International Symposium on Broomrape (Orobanche spp.) in Sunflower By Republic of Türkiye Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs The General Directorate of Agricultural Research Trakya Agricultural Research Institute Edirne


Kaya Y.1 Evci¹ G. 1 Pekcan V. 1 Gucer T. 1 Yilmaz M.I. 1



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Kaya Y.1 Evci¹ G. 1 Pekcan V. 1 Gucer T. 1 Yilmaz M.I. 1




¹ Trakya Agricultural Research Institute, PO Box: 16, 22100 Edirne, TURKEY,

Phone: +90 284 2358182, Fax :+90 284 2358210, e-mail: yalcinkaya@ttae.gov.tr

ABSTRACT


Broomrape (Orobanche cumana L.) is the biggest problem both in Turkey and in some Eastern European countries and also in Spain. The research covering broomrape tests of sunflower hybrids in the trials based on National Sunflower Research Project was conducted in Trakya region, which has 75% of sunflower production in Turkey in 2006, 2007 and 2008 years. Based on this project, in natural infested conditions 306 in 2006, 443 in 2007 and 533 genetic materials (commercial and candidate hybrids, inbred lines, etc..) tested in 2008 and from these tested materials, 12 of them in 2006, 56 in 2007 and 140 in 2008 were observed as resistant in the research. In winter time, broomrape tests continued in growth chamber and in the pots as artificially infested conditions. Broomrape seeds were collected from naturally infested area of Trakya region , then used in to determine of the reactions of developed hybrids and lines against these races. At this part of study, 1752 in 2006, 816 in 2007 and 1389 in 2008 sunflower genotypes were tested. Based on these tests, 332 materials in 2006, 94 in 2007 and 404 materials were found as resistant to new races of broomrape in the study.
Key Words: Sunflower, Hybrid, Broomrape, Resistance.


The Use of New Rf Inbred Lines Originating From Interspecific Population with H. deserticola for the Production of Sunflower Hybrids Resistant to Broomrape
Nada Hladni1, Siniša Jocić1, Vladimir Miklič1, Dejana Saftić-Panković1, Dragan Škorić2
1Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Maksima Gorkog 30, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia, tele/faks 00 381 21 413 833 e-mail nadah@ifvcns.ns.ac.yu

2Serbian Academy of Science and Arts, Branch in Novi Sad, Nikole Pašića 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
ABSTRACT
One of the directions in sunflower breeding is selection for the resistance to broomrape. The population of broomrape has been stable in Serbia for a longer period of time, but the racial composition has changed in recent years, with race E being predominant in the regions of north Backa and Banat. Cultivated sunflower is genetically narrow and deficient in many desirable genes. Its genetic variability can be increased by the use of wild sunflower species and interspecific hybridization.

The resistance of 15 new experimental hybrids to broomrape was tested on locations in Serbia (Pačir) during three years (2006, 2007, 2008) and in Romania (Baraganu, Bralia) during 2008. These hybrids were produced by crossing female inbred lines (Ha-26PR-A, PH-BC2-92-A and Ha-98-A) susceptible to broomrape and new Rf inbred lines (RHA-D-2, RHA-D-5, RHA-D-6, RHA-D-7, RHA-D-8), developed from interspecies population originating from H. deserticola, and resistant to broomrape race E. All examined hybrids were resistant to broomrape on both locations. Since broomrape race F is present on location in Romania, it is expected that the new Rf inbred lines-male components of examined hybrids, have the resistance gene for race F also.


Key words: sunflower, interspecific hybridization, resistance, broomrape


The Virulence of Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) Populations

on Sunflower in Some Regions of Northern Caucasus
T.S. Antonova, N.M. Araslanova, S.Z. Guchetl, T.A. Tchelustnikova, S.A. Ramazanova, E.N. Trembak
All Russia Research Institute of Oil Crops by the name of V.S. Pustovoit, (VNIIMK)

Krasnodar, Russia
ABSTRACT
At virulence comparison of broomrape seeds collected on sunflower in Northern Caucasus in different years the populations Svetlogradskaya (Stavropol region, 2005) and Morozovskaya (Rostov region, 2006) were found as a high virulent for two resistant inbred lines of VNIIMK. The population Privolnenskaya (Krasnodar region, 2003) has shown the weakest virulence.

