Karnataka annexure II proforma for registration of subject for dissertation




Дата канвертавання24.04.2016
Памер45.93 Kb.
RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, BANGALORE

KARNATAKA

ANNEXURE II

PROFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECT FOR DISSERTATION

1.

Name of the candidate and address

(in block letters)

DR.SHANKAR. A. S.

S/O SOMASHEKAR ACHAR,

MOCHY COLONY,

GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL ROAD ,

HARIHAR-577601, DAVANAGERE DISTRICT


2.


Name of the institution

J.J.M. MEDICAL COLLEGE,

DAVANGERE.



3.


Course of study and subject

POST GRADUATE DEGREE

M.D. PHARMACOLOGY



4.


Date of admission to course

APRIL 30th 2010

5.


Title of the topic

“A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF NYMPHAEA ALBA LINN. (WHITE WATER LILY) ON ANXIETY IN ALBINO RATS”

6.


BRIEF RESUME OF THE INTENDED WORK :

6.1 Need for the study :

Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety disorders, the most common psychiatric illnesses in the general population, present in 15–20% of primary care patients. Anxiety, defined as a subjective sense of unease, dread, or foreboding, can indicate a primary psychiatric condition or can be a component of, or reaction to, a primary medical disease. Approximately one-third of patients presenting with anxiety have a medical etiology for their psychiatric symptoms, but an anxiety disorder can also present with somatic symptoms in the absence of a diagnosable medical condition1, almost inevitable component of many medical and surgical conditions.2

Types of anxiety disorders: 1) Panic Disorder, 2) Generalized Anxiety Disorder, 3) Phobic Disorders, 4) Stress Disorders, 5) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.1

Treatment:

Most commonly employed pharmacotherapies for common clinical anxiety disorders are anxiolytics like benzodiazepines(diazepam) and other than benzodiazepines like Azopirones(Buspirone, gepirone, ispapirone), antidepressants like Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (fluoxetine, sertraline), tricyclic antidepressants (Amitriptyline, imipramine) are used.1

Anxiety disorders may be acute and transient, or more commonly, recurrent or persistent. Chronic benzodiazepine use poses a risk for development of dependence and abuse. Withdrawal symptoms include dysphoria, irritability, sweating, unpleasant dreams, tremors, anorexia, and faintness or dizziness also may occur. Therapeutic doses can further compromise respiration in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A variety of allergic, hepatotoxic, and hematologic reactions to the benzodiazepines may occur.2

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) have side effects like insomnia, sexual dysfunction, can affect plasma levels of other medicines (except sertraline); Tricyclic antidepressants(TCAs) have side effects like anticholinergic symptoms (dry mouth, tachycardia, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision); sweating; tremor; postural hypotension; cardiac conduction delay; sedation; weight gain.1

This has prompted many researchers to evaluate new compounds in the hope of identifying other anxiolytic drugs with fewer unwanted side effects. Hence search for better anxiolytics continues.

Ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba linn possesses anxiolytic and muscle relaxant properties. Thus Nymphaea alba linn has potential clinical application in the management of anxiety and muscle tension disorders.3



Aim of this work is to evaluate the anxiolytic effect ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba linn and to compare with that of diazepam.

6.2 Review of literature :

Nymphaea alba Linnaeus (family Nymphaeaceae), commonly known as white water lily in English and kumuda in Sanskrit, is an aquatic herb with perennial rhizomes or rootstocks anchored with mud. It is globally distributed in Europe, North Africa, Southwest Asia, India, China and Russia. It is rich in phytochemicals such as tannic acid, gallic acid, alkaloids, sterols, flavonoids, glycosides, hydrolysable tannins and high molecular weight polyphenolic compounds.4 All the parts of the plant have medicinal uses in traditional system of medicine. It is used as an aphrodisiac, anodyne, antiscrophulatic, astringent, cardiotonic, demulcent, sedative and anti-inflammatory. Further it also produces calming and sedative effects upon the nervous system and is useful in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety and similar disorders.5, 6 Its anticarcinogenic action and inhibition of renal oxidative stress and hyper proliferative response were reported.7, 8 However so far there are not many studies done on anxiolytic effect of Nymphaea alba. Therefore, to confirm the anxiolytic potential of Nymphaea alba

(N. alba) we undertook this study using albino rats.

