chip; a great number of these systems were produced and many are still in use today, especially in small businesses. It was the first chip to use clock doubling. It was a very popular processor for many players of video games during the early and mid 1990s. The 486DX2 systems are perfectly viable for many uses, including routine office word processing and spreadsheet work under DOS and Windows 3.x

  • Evolutions:

The 80486DX2 was identical to the 80486DX but for the addition of "clock doubling" technology, it performs two clock cycles per single cycle of the memory bus. Because of this, an 80486DX2 is faster than an i486DX-based system at the same bus speed. For instance, if the computer's main clock runs at 33 MHz, a clock-doubled CPU would run, internally, at 66 MHZ.

Intel 80486DX4 Processor:

  • General Information:

The 80486DX4 was released in 1994 continued the trend started by the 80486DX2 toward faster clock speed processors. The 80486DX4 was most commonly put into systems as OverDrive processors for older and slower systems. The difference between Intel, AMD and Cyrix is that the AMD and Cyrix support write-back cache while the Intel does not. However, all three chips support power management. It available at two speeds: 75 MHz (for the 25 MHz bus) and 100 MHz

(For the 33 MHz), with the 100 being by far the most popular.

  • Evolutions:

  • The 80486DX4 uses "clock tripling", where the processor runs at three times the speed of the memory bus.

  • The processor used a voltage of 3.3V in order to keep the heat down.

  • It has its level 1 cache doubled to 16 KB.

Intel Pentium classic:

  • General Information:

  • The Intel Pentium processor was introduced in 1993 and was a great evolution in PC processors. It offered PC users new levels of performance. So, the Intel Pentium quickly becomes the choice for many PC users. The CPU speeds are from 60 MHz to 300 MHZ. FSB speeds are from 50 MHz to 66 MHZ. It has 3.3 million transistors.

  • Evolution:

  • It offered a superscalar architecture: It used two pipelines.

  • It has separate floating-point pipeline which improve the speed of execution of floating-point instructions.

  • it employed branch-prediction technology to help minimize the delays often incurred when a branch instruction alters the flow of instruction execution

  • It increased the speed of data transfer from memory by using a 64-bit data bus.

  • Built-in power management

  • It has two separate Level 1 caches, one for data and the other for instructions.

  • Performed 100 Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS).

  • It has SIMD instruction set extension which is designed for use in multimedia applications.

  • The original Pentium was released in Socket 4 format which did not last very long and could only be used by the 60 & 66 MHz models. This was followed at the beginning of 1995 by the release of Socket 5 which was followed by the release of the Pentium in speeds of 75, 90, 100, 120 & 133 MHz by the end of 1995.

Intel Pentium MMX:

  • General Information:

Intel's 5th generation of x86 line of processors released in 1997. The Pentium MMX processor is binary compatible with older generations of x86 processors. It is Superscalar architecture and Dual processor support. MMX processor is designed to run faster when playing multimedia applications. It comes in speeds of 166, 200 & 233 MHZ. It was manufactured using the 0.35 µm or 0.25µm (for mobile version) manufacturing process. Its FSB are 60/66 MHZ.

  • Evolutions:

  • 57 new microprocessor instructions have been added.

  • Programs can use MMX instructions without changing to a new mode

  • 2x 16KB L1-Cache (32 KB).

  • It has 4.5 million transistor

  • New 64-bit integer data type (Quad word).

  • Superscalar architecture (2 pipe-lined integer units + 1 pipe-lined FPU).

  • FPU performance enhancements.

  • Power management features.

  • 3.3V input/output level and 2.8V core.

  • MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel to enhance multi-media applications, enhancing graphics and sound functions. According to Intel, a PC with an MMX microprocessor runs a multimedia application up to 60% faster than one with a microprocessor having the same clock speed but without MMX.

Intel Pentium Pro:

  • General Information:

The Pentium Pro is a sixth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel in 1995. Intel was originally intended to replace the original Pentium in a full range of applications, but later, was reduced to be as a server and high performance desktop chip. It was the first generation of the P6 architecture which would carry Intel well into the next decade. The CPU speeds are from 150 MHz to 200 MHz and FSB speeds are 60 MHz to 66 MHZ.