Eight hybrids (different resistance against races A - E) were tested in field conditions against artificial infectious backgrounds of seeds from Svetlogradskaya and Privolnenskaya populations. The quantity of parasite stems appeared on the soil surface was counted.

The sunflower variety Peresvet (VNIIMK) and a hybrid P 96 (resistant against race F in Spain) were tested at separate artificial inoculation by broomrape: race F (from Spain), the mixture of races F, G, H (from Turkey), also Svetlogradskaya and Privolnenskaya populations. The quantity of healthy tubercles was counted on sunflower roots after 30 days of growing.

The all results confrontation let to make the conclusion: Svetlogradskaya and Privolnenskaya populations are represented by mixture of non virulent and virulent races for tested sunflower genotypes. But Svetlogradskaya contains a high percentage seeds of race F and insignificant admixture of the more virulent biotype. Privolnenskaya contains a high percentage seeds of race E and insignificant admixture of the more virulent biotype. The numerous tracks of died individuals of non virulent races were seen on roots of all experimental plants.


Key words: broomrape, virulence, races, sunflower,
Improving sunflower for resistance to Orobanche and Sulfonylureas herbicides - Sunflower hybrid PF100
Georgeta DICU, Nicoleta DUMITRESCU, Mihai RADU, Oana DIACONESCU

Procera Agrochemicals Romania Ltd. No. 11, Muncii street, Fundulea city, 915200, Calarasi county, Romania


ABSTRACT

Procera Agrochemicals Romania is a company that has developed a program for sunflower breeding, since 2004. One of the main goals of this improvement program is to obtain sunflower hybrids resistant to broomrape, as a consequence of the well-known fact that Romania has a constantly increasing incidence of soil-areas infested with this parasite.

Sunflower hybrid PF100 is a semi-late hybrid that has genetic resistance to broomrape and is also genetically improved with resistance-genes to Sulfonyl Urea herbicides SURES-1 and SURES-2, for both male and female lines. PF100 has been tested in the Romanian official network of the State Institute for Variety Testing and Registration for the last two years (2006-2008). The results recorded showed that the seed production varied from 2348 kg/ha (Timiş county, 2005) to 4604 (Vaslui county, 2006) and the oil content in seeds was between 47-51%. In 2008, the highest seed yield of this hybrid (3700 kg/ha) was obtained in the tests trials from the demo-plots established at Viziru, Brăila county (one of the most infested county with broomrape).


Control of Broomrape in Iran
Afshin Esmaailifar¹, Alireza Nezamabadi² & Alizaman Mirabadi²

1-Dept. of Plant Protection, Islamic Azad University, Arak,Iran. afshin5440@yahoo.com

2-Research Dept., Oilseed Research & Development Co. (ORDC), Tehran, Iran. 
 

ABSTRACT

  

    Broomrape is one of the most dangerous parasitic plants for many crops. The communities of weed broomrapes were investigated from sunflower fields in Iran. In the sunflower fields the populations of weed broomrapes consists of plants of Orobanche aegyptica, O.ramosa, O.cumana and O.crenata. There are present in Iran but sporadically, other species of Orobanche. Method of control and management for each parasite were included: crop rotation, clean seeds, sowing dates, biological control, genetic resistance and herbicides. The behaviour of some Iranian sunflower cultivars (RT21, AS508, Hysun 33, Hysun 25, Euroflore, Record,...) to O. aegyptica attack was tested in the artificial inoculation and natural contamination. It could be noted that all hybrid cultivars and from OP, Record exhibited an absolute resistance. To eradicate this dangerous plant was and still is the aim of specialists worldwide. In order to diminish the negative effect of broomrape on sunflower yield, there were tested the next methods: herbicides: crop – rotation, deep ploughing, deep seeding or watering, biological control by trap – plants, insects(Phtomyza orobanche), fungi(Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. orthoceras), herbicides. The chemical method was proved to be a necessity for a modern agriculture. It was tested the efficacy of 5 variants of herbicides (Treflan 48 EC + Glyforom RV, Stomp 330 EC + Glyfogan 480 SL, Treflan 48 EC + Basta EC, Stomp 330 EC + Assert 250 EC, Stomp 350 + Basta EC) in 2 experimental field. The best results was with Treflan 48 EC (trifluralin 480 g/l) preemergent 2 l/ha + Glyforom RV (gliphosate 360 g/l) post emergent 0,2 l/ha + 0,3 l/ha applied at 40 and 60 days from planting with efficacy 82,7% and Stomp 330 EC (pendimethalin 330 g/l) preemergent 4 l/ha + Glyphogan 480 SL (gliphosate sal 360 g/l) postemergent 0,2 + 0,3 l/ha, efficacy 80,7%, in the broomrape control.  



Keywords: Broomrape, Control, Herbicide, Insect,Fungi
Determination Superior Hybrid Combinations in Sunflower and Testing Hybrid Performance in Broomrape (Orobanche Cumana Wallr.) Infested Areas

Oğuz GUNDUZ1, Abdurrahim Tanju GOKSOY2



1Tekcan Seed, Kesan, Edirne, Turkey, oguzgunduz@ttmail.com

2Uludag University, Agriculture Faculty, Field Crops Dept. Bursa, Turkey
ABSTRACT

This research was conducted during 2004 - 2007 to estimate the parents and crosses showing superior general and specific combining abilities, F1’s hybrid vigor and genetic structure of a hybrid sunflower population in terms of phenological characters, agronomical traits, yield and quality characters and to identify suitable parents and promising hybrid combinations of resistance to Broomrape. Twenty five experimental hybrids were created using 5 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and 5 pollen tester (restorer) lines having different levels of resistance to Broomrape in sunflower. Field trials of the research were made at three different locations (Center, Ferhadanli and Banarli districts) in Tekirdag province. The experiments were designed in a randomized complete block with three replications.

According to the results, the general and specific combining ability (sca) variances were highly significant for all traits investigated except days to 50% flowering. According to the general combining ability effects obtained from the all locations, A3 (TTAE 4156A) for oil content, seed yield and oil yield were determined as the most suitable parents. The significant SCA effect and high mean values of hybrids combinations showed that A4 x B7, A3 x B7, A4 x B8, A5 x B6, A3 x B9 and A3 x B8 for seed and oil yields were promising hybrid combinations. It was found that A3 x B6, A3 x B7, A3 x B10 and A4 x B7 hybrids produced 20-25 % more oil yield compared with the average of control cultivars in some location. The results of Broomrape test indicated that, based on the commercial checks results, all trial areas were infested with the new races. In Ferhadanli, except Sanbro, all of the hybrids have showed lower attack degree. B10 male line was resistant to broomrape population in all locations. A3 x B6 and A3 x B7 experimental hybrids were found highly tolerant to the new broomrape races in all locations, instead of their parents’ susceptibility. Also, none of the B10 male line hybrids were not showing any resistance to broomrape even at tolerant level.

As a results, genotypes A3 (TTAE 4156A), A4 (TTAE BAH8 A), B6 (RHA14) and B7 (RHA 20) were the parents involved in the best-yielding crosses. Among these parents, A3 and B7, which possesses a considerable positive GCA effect, might be utilized as a good parent in hybrid sunflower breeding programs. On the other hand, A3 x B6, and A3 x B7 might be considered as promising hybrid combinations for higher yield based on their heterosis and heterobeltiosis values, SCA effects and resistance to Broomrape.



Key Words: Sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., combining ability, heterosis, line x tester, broomrape, Orobanche cumana W., yield and quality.


Virulence and aggressiveness of sunflower broomrape ( Orobanche cumana Wallr. ) populations, in Europe.
Maria Pacureanu Joita, Steluta Raranciuc, Elisabeta Sava, Elena Petcu, Narcisa Babeanu*, Ovidiu Popa*
National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea, N. Titulescu st., no. 1, 915200, Fundulea, Calarasi , Romania.

* University of Agricultural Sciences, Marasti Av., no. 59, Bucharest, Romania

E-mail: mariapacureanu2@yahoo.com, pacurean@ricic.ro


ABSTRACT
The pathogenic composition of the broomrape populations has changed over the years, slowly at first, then rapidly in Eastern Europe, Turkey and Spain. In the last years, in Europe, new and aggressive populations of the parasite, have attacked sunflower crop, specially in Turkey, Spain, Romania, Russia, Ukraine and Bulgaria. In Romania there are three important areas infested with broomrape ( Orobanche cumana Wallr. ), different as infestation degree and presence of different virulent groups. A new highly virulent population of broomrape has attacked sunflower in Romania in 2006 year. Many commercial hybrids belonging to different companies lost their resistance to this parasite. Sunflower genotypes, existing in Fundulea germplasm collection, used as differentials for the broomrape races, were tested with the parasite seeds collected from Romania, Spain, Turkey, Bulgaria and Ukraine. The spectrum of the broomrape races in these areas are different. Many genotypes, for some of them being known the reaction to the races in Spain or Turkey, were tested in Romania in 2008 year. The results have indicated a new and different virulent population of the parasite.
Key words: sunflower, broomrape, virulence, resistant ,sensitive.
Status of Orobanche Cernua Loefl. and Weeds in Sunflower Production

in Turkey

M. Demirci1 Y. Kaya2



1Agrobest Grup Co. Atatürk Mah., Kazım Karabekir Cad. No: 61 Kemalpaşa-İzmir, Turkey

2 Trakya Agricultural Research Institute, PO Box: 16, 22100 Edirne, TURKEY,



ABSTRACT

Broomrape (O. cernuıa) is one of the most serious hindrances in sunflower production throughout the Turkey and Eastern Europe. Previous and late studies have shown that imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides applied onto IMI resistant sunflower effectively controls O. cernua by rapid absorbtion, translocation and accumulation in the root attached parasite. However, susceptibility level of susceptible sunflower varieties to the herbicides has been an obstacle in application of these herbicides. Preliminary studies were conducted with susceptible sunflower varieties. But the best results obtained from single foliar treatment of Imazamox (35 g/l)+imazapyr (15 g/l), 43,75+18,75 g/ha was applied on IMI resistant sunflower plants 8-10 true leaf stage. The treatment caused serious damage to susceptible sunflower plants but no damage observed IMI resistant varieties and completely controlled O. cernua, resulting in a there-fold increase in sunflower seed yield over the non-treated control. In addition same treatment controlled key weeds that seriously harm sunflower production. Further studies are in progress to determine affectivity of other members of IMI herbicides application rates and timing. Broomrape (O.cernua) and weeds have infested and reduced yield in the sunflower production area with high economic level. But using IMI resistant and broomrape tolerant inbred varieties have suppressing and decreasing weed population and epidemics effectively in last there years.


Key Words: Orobanche cernua, weed control, imidazolinone herbicides, sunflower
Status of broomrape in Serbia
Stevan Masirevic,

Faculty of agriculture, Novi Sad, Serbia


ABSTRACT:

Epiphitotic spread of broomrape in Serbia started in the begining of nineties and continues up to date. It is considered that new race was introduced by confectionery sunflower seed. Sunflower is endangered on the north of Bačka region. The main foci of hazard are areas under sunflower on the Subotica - Bačka Topola route, with a tendecy of spreading toward Senta and Čantavir, while the second direction is toward Čonoplja and Aleksa Šantić, and then to the south. Less intensive attack is also noticed in Banat around Padej, Itebej i Vršac. It is significant to underline that broomrape has appeared in new localities Svetozar Miletić, Mol, Novi Bečej and Zmajevo at which it had not been registered previously. The analysis of population showed that broomrape in Serbia belonged to race E of the parasite. Constant monitoring of broomrape population is very important due to changes in race composition and evolution of new more virulent races. The most reliable method for control of the parasite is cultivation of resistant sunflower hybrids including IMI resistant hybrids.


Key words: broomrape, Serbia, physiological races, methods of control, sunflower

This symposium jointly organized by
Republic of Turkish

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs

The General Directorate of Agricultural Research

Trakya Agricultural Research Institute – Edirne
Turkish Plant Breeders Association

International Sunflower Association

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)
This symposium jointly sponsored by

Agrozem Invest Co.






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