IV. trade policies by sector




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Trinidad and Tobago WT/TPR/S/49
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IV.trade policies by sector

    1. Overview


1.The economic development of Trinidad and Tobago is dependent on oil and natural gas. While the Government has used trade policies and incentives schemes to promote non-petroleum sectors, such as manufacturing and agriculture, petroleum and petroleum-related sectors still account for over one quarter of the domestic economy and about three-quarters of exports.

2.Agriculture was the main source of economic development before the discovery of oil. It still employs a large share of labour and the Government considers it an important source of employment. Sugar production has traditionally dominated the agricultural sector, although agro-processing has played an important role in recent years. Agriculture and food products as well as beverages are subject to higher tariffs than the average (Chart IV.1).

3.The mining and quarrying sector is dominated by hydrocarbons. Remaining oil reserves are estimated at another 12 years of supply. Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered and they are sufficient to supply another 55 years. Due to this discovery, energy policy has shifted its focus to the development of the natural gas subsector.

4.The services sector accounts for the largest share in both GDP and employment. Recent liberalization and reform efforts have had the greatest impact on financial services and telecommunications. In other subsectors, the Government is in the process of reviewing the legislation.


(2)Agriculture and food products and fishing


1.Agriculture was the major force of the economy until the commercialization of petroleum in the 1960s. Since then, the importance of the sector has diminished, despite the Government's attempts to offset the decline by heavily protecting activities. Agriculture remains, however, an important provider of employment: including fishing and forestry but excluding food products, it employed 9.6% of the labour force in 1996, while accounting for just 2.3% of total GDP. The production of processed agricultural goods is less labour-intensive, accounting for an additional 3% of employment and 4.2% of GDP (Chart IV.2).

2.The cornerstone of traditional agriculture has been sugar production; sugar cane accounted for more than one third of non-processed agricultural products in 1996. Other major traditional crops include cocoa, coffee, coconut and bananas, though exports of coffee have been negligible in recent years. The main exports of processed products are beverages and prepared cereals. Trinidad and Tobago is a net importer of agricultural products, with imports about 50% larger than exports in 1993. The main imported agricultural products are cereals, dairy products, oil seeds and vegetables. In recent years, government policies have encouraged diversification into the production of non traditional crops such as citrus, rice and vegetables.






3.The Government considers agriculture to have great potential for income, employment growth and foreign exchange generation, and therefore plays a major role in the development of the sector. It owns more than half of the country's agricultural land, partly through state-owned enterprises. The Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources (MALMR) formulates the overall policy framework and sector-specific policy measures, including subsidies and incentives. There are several large public enterprises operating in the sector, including Caroni, National Flour Mills, the National Agricultural Marketing and Development Company, Non Pareil Estate, National Agro-Chemicals, and the Agricultural Development Bank (Table IV.1). Until recently, some of these enterprises were granted monopoly over the purchase and import of their products. The MALMR provides policy guidelines for the state corporations and, in some cases, subsidies for their operation. The MALMR also has representation on the Boards of Directors of these enterprises.



Table IV.1

Main state enterprises in the agricultural sector

Company

Government holding

Activities

Caroni

100%

Major producer and sole processor of sugar products. Now diversified to include citrus and rice.

National Flour Mills

80%

Sole producer of flour and major producer of rice, edible oil and soybean.

National Agricultural Marketing and Development Company

100%

Provision of market information and administration of wholesale markets.

Agricultural Development Bank

100%

Provision of loans to farmers and fishermen.

Non Pareil Estate

100%

Production of cocoa.

Source: Information provided by the authorities of Trinidad and Tobago.

4.After decades of heavy protection of the agricultural sector, reforms were undertaken in the context of a comprehensive structural adjustment programme with support from the Inter-American Development Bank. Prior to these reforms, agricultural products were protected by various measures such as price supports, quantitative restrictions, tariffs, stamp duties, exchange and price controls, as well as stringent licensing requirements (for products in the Negative List). The reform programme aimed at removing or reducing distortions and at rationalizing incentives, and included measures such as the divestment of state-owned agricultural enterprises, the restructuring of the dominant sugar sector, and the diversification of agricultural production.