  • Evolutions:

  • Includes a built-in 256K Level 2 cache in addition to the earlier processor's 16K Level 1 cache.

  • The Pentium Pro was capable of both dual- and quad-processor configurations.

  • It increased the pipelining stages from 5 to 14, with three pipelines. So, it gives greater speed of execution.

  • The size of the transistors is reduced to manage the heat.

Intel Pentium II:

  • General Information:

  • The Pentium II processor which was released in 1998 is high performance desktop processor, integrates the best attributes of the P6 microprocessors. Pentium II processors are targeted for professionals. In addition, they are targeted for mainstream home and business users, or the Performance desktop PC market. It is fully compatible with existing Intel Architecture-based software.

  • Properties:

  • Available in speeds from 233 MHz up to 450 MHZ.

  • CPU speeds: 233 MHz to 450 MHZ.

  • FSB speeds: 66 MHz to 100 MHZ.

  • Manufacture Process: 0.35 µm to 0.25 µm.

  • Includes MMX media enhancement technology.

  • Evolution:

  • Packaged in a slot-based form rather than a socket.

  • Replaced the Pentium Pro's Level 2 cache with a larger, 512K cache with its own bus running at only half the speed of the Pentium II.

  • It has headroom for applications that take advantage of Intel MMX technology.

  • Single Edge Contact (SEC) cartridge packaging technology delivers high-performance processing and bus technology to mainstream systems.

  • Dual Independent Bus (DIB) architecture which increases bandwidth and performance over single-bus processors.

Intel Celeron:

  • General Information:

The Celeron processor was introduced in April 1998 And they have complemented Intel's higher performance CPUs branded as Pentium, Core and Core 2. The first Celeron was introduced in April 1998 and based on the Pentium II. Later versions are based on the Pentium III and Pentium 4 designs. The Celeron was used in many low end machines and, in some ways, became the standard for non gaming computers. It considered as Intel’s “economic" processor.

  • Features:

  • more expensive but higher-performance Pentium CPUs

  • The Celeron processors can run all computer programs, but their performance is limited.

  • L1 Cache: 32 Kbyte

  • L2 Cache: 128 Kbyte

L2 Cache: 256 Kbyte with Intel Celeron-A 1100MHz FC-PGA2 (Tualatin).

  • CPU speeds: 266 MHz to 3.60 GHz

  • FSB speeds: 66 MHz to 800 MT/s

  • MOSFET channel length: 0.25 µm to 0.065 µm

  • Sockets: Slot 1, Socket 370, Socket 478, LGA 775, Socket M.

  • The types of Celeron processors (P6):

1. The Covington.

2. The Mendocino.

3. Coppermine-128.

4. Tualatin-256.

Pentium III:

  • General Information:

Pentium III is produced from early 199 to 2003 by Intel, the range of frequency 450 MHZ to 1.4 GHZ. The FSB speed from 100 MHZ to 133 MHZ. it has .25 um to .13 um MOSFET channel length and total of 9.5 million transistor. As the earlier processor, Pentium III has a different single core such as Katmai, Coppermine, Coppermine-T and Tualatin.

  • Evolutions

The most notable evolution was the addition of SSE Instruction Set (to accelerate media processing and 3Ds graphics), and the introduction of a controversial serial number embedded in the chip during the manufacturing process.

  • SSE : Streaming SIMD Extension

The fully expanded abbreviation stands for "Streaming Single Instruction, Multiple Data Extensions”.

* SIMD is single instruction multiple data processing.

Pentium 4:

  • General Information:

The 7th generation microarchitecture Pentium 4 processor introduced in 2000 and it will be until 2008. The frequency range is 1.3 GHZ to 3.8 GHZ. FSB (Front Side Bus) speed is from 400 MT/s (Mega Transfer /s) to 1066 MT/s. Pentium 4 is .18 um to .065 um MOSFET channel length. There are different core names for the processor such Willamette, Northwood, Prescott and Cedar Mill.