It is an established fact that the anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, and sedative-hypnotic actions of the BZDs is due to binding and modulating the GABA-BZD receptor-chloride channel complex. 2, 12 Phytochemical tests of N. alba revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. The anxiolytic action of N. alba could be due to the binding of any of these phytochemicals to the GABA A -BZD complex. In support of this, it has been found that flavones bind with high affinity to the BZD site of the GABA A receptor.9, 10, 11 The anxiolytic effect of N. alba may also be due to antagonistic effect on the 5-HT1B receptor or agonistic effect on the 5-HT1A receptor.10,11



6.3 Objectives of the study

1) To evaluate the antianxiety activity of ethanolic extract of N.alba in

albino rats.

2) To compare the antianxiety activity of ethanolic extract of N.alba with diazepam.



7.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

7.1 Source of data :

Animals: Albino rats inbred in central animal house of department of Pharmacology, JJM Medical College, Davanagere under suitable conditions of housing, temperature, ventilation and nutrition.

Chemicals, drugs and apparatus :

1) Distilled water

2) 1% gum acacia

3) Ethanolic extract of N.alba(100,200mg/kg)

4) Tab.Diazepam (5mg)

5) Elevated plus maze

6) Actophotometer

7.2 Method of collection of data (including sample procedure if any):

A total of forty eight male albino rats (N=48) will be divided into 2 groups, group I and group II, each group containing twenty four animals(n=24) each. Animals will be randomly housed at an ambient temperature and humidity, with a 12hour light: 12hour dark cycle. The animals will have free access to standard pellet and water.



Inclusion criteria:

1. Male albino rats weighing between 100-200g.

2. Age between 3-4months.

3. Healthy with normal behavior and activity.



Exclusion criteria:

1. Animals weighing <100 and >200g.

2. Age less than 3months or more than 4months.

3. Within 21days of use for other studies.

4. Female rats.

Methods:

A total of forty eight male albino rats (N=48) will be divided into 2 groups, group I and group II, each group containing twenty four animals (n=24) each. Again each group is divided into 4groups group A, B, C, D and each containing 6 animals and assigned as control, standard and test group as shown below. Each drug solution will be prepared freshly just before the administration. In all the groups drugs will be administered orally 60minutes prior to tests.

Group A: Control group: Receiving 10ml /kg of distilled water.

Group B: Standard group: Receiving 1mg/kg Diazepam diluted in distilled water.

Group C: Test group: Receiving 100mg/kg of ethanolic extract of N.alba in distilled water.

Group D: Test group: Receiving 200mg/kg of ethanolic extract of N. alba in distilled water.

Anxiolytic activity of N.alba will be tested in

1) Elevated plus maze test

2) Locomotor activity assessment.

Group I -Elevated plus maze test:

The wooden maze will consist of two open arms (50cmX10cm) and two closed arms of the same size (with the height of 40cm). The arms of the same type will be opposite to each other, with a central square of 10cm. The maze will be elevated to a height of 50cm above the floor. Rat will be allowed to explore the maze for 5mins.13, 14



Parameters observed:

1) Total time spent in open and closed arms separately.

2) Total entries in open and closed arms separately.

Group II -Locomotor activity assessment: The locomotor activity was measured using an actophotometer. The movement of the animal interrupts a beam of light falling on a photocell, at which a count was recorded and displayed digitally. Each rat was placed individually in the actophotometer for 10minutes and the basal activity score was obtained. Subsequently, animals were divided into 5groups, each consisting of 6 animals. N. alba extract (100,200mg/kg), vehicle (distilled water), diazepam (1mg/kg) was administered orally and after 60minutes the rats were placed again in actophotometer for recording the activity score. Reduction in activity score% is calculated.14

Parameters observed:

Locomotor activity score before and after treatment and reduction in activity (%).



Statistical test:

Results will be analyzed using one way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s “t” test.



7.3 Does the study require any investigations or interventions to be conducted in patients or other humans or animals? If so, please describe briefly.

No

7.4 Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case of 7.3.

Yes


8.

LIST OF REFERENCES :

1.Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J. (eds.) Harrison’s principles of internal medicine Vol 2, New York: McGraw Hill, 17th ed. 2008; 386:2710-2715.

2. Laurence Bruton, Keith Parker, Donald Blumenthal, Iain Buxton ,Goodman and Gillman’s Manual of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, New York: McGraw Hill, 11th ed. 2008 ;17:296-297.

3. B.S. Thippeswamy, Brijesh Mishra, V.P. Veerapur, Gourav Gupta. Anxiolytic activity of Nyphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2011;43(1):50-55.

4. Eliana R, Ricardo T, Jose C, Galduroz F, Giuseppina N. Plants with possible anxiolytic and /or hypnotic effects indicated by three brazilian cultures-indians, afrobrazilians and river-dwellers. Studies in natural Products Chemistry. Vol.35. Brazil: Elsevier; 2008. P.549-95.

5. Robin D. Nymphaea odorata: White pond lily. Medical herbalism. Materia Medica Pharm 2011; 11:231-3.

6. James AD. Duke’s hand book of medicinal plants of the bible. USA: Taylor and Francis group; 2008.p.302-5.

7. Nagmohan K, Sarwat S. Anticarcinogenic effect of Nymphaea alba against oxidativew damage and hyperproliferative response and renal carcinogenis in Wistar rats. Mol Cell Biochem 2005; 271:1-11.

8. Adeyemi OO, Yetmitan OK, Taiwo AE. Neurosedative and muscle relaxant activities of ethyl acetate extract of Baphia nitida AFZEL. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 106:312-6. 

9. Bhatacharya SK, Satyan KS. Experimental methods for evaluation of psychotropic agents in rodents: Anti-anxiety agents. Indian J Exp Biol 1997; 35:565-75. 

10. Nishikava H, Hata T, Funakami Y. A role for corticotropin-releasing factor in repeated cold stress-induced anxiety-like behavior during forced swimming and elevated plus-maze test in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27:352-6.

11. Millan MJ, Veiga S, Goument B. A novel benzodioxopiperzine ligand of serotonin (5HT) 1A receptor: II. Modulation of hippocampal serotonin release in relation to potential anxiolytic properties. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 282: 148-61.

12. Yadav AV, Kawale LA, Nade VS. Effect of Morus alba L. (mulberry) leaves on anxiety in mice, Satara, Indian journal of pharmacology 2008; 40 [1]: 32-36.

13. Hans Gerhard Vogel. Drug discovery and evaluation: Pharmacological assays. 3rd ed. 2008; E: p. 626.

14. Kulkarni S K. Hand book of Experimental Pharmacology. 3rd ed. 1999; 4: p.135-137, 117-119.


9.

SIGNATURE OF THE CANDIDATE




10.

REMARKS OF THE GUIDE


THIS STUDY WAS NOT TAKEN UP

PREVIOUSLY TO THE

BEST OF MY KNOWLEDGE.


11.

NAME AND DESIGNATION OF (IN BLOCK LETTERS)

11.1 Guide

11.2 Signature


11.3 Co-Guide (if any)
11.4 Signature


11.5 Head of department


11.6 Signature



DR. N. SURYANARAYANA BABUSHAW.

MD.
PROFESSOR OF PHARMACOLOGY,


DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY,

J.J.M. MEDICAL COLLEGE,

DAVANGERE – 577004


Dr. H.S. SIDDAPPA DEVARU M.D.,

PROFESSOR AND HOD


DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY,

J.J.M. MEDICAL COLLEGE,



DAVANGERE – 577004


12.

12.1 Remarks of the Chairman & Principal

12.2 Signature








База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка