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## INTRODUCTION TO SPSS 11.5

Chapter 1 Introduction 9

Introduction 9

Sample Files 9

Starting SPSS 10

Opening a Data File 11

Running an Analysis 14

Viewing Results 17

Creating Charts 18

Leaving SPSS 19
Chapter 2 Using the Help System 21
Help Contents Tab 22

Index Window 23

Dialog Box Help 24

Right-Mouse Context Help 25

Statistics Coach 26

Results Coach 32

Case Studies 34
Chapter 3 Sources and Organization of Data 35
Introduction 35

Sources of Data 35

Data Organization in SPSS 36

Designing a Coding Scheme 37

Choices in Entering Data 38

Extensions 38

Summary 38

Appendix: Sample Data from an Engineering Application 39

Basic Structure of an SPSS Data File 41

Reading an SPSS Data File 42

Reading Data from a Text File 53

Saving Data 60

Appendix: Reading Fixed-Column Text Data 62

Chapter 5 Using the Data Editor 77
Using the Data Editor 77

Entering Numeric Data 77

Entering String Data 80

Defining Data 82

Changing a Variable Type and Format 83

Adding Value Labels for Numeric Variables 84

Adding Value Labels for String Variables 86

Using Value Labels for Data Entry 88

Handling Missing Data 89

Missing Values for a Numeric Variable 90

Missing Values for a String Variable 91

Copy and Paste Value Attributes 93

## Chapter 6 Examining Summary Statistics for 99

Individual Variables
Examining Summary Statistics for Individual Variables 99

Levels of Measurement 99

Summary Measures for Categorical Variables 100

Charts for Categorical Variables 102

Summary Measures for Scale Variables 103

Histograms for Scale Variables 105

Assessing Degree of Missing Data with Descriptives 106

## Chapter 7 Modifying Data Values 109

Modifying Data Values 109

Creating a Categorical Variable from a Scale Variable 109

Two Simple Recoding Rules 112

Computing New Values 112

Computing Variables with Missing Values 114

## Chapter 8 Crosstabulation Tables 119

Crosstabulation Tables 119

Simple Crosstabulation 119

Counts versus Percentages 121

Significance Testing for Crosstabulations 122

## Chapter 9 Working with Output 127

Using the Viewer 127

Using the Pivot Table Editor 129

Explanations and Definitions of Output 129

Pivoting a Table 130

Creating and Displaying Layers 132

Editing Tables 134

Hiding Rose and Columns 135

Changing Data Display Formats 136

TableLooks 138

Using Predefined Formats 138

Customizing TableLook Styles 139

Changing the Default Table Formatting 141

Customizing Initial Display Settings 143

Optionally Displaying Variable and Value Labels 145

Using Results in Other Applications 147

Pasting Results as Rich Text 147

Pasting Results as Metafiles 149

Pasting Results as Text 151

Exporting Output 152

## Chapter 10 Creating and Editing Charts 155

Creating and Editing Charts 155

Creating a Standard Chart 155

Editing Standard Charts 157

Creating Interactive Charts 162

Editing Interactive Charts 165

Creating an Interactive Chart from a Pivot Table 168

## Chapter 11 Time Saving Features 171

SPSS Syntax 171

Copying Data Properties 174

Display Data Dictionary Information 180

Dialog Recall 181

SPSS Options 183

Chapter 12 Multiple Response Variables 185
Introduction to Multiple Response Variables 185

What are Multiple Response Variables? 185

Defining a Multiple Response Set 187

Defining a Multiple Response Set: Dichotomous Items 190

Multiple Response Frequency Tables 192

Crosstab Tables with Multiple Response Variables 194

Handling Nonresponses 197

Other Procedures and Multiple Response Variables 198

Summary 198
Chapter 13 Hands-On Exercises 199
Background for the Bank Data File 199

Data Location 199

Using the Help System 199

Labels and Missing Values 201

(reference chapter: Using the Data Editor)

Examining Summary Statistics for Individual Variables 202

Modifying Data Values 202

Crosstabulation Tables 203

Working with Output 203

Creating and Editing Charts 204

Time Saving Features 204

Multiple Response Variables 204
Index 207

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