5.As identified by the Government, the major constraints affecting agricultural production include an inadequate water supply for dry season production, the high cost of inputs, a lack of adequate facilities, poor market organization, predial larceny, weak linkages between primary production and the agro-industrial sector and poor soil management.1

(ii)Market access


1.There are no quantitative restrictions on the importation of agricultural products. Quantity based measures were converted to equivalent tariffs in accordance with the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture. Agricultural products, with the exception of a few items, were also removed from the licensing requirements set by the Import Negative List, and are now subject to import surcharges, some of which are to be eliminated by 1999. Licences are still required for imports of livestock, fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and oils and fats (Table III.7).

2.In the Uruguay Round, Trinidad and Tobago bound its tariffs on all agricultural products at ceiling rates of 100%, with the exception of seven items bound at higher levels; these include poultry, cabbage, lettuce and coffee (Table III.2). Other duties and charges were bound at 15%.

3.The 1998 applied MFN tariff on imports of agricultural products (HS Chapters 1-24) averaged 19.1%, with a maximum rate of 40% (Table IV.2). There is considerable dispersion of MFN rates by product groups in the agricultural sector. The highest tariffs are applied to edible fruit and nuts (33.6%), fish products (29.2%), edible vegetables (24.4%), animal and vegetable fat and oil (23.8%), meat and edible meat offal (23.4%), and live animals (21.9%), while gums and resins, and vegetable plaiting materials are granted duty-free access.

4.Several agricultural products are subject to additional import surcharges, which are subject to a phasing-out timetable. In 1998, import surcharges are applied to various parts of poultry (100%), sugar and icing sugar (60-70%), vegetables (15%) and fruit (5%). The surcharges on the latter two items are to be removed by 1999. Rates on poultry parts are to be reduced to 86% in 2004; those on sugar and icing sugar are not subject to reduction (Table III.5). Import duties on alcoholic beverages are set at specific rates, ranging from TT$4.75 per litre for beer to TT$40.00 per litre for cordials and liqueurs. Alcoholic beverages which are locally and regionally produced face excise duties (Table III.6).


(iii)Sanitary and phytosanitary regulations


1.The main sanitary and phytosanitary regulations are listed in the Animals (Diseases and Importation) Act 1954 and the Plant Protection Regulations 1953, both most recently amended in 1997. However, according to the authorities, the amendments did not address compliance with the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

Table IV.2

Trade and tariff data for agricultural products, 1998

(Per cent and US'000)



HS

Description

Unweighted MFN average

Min. (%)

Max. (%)

Imports (US$ '000)

Exports (US$ '000)

(%)

1996

01-24

Agricultural products

19.1

0

40

302,088.2

203,769.6

01

Live animals

21.9

0

40

570.6

16.7

02

Meat and edible meat offal

23.4

0

40

13,964.1

517.8

03

Fish & crustaceans, molluscs & other aquatic invertebrate

29.2

0

40

2,986.3

12,033.5

04

Dairy products; birds eggs; natural honey; edible prod. n.e.s.

19.6

0

40

46,240.6

4,453.7

05

Products of animal origin, n.e.s. or included

0.0

0

0

76.7

0.1

06

Live trees & other plants; bulbs, roots; cut flowers etc.

21.6

0

40

416.5

1,743.9

07

Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers

24.4

0

40

20,933.8

2,124.2

08

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

33.6

0

40

4,542.2

1,286.2

09

Coffee, tea, mate and spices

21.7

0

40

3,196.7

1,725.0

10

Cereals

14.5

0

40

58,899.9

1,235.2

11

Prod. mill. industry; malt; starches; inulin; wheat gluten

6.4

0

40

9,730.4

600.5

12

Oil-seed, oleagi. fruit; miscell. grain, seed, fruit, etc.

2.5

0

40

33,551.4

53.4

13

Lac; gums, resins & other vegetable saps & extracts

0.0

0

0

961.7

0.8

14

Vegetable plaiting materials; vegetable products n.e.s..

0.0

0

0

114.0

0.2

15

Animal/veg. fats & oils & their cleavage products; etc.

