International action plan for the black-winged pratincole

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Glareola nordmanni

This draft International Action Plan for the Black-winged Pratincole (Glareola nordmanni) was commissioned by the Secretariat of African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement and European Division of BirdLife International, and was prepared by the Russian Bird Conservation Union (BirdLife International Partner Designate in Russia). The first draft was send out to experts on the species and its’ conservation, and then discussed on 3rd April 2002 at the Workshop on Black-winged Pratincole in Moscow. All comments and suggestions, as well as outputs from the Workshop, are incorporated in this second draft of the Action Plan.










Biological Assessment



Human Activities



Policies and Legislation



Framework for Action



Action by Country







App I

Evaluation of threats


App. II

Overview of key sites


March 2001
Key compilers:

Victor P.Belik

Elena A. Lebedeva (abbreviated as LL in few comments below)

Umberto Gallo-Orsi, BirdLife Europe

Bert Lenten, AEWA

Eugeny A. Bragin, Kazakhstan

Valery V. Khrokov, Kazakhstan

Pavel Tomkovich, Russia

Sergei Bukreev, Russia

Valery Moseikin, Russia

Leonid Korshikov, Russia

Anatoly Davygora, Russia

Elena Kreuzberg-Mukhina, Uzbekistan

Gennady Molodan, the Ukraine



Participants of Workshop on Sociable Lapwing (3rd March 2002, Moscow, Russia):

Umberto Gallo-Orsi, BirdLife Europe

Elchin Sultanov, Azerbaijan (Baku)

Valery V. Khrokov, Kazakhstan (Almaty)

Eugeny A. Bragin, Kazakhstan (Naurzum Nature Rezerve)

Gennady N. Molodan, the Ukraine (Donetsk)

Elena Kreuzberg-Mukhina, Uzbekistan (Tashkent)

Victor P. Belik, Russia (Rostov-on-Don)

Sergei A. Bukreev, Russia (Moscow)

Vasily F. Chernobaj, Russia (Volgograd)

Anatoly V. Davygora, Russia (Orenburg)

Maksim A. Korol’kov, Russia (Ul’yanovsk)

Leonid V. Korshikov, Russia (Orenburg)

Elena A. Lebedeva, Russia (Moscow)

Vladimir V. Morozov, Russia (Moscow)

Valery N. Moseikin, Russia (Saratov)

Pavel S. Tomkovich, Russia (Moscow)

Victor A. Zubakin, Russia (Moscow)


What is the profile of the Black-winged Pratincole?

Black-winged Pratincole breeds mainly in the steppe and desert belt of Eurasia from Romania and Ukraine in the west to the Russian part of the Altai and to Kazakhstan in the east. It winters in Africa south of the Sahara desert. Migration through the Middle East countries such as Turkey, Iran, Iraq etc. are probably transit / flyover, and take place on the high altitudes; as a result Black-winged Pratincole is seldom recorded in this region. Population decline of Black-winged Pratincole started in the end of 19th century, and became more evident in the second half of the 20th century. In the latest years, starting from 1980s-1990s, strong population decline took place again: in 10 years numbers decreased two to three times. Recently the total population of Black-winged Pratincole hardly exceeds 10,000-15,000 pairs. The Black-winged Pratincole is classified as "data deficient" (BirdLife International, 2000) at global level, and "rare, SPEC 3" at European level (Tucker & Heath, 1994). It is however not included at all in the Red Data Book of Asia, and neither in the list of Globally Threatened Species, probably because of far too optimistic understanding of species numbers The species is listed in Appendix II of the Bonn Convention and of the Bern Convention. Black-winged Pratincole is included in category B2b of the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA). This requires from all Range States of the Agreement to develop and implement the Action Plan necessary for conservation and restoration of the species population.

Why an international Action Plan for the Black-winged Pratincole

Because of the dramatic population decline, which happened in the 20th century, Black-winged Pratincole is now facing the threat of extinction. The reasons for this sharp number decline in the latest decades are not exactly known, therefore it is at the moment difficult to plan certain actions for conservation of the species. The latter is also more complicated because of the nomadic distribution of Black-winged Pratincole, and because of the fact that these birds are changing breeding sites / areas. The urgent need for the Black-winged Pratincole Action Plan is also driven by the fact that this species is closely associated with the “secondary” man-made habitats, where human activities are very intense.

What is the basis of the Action Plan?

The Action Plan is based on the studies and analysis of the Black-winged Pratincole populations, primarily within its’ European breeding range (Dementiev, Gladkov 1951, Kistjakovski 1957, Dolgushin 1962, Molodan 1988, 1994, Belik 1994, 1998, 2001, Belik and Tomkovich, 1997, Garmash 1998). This is related to our assumption that it is reproduction period which is an “at most ecological vulnerable” for this species, and that the overall population dynamics depend first of all on the annual breeding success and species productivity. Additional consultations and input into the Action Plan is needed to assess and evaluate the situation in the Asian and African parts of the species range.

What is the objective of the Action Plan?

The general objective of the plan is to ensure that population of the Black-winged Pratincole becomes stable or increases as a result of conservation initiatives which take into account habitat requirements of the species (primarily in breeding areas), as well as the interests of local agricultural communities.

What does the Action Plan consist of?

The Action Plan presents a framework for conservation and restoration of the Black-winged Pratincole and its’ habitats. Measurable objectives are set at national and international level, taking into account management options for each country.

Which countries are involved?

Implementation of the Action Plan requires effective international co-ordination of actions. This is especially important for countries holding the main part of the species breeding range (Kazakhstan, Russia, and the Ukraine), and for the wintering range countries (Afrotropical region).

What should these countries do?

There should be commitment of all individual Range States for the conservation of Black-winged Pratincole and its’ habitats. All these countries should develop their own National Action Plans. In these Action Plans, management activities should be described, on the basis of the management options that have been presented in this International Action Plan.

How should the Action Plan be implemented?

A working group under the Technical Committee of the AEWA should be established for implementation of Single Species Action Plans. Activities mandated to the working group are listed in this International Action Plan. The plan should be formally adopted at the Second Session of the Meeting of the Parties to the AEWA, which will take place from 26-29 September of 2002, Bonn, Germany and be reviewed every three years thereafter. In case of emergency situations in population of Black-winged Pratincole, review of the Action Plan should be done immediately.

  1. Introduction

Dramatic situation in the population of Black-winged Pratincole Glareola nordmanni, which became obvious in the end of the XX century, urges for immediate actions aimed at more effective conservation of this species. It was included in Category 3 of the list of Species of European Conservation Concern (SPEC 3), since it was considered that less than 10,000 pairs breed in Europe (Tucker and Heath, 1994). Rapid population decline, which was observed in southern Russia in 1990s, led here to at least a 10 times decrease of the species numbers. Pronounced number fluctuations were observed in the latest years also in the eastern (Asian) part of the species breeding range. Recently the total population of Black-winged Pratincole unlikely to exceed 10,000-15,000 pairs.

Development and implementation of the International Action Plan is urgently needed to conserve and restore Black-winged Pratincole populations; this Action Plan will enable to involve in the conservation activities all Range States, both on the governmental and non-governmental levels. Only through development of international co-operation for conservation of Black-winged Pratincole these actions to remove threats to the species can be successful. International co-operation is needed for implementation of all the positions of this Action Plan. This co-operation will guarantee effectiveness and positive outputs of the Action Plan.

Table 1

Breeding numbers of Black-winged Pratincole in European Russia
prior to the latest population decline
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