Isc 2011 The Characteristic Study of Nipa (Nypa fruticans) Kernel Oil

Дата канвертавання25.04.2016
Памер35.2 Kb.
ISC - 2011 The Characteristic Study of Nipa (Nypa fruticans) Kernel Oil

Basuni Hamzah

Department of Agriculture Product Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sriwijaya University

Jl. Raya Palembang-Indralaya Km 32, Kab. Ogan Ilir, Sumatera Selatan 30662



Nipa kernel oil was extracted from kernel of nipa palm (Nypa fruticans). In Indonesia, nipa palm tree grows naturally at East of Sumatra bay from Lampung to Aceh, almost all part of Kalimantan bay, some of Sulawesi bay and Papua bay. The nipa palm tree grows at approximately total of about one thousand square kilometers. The objective of the study was to determine oil yield fresh mature of nipa kernel through soxhlet method. Also the oil yields were practically determined through both wet method and dry method. In the study, characteristics of the oil kernel obtained by soxhlet extraction were also determined. The characteristics determined were viscosity, iodine value, and saponification value. Data showed that the yields of nipa kernel oil were 27,4% (by soxhlet extraction), 23,2% (by dry method), and 25,1% (by wet method). The characteristic data showed that 76,39 cSt,27oC of viscosity value, 25,55% of iodine value, and 32,86 mg KOH/g of saponification value.

Key words: nipa, kernel oil, yield

There are more than 30 species of palms have been studied demographically, from montane forest Homeier et al.,2002) to hill forest (Rozainah et al., 2000) and lowland forest (Pinero et al., 1986).

The family Arecaceae (Palmae) is one of the largest monocotyledonous families, comprising over 200 genera and totalling about 2,600 species (Dransfield et al., 2008). Among them, only several species of palms are associated with the mangrove―Calamus erinaceus, Oncosperma tigillarium and Phoenix paludosa―or found as outliers of swamp communitiessuch as Phoenix reclinata and species of Euterpe, Manicaria, Mauritia and Raphia (see Tomlinson, 1986).However, Nypa fruticans is considered the sole member within the family which constitutes as a major element in the mangrove flora (Tomlinson, 1986; Duke, 2006; Dransfield et al., 2008).

Nypa fruticans is a mangrove palm founddistributed in South East Asia and Australia.It was considered to be widely distributed in the east and west coasts of India several centuries ago1. However, presently it is found in the Sunderbans, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands along the Bay of Bengal. Although several mangrove plants have been taken up for revegetation of mangrove forests in India and elsewhere, N. fruticans has not been considered either for plantation in other mangrove sites or for onservation. Hence its plantation in other mangrove formations along both the east and west coasts of India may be considered and attempted. Badve, R. M. and Sakurkar,, 2003. Nipah (Nypa fruticans) is a plant species of palm including the family Arecaceae (palmae) that grows in the mangrove forest. This plant is the only palm species from mangrove areas. Nipah able to survive on land that is somewhat dry or dry at low tide.

Nipah plant is similar to the young sago plants, but not prickly and trunked. Leaves and flowers grow from a horizontal rhizome that sank in the mud. Actually nipah plants have stems that creep on the ground, forming roots immersed in mud, only the rosette leaves that emerges above ground. From the rhizome appears compound pinnate leaves typical of palm, upright or nearly upright, towering up to 9 m above the ground and the stem length between 1 - 1.5 m. Nipah flowers appear in auxiliary panicles, the female flowers gathered at the tip to form a ball while male flowers are arranged in panicles similar strands, each strand consisting of 4-5 grains of male flowers with a length of about 5 cm. Bunches of fruit can be tapped approximately four to five months after the flowers grow [Wikipedia, 2009].

Nipa plant has benefits in terms of economic and non economic. In terms of economic, nipa plants can be used as a source of food and non food as mentioned above. In terms of non-economic, nipa plants have intangible benefits. Rachman and Sudarto (1992) says that the intangible benefits of palm plants include: 1). As a buffer crop ecosystems like mangrove plants, 2). Holding soil erosion on the banks of river discharge and resist abrasion caused by wind and tides, and 3). Some types of fish and shrimp often raise their children in the area around the nipah forests, so that the nipah forests can serve as a nursery ground or feeding ground, it can even also as a place to spawn for several species of fish such as mullet, white snapper, milkfish, crabs and so on (Teo, et. al. 2009).

Nipa (Nypa fruticans Wurmb.) is a potential source of biofuel because of its high yield of sugar-rich sap, which can be converted to alcohol upon fermentation. (Rasco and Ragas, 2011)

Nypa fruticans, known as the attap palm (Singapore), nipa palm (Philippines), and mangrove palm or buah atap (Indonesia), buah nipah (Malaysia), dừa nước (Vietnam), Ging Pol in Sinhala in Sri Lanka and gol pata (Bangladesh), dani (Burma). It is the only palm considered a mangrove in the Mangroves Biome. This species is a monotypic taxon, the only one in the genus Nypa, grows in southern Asia and northern Australia within the Indomalaya ecozone.

Unfortunately, this colonization has considerable ecological implications. It has been observed that Nypa is a highly opportunistic species and the dense monospecific stands that the species forms are out-competing the indigenous mangrove vegetation. This opportunism is exacerbated by the fact that much of the mangrove forest of Nigeria and Cameroon is being felled to provide fuel wood for smoking fish for commercial sale. The resulting exposed mudflats are ideal colonization areas for Nypa, and the indigenous (Sunderland and Morakinyo).

Materials and Methods
Fresh of nipa fruit had taken from Tanjung Api Api, South Sumatera. Two methods of extraction were performed, namely wet method and dry method. Wet method,meat from nipa kernel was ground, then water (60oC) was added, and pressed (2000 kgf). Nipa milk then heated at tempeture of 105oC until the emulsion of oil had been separated, and oil then was taken and yield was determined. Dry method, fresh meat from nipa kernel was dried using vacuum oven at temperature of 70oC for 24 hours, then the dry meat of nipa kernel was pressed (2000 kgf), then the oil was taken and yield was determined. The two methods of extraction were repeated 5 times. In this study, soxhlet extraction of meat kernel nipa oil was also applied, and yield was determined as well as the characteristics, namely viscosity, iodine value, and saponification number. The data analysis were using SAS.
Results and Discussion
Extraction of nipa kernel oil showed (in Table 1.) that the wet method has higher yield (25.1%) comparing to that the dry method (23.2%) (p<.001)

Table 1. The Effect of Wet and Dry Method on Yield for All Treatments


Least Square Means1

Probability > T Comparison of all means










1Least Square Means of yield (%)

By extraction of wet method, oil mostly mixed with water (60oC) added and formed emulsion, the by the process of heating (105oC) and pressing (2000 kgf), much more oil was separated from the meat of nipa kernel oil.
Further more, the characteristics oil extracted by soxhlet has yield of 27.4%, viscosity of 76.79 cSt,27oC, iodine value of 25.55%,and sapinification number of 32.86 mg KOH/g (Table 2.)

Table 2. The Characteristics of Nipa Kernel Oil



Viscisity, cSt,27oC


Iodine , %


Saponification, mg KOH/g



Yields of nipa kernel oil were 27,4% (by soxhlet extraction), 23,2% (by dry method), and 25,1% (by wet method). The characteristic data showed that 76,39 cSt,27oC of viscosity value, 25,55% of iodine value, and 32,86 mg KOH/g of saponification value.


Badve, R. M. and Sakurkar, C. V., Curr.Sci., 2003, 85, 1407–1409.

Burkill, I. H., 1966. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Volume II. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London. 2444 pp. 52

Chong, K. Y., H. T. W. Tan & R. T. Corlett, 2009. A Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore: Native,Naturalised and Cultivated Species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, Singapore. 273 pp. Uploaded 12 Nov.2009. flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Dransfield, J., N. W. Uhl, C. B. Asmussen, W. J. Baker, M. M. Harley & C. E. Lewis, 2008. Genera Palmarum: The

Evolution and Classification of Palms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 732 pp.

Duke, N., 2006. Australia’s Mangroves. The Authoritative Guide to Australia’s Mangrove Plants. University of

Queensland, Queensland. 200 pp.

Eufemio T Rasco Jr. I Ritchu G Ragas,a nd Tosella G Junios

Received 02 February 2011; Accepted 15 March 2011.

© Rushing Water Publishers Ltd. 2012

Gee, C. T., 2001. The mangrove palm Nypa in the geologic past of the New World. Wetlands Ecology andManagement, 9(3): 181–203.

Giesen, W., S. Wulffraat, M. Zieren & L. Scholten, 2006. Mangrove Guidebook for Southeast Asia. Part VIII. Palms,Cycads & Pandans. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Wetlands International,Bangkok. 2e07.pdf. (Accessed 15 Dec.2009).

Hamilton, L. S. & D. H. Murphy, 1988. Use and management of Nipa Palm (Nypa fruticans, Arecaceae): a review.Economic Botany, 42(2): 206−213.Hoppe, L. E., 2005. The pollination biology and biogeography of the mangrove palm Nypa fruticans Wurmb

(Arecaceae). Master’s thesis, University of Aarhus.

Jara, R. S., 1987. Traditional uses of the mangrove in the Philippines. In: Field, C. D. & A. J. Dartnall. (eds.) Mangrove

Päiväke, A. E. A., 1996. Nypa fruticans Wurmb. In: Flach, M. & F. Rumawas. (eds.), Plants Yielding Non-Seed

Carbohydrates. Plant Resources of South- East Asia (PROSEA). Volume 9. Pp. 133– 137.

Riffle, R. L. & P. Craft, 2003. An Encyclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Timber Press, Cambridge. 528 pp.

S. Teo1, W. F. Ang2, A. F. S. L. Lok2, B. R. Kurukulasuriya1 and H. T. W. Tan2*. 2010: Status and Distribution of Nypa fruticans in Singapore. Nature in Singapore: 45-52

Sunderland & Morakinyo. 2002. PALMS :Nypa fruticans Volume 46(3) 2002

Tan, H. T. W., I. M. Turner, & K. S. Chua, 2008. Flora: Seed Plants. In: Davison, G. W. H., P. K. L. Ng & H. H.

Scientific Research and Essays Vol. 5(24), pp. 3896-3902, 18 December, 2010

Available online at

ISSN 1992-2248 ©2010 Academic Journals

Wikipedia (2009), Nipah,, downloaded by Wilujeng Trisiwi on May 5, 2009.

База данных защищена авторским правом © 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка