Introduction to Citing Your Sources




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Introduction to Citing Your Sources



What is APA?


  • Publication formatting style from the American Psychological Association.

  • APA is often used in the behavioral, social, and health sciences.



Why do we format by style?


  • Provides a consistent format within a discipline.

  • Makes your paper easier to read and understand.



Where does APA formatting style come from?
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Older Edition Info:
American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychological Association. (2007). APA Style guide to Electronic References. Washington, DC: Author.

*Ask your instructor which edition s/he wants you to use.


Formatting Your Paper



The Overall Look:


  • Ask your instructor for requirements!

  • 12 pt. Times New Roman font preferred or a non-serif font, but ask your instructor.

  • Double-spaced.

  • 1 inch margins.

  • Pages are numbered.

  • Use an abbreviated title as header.



The Title Page:


  • Papers in APA style require a title page.

  • Include the paper’s title and your name, course, professor’s name, and date.

  • Ask your instructor for title page requirements!



Need Help with APA?
*Check out the COD Library’s

Citing Sources page. You can find it easily off the Library’s homepage:

www.cod.edu/library
*Try our bibliography software, NoodleBib, which can build your citations for you. You can find it on the Library’s Citing Sources page. It’s Free for any COD Library card holder!






Citing Your Sources



Why do we cite?


  • Help people find your sources.

  • Show context of your research.

  • Acknowledge the work of others.

  • Show what information you have considered in your research.




In Text Citations:


  • Sometimes called parenthetical citations.

  • Done within the text of your paper after you’ve quoted or paraphrased from a source.

  • In-text citations should include Author’s last name, date of publication, and the page or section where the material you used can be found.

  • Each source cited in the paper must appear on your “References” list and vice versa.

Quoting Directly

“One of the lucky things about sleepwalking in children is that it generally occurs during the first hour or two after a child has gone to sleep, which means that parents are usually still awake” (Schenck, 2007, p.103).


OR
Schenck (2007) remarks, “One of the lucky things about sleepwalking in children is that it generally occurs during the first hour or two after a child has gone to sleep, which means that parents are usually still awake” (p. 103).


Paraphrasing

Sleepwalking in children often happens early in their nightly sleep cycle (Schenck, 2007, p. 103).


OR
Schenck (2007) remarks that sleepwalking in children often happens early in their nightly sleep cycle (p.103).


The Reference List:


  • Called “References,” alphabetized by item (author or title).

  • A list of every source that you make reference to in your paper.

  • Provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any sources cited in your paper.

  • Each source cited in the paper must appear on the References list, and vice versa.

  • Citations should be double-spaced with a hanging indent.


Elements of a Citation:
Citations should contain the following information in this order:


  • Author’s Name

  • Date

  • Title of Item

  • Publication Information

  • Retrieval Information


Author’s Name





  • Citations start with Author information.

  • List authors according to the order they appear on the source

  • Provide only first initials for first and middle names.

Examples:

Feldt, R.
Hill, F. J., & Awde, N.
Date


  • List the year the item of published, posted, or produced in parentheses.

  • Provide the full date if the item provides no other means of determining the date or edition of the source (i.e. volume or issue number).

  • Use n.d. (no date) for undated items.

Examples:

Hill, F. J., & Awde, N. (2003).
Romano, A. (2006, April 24).

Title of Item





  • If an item is a single/stand alone item, then italicize the title, only capitalizing the proper nouns and the first word of the title.

  • If the item is part of a larger work, then state the title as mentioned above but without italics.

Examples:

Hill, F. J., & Awde, N. (2003). A history of the Islamic world.
Feldt, R. (2008). Development of a brief measure of college stress: The college student stress scale.

Publication Information





  • For a single/standalone item, provide the any edition, version or volume information, the location, and the publisher or sponsor.

  • If the item is part of a larger work, identify that larger work with the above information and provide page or section numbers.

Examples:

Hill, F. J., & Awde, N. (2003). A history of the Islamic world. New York: Hippocrene Books.
Feldt, R. (2008). Development of a brief measure of college stress: The college student stress scale. Psychological Reports, 102(3), 855-860.

Retrieval Information





  • For electronic items, include DOI (digital object identifier), or periodical home page, or database or website information of the place where the reader can find the item cited.

  • Google the title of the periodical to find the publisher’s “homepage” for that periodical.

Examples:

Feldt, R. (2008). Development of a brief measure of college stress: The college student stress scale. Psychological Reports, 102(3), 855-860. doi:10.2466/PR0.102.3.855-860
Romano, A. (2006, April 24). Walking a new beat: Surfing MySpace.com helps cops crack the case. Newsweek, 147(17), 48. Retrieved from http://www.newsweek.com/

Specific Examples:





Book
Schenck, C. H. (2007). Sleep: The mysteries, the problems, and the solutions. New York: Avery.

Book Chapter
Mattia, J.I., & Zimmerman, M. (2001). Epidemiology. In W.J. Livesley (Ed.), Handbook of personality disorders: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 107-123). New York: Guilford Press.

Encyclopedia Article
Frey, R. J. (2003). Post-traumatic stress disorder. In The Gale encyclopedia of mental disorders (Vol. 2, pp. 786-789). Detroit: Gale.

Journal Article (Print)
Verona, E., & Kilmer, A. (2007). Stress exposure and affective modulation of aggressive behavior in men and women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 116(2), 410-421.
Journal Article with DOI
Andersson, G. (2009). Foster children: A longitudinal study of placements and family relationships. International Journal of Social Welfare, 18(1), 13-26. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2397.2008.00570.x

Journal Article with no DOI (Database)
Norvilitus, J. M., Szablicki, P. B., & Wilson, S. D. (2003). Factors influencing levels of credit-card debt in college students. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33(5), 935-947. Retrieved January 27, 2009, from http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0021-9029.

Article on the Web
Martin, J. (2008, November). A growing problem for veterans—domestic violence. Washington University in St. Louis. Retrieved May 8, 2009, from http://newsinfo.wustl.edu/tips/ page/normal/2902.html

Government Publication Online

U.S. Central Intelliegence Agency. (2009). The world factbook 2009.. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Video (Online)

Carnegie Mellon. (Producer). (2008, February 6). Randy Pausch lecture: Time management [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oTugjssqOT0




Podcast

AHRQ. (Producer). (2008, December 18). Healthcare 411 News Series from AHRQ [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://healthcare411.ahrq.gov/featureAudio.aspx?id=891




APA Style Guide Karla Aleman, College of DuPage Library, 2009


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