23.8

0

40

15,386.4

9,141.0

16

Prep. of meat, fish or crustaceans, molluscs etc.

16.4

0

20

7,117.4

2,357.5

17

Sugars and sugar confectionery

21.5

0

40

17,691.7

34,014.7

18

Cocoa and cocoa preparations

9.2

0

20

3,178.3

6,942.9

19

Prep. of cereal, four, starch/milk

16.0

0

20

11,453.2

29,376.7

20

Prep. of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants

15.9

0

40

10,441.5

8,196.6

21

Misc. edible preparations

17.0

0

20

16,630.8

9,247.2

22

Beverages, spirits and vinegar

16.5

5

20

7,668.9

60,223.8

23

Residues & waste from the food industry.; prep. animal fodder

4.4

0

20

12,076.7

16,603.3

24

Tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes

21.0

0

30

4,258.3

1,874.9


Source: WTO calculations based on data provided by the authorities of Trinidad and Tobago and UNSD, Comtrade database.

2.All live animals imported into the country require an import permit, issued by the Animal Protection and Health Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, prior to the arrival of the animal. They are also subject to quarantine regulations, which may differ according to the country of origin of the imported animal.

3.Imports of all plants, fruits and vegetables also need to obtain an import permit, issued by the Plant Quarantine Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources. Import requirements vary depending on the country's pest status.

4.Trinidad and Tobago notified the WTO in 1995 that the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources had introduced an emergency measure on imports of fruit and vegetables from Grenada and other islands in the Caribbean which would be subject to controls to prevent the import of mealy bug-infested vegetable material.2


(iv)Domestic support


1.Incentives available to the agricultural sector are listed in the Agricultural Incentive Programme which has been in place since 1985. The Government's domestic support policy is to provide incentives which result in minimal market distortions, and which comply with the WTO Agreement on Agriculture.3 Agricultural incentives in Trinidad and Tobago include price supports (e.g. guaranteed prices), and subsidies for soil conservation, equipment and machinery, agricultural vehicles and wheel tractors. Commodities under the price support scheme include sugarcane, coffee, cocoa, milk, oranges, grapefruit, paddy, copra and sorrel (Table IV.3). In 1996, the Government granted payments totalling TT$45.9 million for price support and TT$1.4 million for input subsidies, altogether accounting for 6.8% of agricultural GDP (Table IV.4). According to the authorities, in 1997, the Government granted payments totalling TT$35.97 million for price support and TT$0.4 million for input subsidies.

Table IV.3

Price support programme: guaranteed prices, 1997

Commodity

Guaranteed price (TT$)

Sugarcane

153.77/tonne

Cocoa

9.55/kg.

Coffee

8.36/kg.

Milk

2.00/litre

Oranges

20.00/cratea

Grapefruit

12.00/crateb

Paddy

0.66-2.02/kg.

Copra

2.66/kg.

Sorrel

0.25/kg.

a Crate of oranges = 40.9 kg.

b Crate of grapefruit = 36.4 kg.
Source: Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources.

Table IV.4

Price support programme: subsidy payments

(TT$ million)



Commodity

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Sugarcane

14.4

5.4

9.3

16.7

15.7

Cocoa and coffee

5.0

-

3.2

3.2

5.7

Milk

6.1

7.7

11.3

8.1

8.4

Paddy

-

-

9.0

12.7

14.7

Copra

2.5

1.9

2.9

4.7

1.1

Other input subsidiesa

5.6

1.2

0.9

0.5

1.4

Total subsidy payments

33.6

16.2

36.6

45.9

47.0

Agricultural GDP

586.2

607.9

651.4

627.2

688.1

Subsidy as % of agricultural GDP

5.7

2.7

5.6

7.3

6.8

a Includes soil conservation, equipment and machinery, vehicles, wheel tractors, and rebates.


Source: Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources.

2.Fiscal incentives available to the agricultural sector include import duty concessions and VAT exemptions. Under the Customs Act Section 56, approved agricultural enterprises, (including fishery and forestry), are exempted from import duty on a range of agricultural inputs and equipment including wheel tractors, agricultural chemicals (e.g. insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, vitamin and drug preparations), hand tools and machinery. A range of agricultural inputs and equipment is also exempted from VAT. In addition, an income tax exemption is provided for a maximum period of ten years for approved agricultural holdings of less than or equal to 40.5 hectares. The food processing, beverages and tobacco sub-sectors are eligible to apply for the same incentives available to the manufacturing sector (section II).


(v)Export assistance


1.Trinidad and Tobago does not subsidize its exports of agricultural goods.

2.Export financing is made available through the Agricultural Development Bank, which was set up in 1968 as a wholly government-owned institution. The bank lends to individuals, companies and co-operatives for a wide range of agricultural activities, including crop and livestock production, floriculture, agro-processing and commercial fishing. In 1996, total loans of TT$37.0 million were disbursed, while loan repayments amounted to TT$42.0 million. Prior to 1987, the ADB provided most of its finance at concessional rates;4 this policy led to negative real interest rates and triggered problems of capital depletion, which made it necessary to bring rates more in line with market values. Since 1993 the interest rate for approved loans has been 12%.5 Access to financing is also available through the Small Business Development Company, which provides a loan guarantee scheme to small businesses including agricultural and agro-processing companies.


(vi)Crop production and livestock

(a)Sugar


1.Sugar has been the single most important agricultural subsector, accounting for a third of non-processed agricultural GDP in 1996 and over a quarter of employment. In 1997, exports of raw sugar reached 109,300 tonnes.

Table IV.5

Sugar production and exports

('000 tonnes)






1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Production
















..




Cane

1,292

1,210

1,398

1,327

1,404

-




Raw sugar

110.4

104.7

131.1

117.1

92.0

90.8




Refined sugar

34.3

32.9

38.0

41.9

42.0

45.9

Exports






















Raw sugar

59.2

51.4

57.1

68.1

71.5

109.3


.. Not available.
Source: Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago.
2.Sugar exports depend primarily on the quota arrangements with the European Union and the United States, which offer guaranteed prices above the world-market price. Trinidad and Tobago was allocated an export quota of 47,556 tons of raw sugar by the European Union under the Sugar Protocol to the Lomé Convention, and an additional 10,000 tonnes under the Special Preferential Sugar Arrangement. The United States allocated Trinidad and Tobago a quota of 14,201 tonnes of raw sugar for fiscal year 1997, of which 13,576 tonnes were exported. Prices paid by the European Union (£403 a tonne in 1997 for imports under the Protocol, and £308.5 a tonne for imports under the Special Preferential Agreement) and the United States (some US$421 a tonne) are well above world-market prices. Refined sugar is exported to other CARICOM countries.

3.While sugar is Trinidad and Tobago's main agricultural export, it is imported when domestic production is insufficient to meet export quotas and domestic demand. This makes economic sense for Trinidad as a small supplier, since exports to the EU receive a price higher than the world price, while imports are acquired at lower prices.6 Some 29,000 tonnes of raw sugar and 9,105 tonnes of refined sugar were imported in 1997. Imports of raw sugar are subject to a customs duty of 40%, and an additional charge of 60%. Imports of refined sugar face a 15% import tariff.

4.The sugar industry is dominated by Caroni, the largest state-owned enterprise in Trinidad and Tobago. Caroni is also the largest employer and owner of fertile land and generates about 2% of GDP. Caroni produces about half of the country's cane, and has a de facto monopoly in refining and operations monopoly milling.7 The company purchases sugar cane from private farmers at a guaranteed price based on production costs. The guaranteed price applies only when it is higher than the price determined by the Seemungal Formula8, which reflects international prices. Both prices have increased since the beginning of the 1990s, but the Seemungal Formula price has exceeded the guaranteed price since 1993 (Table IV.6). There was no price support in 1996, only an input subsidy payment (TT$15.7 million). Caroni has traditionally handled all sugar exports and imports. In 1998, however, industrial manufacturers have been allowed to import sugar.

Table IV.6

Guaranteed prices, Seemungal formula prices and price support payments, 1992-96




Guaranteed prices/tonne

(TT$)

Seemungal formula price/tonne

(TT$)

Price support payment

(TT$ million)

1992

126

100.59

16.0

1993

126

128.94

0.0

1994

126

139.25

0.0

1995

136

161.63

0.0

1996

136

157.57

0.0


Source: Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources.

5.With a view to reviving the viability of Caroni, which accumulated deficits between 1977 and 1991, the Cabinet appointed a Tripartite Committee, composed of representatives of the Government, Caroni and labour, which developed a comprehensive reform programme for the sugar industry in 1992. The reform programme included: increased reliance on private cane production to reach 60 75% of supply, modernization of capital equipment, diversification into other agricultural products, rationalization of land-holding, increased mechanization of the cane harvest, and reduction of surplus labour. Under the terms of the Tripartite Committee programme, Caroni is to reach the break-even point in 1999 or 2000, and operate at a profit thereafter. While the share of cane produced by private farmers did increase from 47.3% in 1992 to 52.2% in 1996, the implementation of the programme appears to have been difficult.9 In 1998, the Government is to introduce a new cane pricing system based on quality, which is expected to encourage further private cane production.


        1. Cocoa and coffee


6.Along with sugar, cocoa and coffee have historically been exported, although in declining amounts.10 In 1997, the production of cocoa reached 1.74 million kg., of which 1.55 million kg. were exported; the production of coffee was 1.10 million kg., mostly consumed at home. There have been virtually no exports of coffee since 1995 (Table IV.7).

Table IV.7

Production and exports of selected agricultural commodities, 1993-97

('000 kg.)






1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Production
















Cocoa

1,578

1,489

1,694

2,292

1740

Coffee

874

1015

830

353

1,102

Citrus

8,620

10,418

10,255

11,798

10,423

Rice

16,204

17,514

10,193

17,858

8,990

Exports
















Cocoa

1,503

1,342

1,595

1,741

1545

Coffee

445

42

3

0

0


Source: Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago.

7.The Cocoa and Coffee Industry Board is a state agency administered by the MALMR. There are no laws or regulations that force growers to sell their crops to the Board; however, the Board buys up some 85% of domestic production. The crops are purchased from farmers at the guaranteed prices, TT$9.55/kg. for cocoa and TT$8.36/kg. for coffee, whenever international prices fall below guaranteed levels.11 In recent years, international prices have been higher than guaranteed prices.


        1. Citrus fruit


8.The production of citrus fruit has increased substantially in recent years from 8.62 million kg. in 1993 to 10.42 million kg. in 1997 (Table IV.7). All the citrus production is domestically consumed. Imports of citrus face a 40% tariff and an additional 5% import surcharge, which is to be eliminated in 1999.

9.The Co-operative Citrus Growers' Association (CCGA), a private association, is the major local citrus purchaser and processor. Of the fruits delivered to the CCGA in 1996/97, 46% were processed into single strength juice, while the remaining 54% were used in the production of frozen concentrate in 1996/97. Caroni accounted for over 80% of total fruit delivered to the CCGA. Citrus producers who deliver to the CCGA are entitled to receive a guaranteed price of TT$20/crate (equivalent to 40.9kg.) for oranges and TT$12/crate (equivalent to 36.4kg.) for grapefruit. Guaranteed prices have been below market rates over the last ten years.12 Direct sales to the fresh fruit market by smaller producers have been expanding since they receive higher prices than those offered by the CCGA.


        1. Rice


10.Rice is an important domestic staple in Trinidad and Tobago. Annual paddy production has fluctuated considerably over the period 1993-97 (Table IV.7). Local production of paddy satisfies approximately a fourth of domestic demand for rice, with the remainder being met through imports from the United States, Guyana and India. Rice imports face a tariff of 25%.

11.Farmers currently receive guaranteed prices ranging between TT$0.66/kg. and TT$2.02/kg., depending on the grade, for paddy delivered to the majority government-owned National Flour Mills. Until recently, National Flour Mills had exclusive rights to purchase, import and distribute rice. The subsidy incorporated in the guaranteed price (calculated based on the cost of production) is: TT$1.25/kg., TT$1.06/kg., TT$0.72 and TT$0.09 for grades I, II, III and IV respectively. An average TT$10.85 million of subsidies have been paid annually by the Government since 1994 when the grading system was introduced. By providing a higher subsidy to higher quality rice, the introduction of the grading system has improved the overall quality of paddy production, with 80% of the paddy delivered to National Flour Mills falling in or above the grade II category. The share of Grade I paddy in total rice deliveries increased from 40% in 1996 to 55% in 1997.


        1. Coconut/copra


12.Production of copra has varied between 2,600 and 3,000 metric tonnes in the 1994-96 period. Imports of coconut/copra are subject to a licensing requirement and the maximum tariff rate of 40%.

13.A guaranteed price of TT$2.66/kg. is paid to coconut producers. TT$2.00 is paid by the Coconut Growers Association, the major purchaser of coconut in the country, and TT$0.66 is paid by the Ministry of Trade and Industry as a subsidy. Annual payments averaged TT$2.6 million in the period 1992-96. Currently, guaranteed prices are below market prices.


(b)Meat and dairy products


1.Domestic meat production, excluding poultry, accounted for 35.6% of total meat supply in the period 1993-1997, with the rest being imported. While pork meat is mainly supplied by local producers, beef and sheep supplies are dependent on imports. Imports of beef and mutton face a 15% tariff, and pork and poultry face the maximum rate of 40%. While import surcharges on beef, mutton and pork were eliminated in 1998, poultry continues to be subject to a 100% import surcharge, which is to be reduced to 86% in 2004. Domestic poultry production is further protected by licensing requirements for imported poultry. Imports of milk supplied roughly 60% of domestic requirements in the 1993-95 period. The average MFN tariff for dairy products (HS04) is at 20.2%; fresh milk carries a tariff of 40%. An import surcharge of 20% on liquid milk was abolished at the beginning of 1998.

2.The guaranteed price for milk is TT$2.45/kg., of which TT$0.90/kg. is paid by the Government as a subsidy and TT$1.55/kg. is paid by Nestlé, the main milk processor. An informal arrangement exists between the Government and Nestlé, by which the Government pays a subsidy to the farmers who sell their milk to Nestlé. This financial arrangement is managed by Nestlé and is not extended to any other milk processor. The Government paid annual average subsidies of TT$8.4 million in the period 1992-97.13 Approximately 600 dairy farmers benefit from the subsidy. To benefit under the present arrangement, farmers must be registered as regular suppliers to Nestlé. Despite subsidization, supply of milk to Nestlé for processing declined from 10.2 to 9.8 million kg. in the 1992-97 period.


(c)Beverages and tobacco


1.Tobacco and breweries accounted for about 45% of agricultural GDP in 1997. Beverages, spirits and vinegar are by far the largest agricultural export, totalling US$75.1 million in 1997. Rum is exported to the EU market under the Lomé Convention's Rum Protocol. Specific customs duties are levied on alcoholic beverages, while excise duties are levied on local and CARICOM production. In the case of beer and wine, customs duties are higher than excise duties on local and CARICOM goods; for spirits they are generally lower. Imports of most tobacco products are subject to a 30% tariff, while local and CARICOM tobacco products are subject to excise duties (Chapter III(2)(iv) and Table III.6). A tobacco tax is applied on all tobacco products.

(vii)Fisheries


1.The fishing industry accounted for 4.3% of agricultural GDP in 1996. Exports of fish products reached US$10 million, while imports totalled about US$5.8 million in the same year. Imports of fish products face an average tariff rate 29.2%. In general, fish imported for processing purposes is duty-free, while fish imported for consumption faces tariffs between 25 to 40%

2.The Government has provided subsides since 1977 to encourage growth in the fishing industry, which include a fuel rebate of TT$0.05/litre for gasoline and a rebate of 25% of the value up to a maximum of TT$2,500 for the construction of locally built fishing boats. Fishing activities benefit from VAT and import duty exemption. In 1996, the subsidies paid by the Government amounted to TT$0.6 million. In December 1997, a new Fishing Agreement was signed between the Republics of Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago. Essentially, the Agreement delineated a shared fishing area where fishermen from both countries could fish without permits provided they followed the terms of the Agreement, such as flying the flag of their country or being registered in one of the countries.


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