  • Evolutions:

Pentium 4 introduces the SSE2 and SSE3 Instruction Set to accelerate calculations, transactions, media processing, 3D graphics, and games. They also integrated Hyper-Trading (HT), a feature to make one physical CPU working as two logical and virtual CPUs, and more other features. The Intel Pentium 4 also came in a low-end version branded Celeron (often referred to as Celeron 4), and a high-end derivative branded Xeon intended for Multiprocessor servers and work station.

Pentium M:

  • General Information:

Produced From 2003 to 2007 by Intel with CPU speeds 900 MHz to 2.26 GHz .FSB speeds 400 MT/s to 533 MT/s. MOSFET channel length 0.13 um to 0.09 um. Pentium M Core names: Banias and Dothan.

  • Evolution:

The Pentium M coupled the execution core of the Pentium III with a Pentium 4 compatible bus interface, an improved instruction decoding/issuing front end, improved branch prediction, SSE2 support, and a much larger cache. The usually power-hungry secondary cache uses an access method to avoid switching on any parts of it which are not being accessed. Other power saving methods include dynamically variable clock frequency and core voltage, allowing the Pentium M to throttle clock speed when the system is idle in order to conserve energy, using the Speed Step 3 technology (which has more sleep stages than previous versions of Speed Step). With this technology, a 1.6 GHz Pentium M can effectively throttle to clock speeds of 600 MHz, 800 MHz, 1000 MHz, 1200 MHz, 1400 MHz and 1600 MHz; these intermediate clock states allow the CPU to better throttle clock speed to suit conditions. The power requirements of the Pentium M vary from 5 watts when idle to 27 watts at full load. This is useful to notebook manufacturers as it allows them to include the Pentium M into smaller notebooks.

Intel Xeon:

  • General Information:

Intel Xeon processor is introduced in 1999 with speeds range from 1.6 GHZ to 3.6 GHZ. It is an x86 processor with different architecture such microarchitecture, Intel core and NetBurst. The processor has 1, 2 or 4 cores.

  • Evolution :

The Xeon brand refers to many families of Intel’s x88 multiprocessing CPU’s – for dual-processor (DP) and multi-processor (MP) configuration on a single motherboard targeted at non-consumer markets of server and workstation computers, and also at blade servers and embedded systems.

Intel Core Duo:

  • General Information:

Core Duo processor is not as previous Intel production which is single core processor, it has tow cores in the chip. This processor is introduced in 2006. It has speeds range from 1.06 GHZ to 2.33 GHZ. Moreover, the FSB increased to be from 533 MT/s which was a maximum in Pentium M to 667 MT/s. this processor still uses x86 architecture.

  • Evolution:

The Duo version of Intel Core includes two computational cores, providing performance per watt almost as good as any previous single core Intel processors. In battery-operated devices such as notebook computers, this translates to getting as much total work done per battery charge as with older computers, although the same total work may be done faster. When parallel computations and multiprocessing are able to utilize both cores, the Intel Core Duo delivers much higher peak speed compared to the single-core chips previously available for mobile devices.

Intel Core 2 Duo:

  • General Information:

The Core 2 brand refers to a range of Intel's consumer 64-bit dual-core and MCM (Multi chip Model) quad-core CPU with the x86-64 instruction set, and based on the Intel core microarchitecture, which derived from the 32-bit dual-core processor. It is produced in 2006 with speeds from 1.06 GHZ to 3 GHZ and FSB from 553 MT/s to 1333 MT/s.

  • Evolution:

The core microarchitecture returned to lower clock speeds and improved processors' usage of both available clock cycles and power compared with preceding NetBurst of the Pentium 4brande CPU’s. It translated into more efficient decoding stages, execution units, caches, and buses, etc, reducing the power consumption of Core 2 branded CPU’s, while enhancing their processing capacity.


  1. Wikipedia, free encyclopedia.

  2. Encarta, Microsoft encyclopedia.


  4. The 80x 86 Family, 3rd edition.

Overview of performance evolution of Intel processors: 1977-2007

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