Introduction to the symbiotic woodboring guild




Дата канвертавання26.04.2016
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Electronic Supplementary Material for manuscript “Sudden emergence of pathogenicity in insect-fungus symbiosis threatens naïve forest ecosystems”
Jiri HULCR and Rob R. DUNN

Introduction to the symbiotic woodboring guild


Ambrosia beetles – members of the weevil subfamilies Scolytinae or Platypodinae, and the family Lymexylidae, which colonize internal tree tissues (mostly xylem), inoculate the wood with symbiotic fungi, and feed nearly exclusively on the fungal gardens. Occasional pests of timber, recently emerging as novel tree-killing pests. At least 11 independent clades, comprised of approximately 3500 spp.

Bark beetles – members of the weevil subfamily Scolytinae which colonize living or dead trees and feed on the actual tree tissues, usually phloem. Ubiquitous in forests worldwide. Several species are well-known for coordinated mass-attacks on live trees and occasional outbreaks. Approximately 5000 spp. The ancestral group of most ambrosia beetles. Many species are also intimately associated with fungi, often with tree pathogens.

Ambrosia fungus – fungus which occurs in exclusive association with an ambrosia insect. It depends on the insect for transmission and inoculation into new trees, in which it grows prolifically, delivering nutrients to the insect progeny. Most ambrosia fungi are believed to reproduce clonally, having lost sexual reproduction. At least 10 independent origins are known, the number of species is unknown.

Mycangia – invaginated pouches or pits on insect body specialized for transmission of fungal inoculum during dispersal. Each insect-fungus association evolved a new type of mycangium.


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