Instructions for Authors Mission of jaaha the mission of the

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Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association Instructions for Authors


Mission of JAAHA

The mission of the Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association is to publish accurate, timely scientific and technical information pertaining to the practice of small animal medicine and surgery. The Journal is a peer-reviewed publication, with a target audience of veterinarians in clinical practice and their practice team members.

Manuscripts submitted should be of value to the small animal practitioner and their practice team, related to clinical practice, or both. Preference is given to scientific reports of original studies or retrospective studies. Selected unique case reports are also considered. Review articles are usually commissioned by the editor, and authors considering submission of a review article should contact the editor prior to manuscript preparation.

Effective December 10, 2003, the Journal is published entirely online. No print publication is produced, although the table of contents with author abstracts for each issue is published in Trends magazine.

Advice to Authors

Authors should carefully review the instructions below when preparing a manuscript. In particular, if the Manuscript Preparation Guidelines and Submission Requirements are not followed, manuscripts will be returned to authors without review. Strict compliance with these instructions will expedite processing of the manuscript.

Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they have not been published in or submitted to other publications. All manuscripts submitted should be original. All data presented in the Materials and Methods should be original and should not appear in other publications. All authors listed on the manuscript should have contributed significantly to the work described or have generated part of the reported results. All authors should have reviewed and approved the contents of the manuscript prior to submission. Any author playing a minor role in the work reported should be removed from the author list and acknowledged for their contributions at the end of the manuscript. The number of authors per paper should be <10.

Manuscript Preparation

Outlined below are the types of articles that JAAHA will consider for publication.


  1. Original studies: This broad category includes descriptions of new techniques or procedures, prospective clinical trials, and hypothesis-driven research of any nature that adds to the knowledge base in companion animal veterinary medicine.

  2. Retrospective studies: Any study based on patient records accumulated over time.

  3. Case series: A specific type of retrospective study that focuses on a specific disease or syndrome. A minimum of five cases must be included to be considered a case series.

  4. Review articles: Review articles summarize and interpret existing literature regarding important topics in companion animal medicine. They should include the most current information available.

  5. Case reports: A case report includes detailed descriptions of one to five animals. Case reports should be brief, limited to 3,000 words, excluding references. They should describe unique or rarely reported clinical entities, unusual presentations or established clinical entities, new clinical diagnostic methods, or novel treatments and outcomes.

Note: Technician submissions fall into the same categories as those defined above. Most likely they will fall under the headings of original studies or reviews.

Authors who have ideas for contributions that do not fit easily into one of the above categories, but, in their opinion, are appropriate for publication in JAAHA, are encouraged to contact the Editor in Chief, Dr. Rebar, directly (

I. Original studies, retrospective studies, case series (five or more cases)

The title should be concise and be preferably 15 words or less. When numbers appear in the title, write out all numbers nine or smaller, and use numerals when the number is 10 or greater. Numbers are always spelled out if they are the first word in the title.

An abstract must accompany the manuscript and should appear on the first page. The abstract serves as an executive summary of the manuscript. It should include a one- to two-sentence synopsis of each of the major components of the manuscript: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. The abstract is not only embedded in the manuscript file, it is also keyed as a separate entity as part of the initial submission process.

Subheadings to guide the reader must be used in the text. For original and retrospective studies, and case series, such headings include Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion.

  • The Introduction should explain the rationale for the study and provide enough pertinent historical (referenced) information on the topic to allow the reader to understand the significance of the study. Conclude the Introduction with a statement of purpose for the paper.

  • The Materials and Methods should describe the experimental design of any original studies or the source of material and parameters reviewed in retrospective studies. Statistical methods used to evaluate data should be clearly defined as well as the levels of significance used.

  • The Results section should factually relay all results and outcomes, without any interpretation. Every parameter described in the Materials and Methods should be reported on in the Results in the same order as introduced in the Materials and Methods.

  • The Discussion contains information on the interpretation and significance of the findings. It should be concise, pertinent to the current state of veterinary practice, and presented in the same order as the Results. Exhaustive literature reviews should be avoided.

  • The Conclusion should provide the reader with a clear summarization of the major findings, outcomes, or lessons learned from the study.

II. Case reports

The Journal contains a separate section for case reports. Reports of single or small numbers of cases will be considered for publication when they describe unique or rarely reported clinical entities, unusual presentations of established clinical entities, new clinical diagnostic methods, or novel treatments and outcomes. A case report is defined as a report that includes detailed descriptions of one to five animals. Authors wishing to report observations on more than five animals (case series) should follow the standard guidelines for manuscripts submitted to the Journal using the Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion format.

Format for case reports consists of a title; a brief introduction explaining the rationale for the case report; and a description of the case(s) including presentation, diagnostic investigation, therapy, and outcome. Subheadings are not necessary. Case reports should not exceed 3,000 words excluding references, which should be limited to 25, and figures/tables. A short abstract summarizing the report must be included.

III. Reviews

Submission of reviews on important topics in companion animal medicine is highly encouraged. Authors of reviews should discuss appropriate subdivisions and subheadings in advance with the Editor in Chief. Submitted reviews will be subject to the same peer-review process used for original studies, retrospective studies, and case series.

Submission Requirements

All manuscript submissions to the Journal must include a submission fee, signed copyright agreement, and signed consent to the Conflict of Interest statement. These three elements, which are included on one form, must be faxed to the Journal office at 303-986-1700, attention Managing Editor of JAAHA. Manuscripts that are uploaded to the Journal will not be processed without the faxed Submission Fee/Copyright form. The link below will take you to this form for downloading.

Submission Fee

Each submitted manuscript must include a $35 processing fee. No refunds are given on rejected manuscripts. The amount must be in U.S. dollars, payable by credit card (Visa, MC, AMEX). Click on the link below to download the Submission Fee/Copyright form.

Copyright Agreement

When submitting a manuscript, a signature is required on the copyright form. Click on the link below to download the Submission Fee/Copyright form.

Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they have not been published in or submitted to other publications. Manuscripts and figures selected for publication become the property of the American Animal Hospital Association and may not be published elsewhere without written permission.

Submission Fee/Copyright form

Conflict of Interest Policy

It is in the best interest of authors and reviewers to learn of any potential conflict of interest before initiating a review. Such information will not alter established editorial and review policies but will assist the editorial staff in avoiding any potential conflicts that could give the appearance of a biased review.

Editorial Manager will prompt you to enter all sources of financial support and funding for the study. In this same field, authors also should disclose all financial interests they may have in companies that manufacture products cited in the study, or in companies that manufacture competing products. Such financial interests include employment, consultant positions, shareholding, ownership, or officer/advisory/board membership of the company. Please note: Details of funding and financial support should not be included in the manuscript.

Electronic File Format

Please Note: Paper or hard copies of manuscripts are not accepted by the Journal. All submissions are created by uploading electronic files onto this website, with subsequent creation of PDF files. Instructions for creation of the necessary electronic files are described below.

Manuscript File

The manuscript must be written and saved as a file in Microsoft Word (version 1995 or newer).

  • Save the file without inline imported graphics or charts.

  • Figures should not be embedded within the manuscript.

  • Use no accessory programs such as automatic footnotes, etc.

The manuscript file should include the manuscript’s title, abstract page, text, footnotes, references, and figure/media legends. Do not include a title page that cites authors and affiliations. (You will enter author information separately into Editorial Manager so that it will not be seen by reviewers.)

Begin each of the following sections on separate pages and type them in this order:

  • Manuscript title and abstract; these two items may appear on the same page. (Do not include author or institutional names on this page.)

  • Text

  • Footnotes

  • References

  • Legends for illustrations and multimedia files

Manuscripts must be double-spaced with one-inch margins and left margin justification. Do not justify the right margin. The title/abstract, footnotes, references, and legends must also be double-spaced. Use a 12-point Times New Roman font.

  • Number pages consecutively, beginning with the title through the legends page.

  • Insert continuous line numbers throughout the manuscript. To insert line numbers in Microsoft Word, click on "page set up," then "layout," then "add line numbers," and "continuous," "whole document."

See specific instructions below on preparation of the individual sections of the manuscript.

Electronic Table Files

Tables should be included within the manuscript document, in Microsoft Word. Only figures should be included separately. Excel files are not acceptable.

Tables must be double-spaced. Tables may be typed in a 9- or 10-point Times New Roman font. See articles already published in JAAHA for examples of table styles and the proper footnoting format for tables.

Electronic Illustration Files

Illustrations must be in TIFF format and saved at 3.5 inches with moderate resolutions.

  • Black-and-white or line drawings should be saved at a resolution of 1200 dpi or higher.

  • Gray scale should be saved at 600 dpi or higher.

  • Color images should be saved at a resolution of 300 dpi or higher.

  • Photographs and line art should be scanned or prepared as camera-ready art.

  • Figures must not have any items that are screened (i.e., appearing as shades of gray or as dot matrix).

Each figure must be saved and uploaded in its own electronic file. Clearly label each file, e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 1A, Figure 1B, etc. Do not include the author’s name or any institutional identifier in the file name.

Electronic Multimedia Files

We invite you to include multimedia files—files that include sound and/or moving images—with your article. Please limit the resolution of the images and the length of the recording to the minimum required to communicate the necessary information.

  • Multimedia files must be saved in an MPEG format (with the file extension .mpg).

  • A maximum of 10 megabytes of multimedia files may be submitted with your article.

  • The multimedia files should be clearly labeled with the name of each file, e.g. Video 1, Video 2, Audio 1, Audio 2, etc.

  • Because the maximum file size that can be uploaded on the submission website is 2 MB, please save these files to a CDRom and mail them to the Journal office (see address below).

Style and Format

Manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals." For questions on style, refer to the American Medical Association Manual of Style: A Guide to Authors and Editors (AMA) by Cheryl Iverson. Refer to Stedman’s or Dorland’s Medical Dictionaries for proper spelling and medical terminology. Writing should conform to acceptable English usage and syntax, and conform to the Journal's style preference. Failure to use proper grammar and punctuation may result in failure to process the manuscript.

Standard abbreviations and symbols are used in accordance with Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. Abbreviations should be used sparingly. Abbreviations should not be used in the title or at the beginning of a sentence. The first time an abbreviation appears in the text, the word being abbreviated should be written out in its entirety, and it should immediately precede the abbreviation. Place the abbreviation in parentheses the first time it appears.

All drugs, products, and equipment should be identified within the body of the text by their generic or chemical names. The use of brand names should be confined to the footnotes.

Body weights, temperatures, and drug dosages must be written in metric form. Drug dosages should be given on a mg/kg of body weight basis. Smaller increments may be used as needed, e.g. ng/kg, pg/kg, etc. Where appropriate, mg/m2 may also be used. The frequency of administration should be delineated using the q hours format, e.g. q 4 hours, q 8 hours, etc.

When typing numbers within the text, all numbers nine or less should be written out. Use a numeral if the number is 10 or greater. When a number is used within a time frame, a dosage, or a unit of measure, use the numeral, e.g. 5 days, 6 kg, 3 cm, etc. Numbers are always spelled out if they begin a sentence.

Please note: All entries that may identify the author(s) or institutions of origin should be deleted from the text of the manuscript in order for the peer-review process to be completely blinded. Such entries include author names, institutional names, acknowledgments, and sources of funding.


Footnotes must be cited by superscript, lowercase letters arranged alphabetically. The footnote citation should be placed at the end of the drug or product name the first time it appears within the text. Footnotes should include the trade name or brand name, and the manufacturer’s name and location (i.e. city, state, zip code, country). Personal communications or unpublished data may also be cited as footnotes. Do not use software programs that create automatic footnotes or endnotes.


References must be numbered consecutively according to their citation in the text. All reference citations should appear at the end of the appropriate sentence(s). They should not be embedded within the sentence. Authors must ensure that all reference citations are accurate. Limit references to those that are necessary to delineate the source of specific information presented in the text. In general, references should not exceed 50 in number.

Abbreviations used for journals should be those listed in Index Medicus or the List of Serials Indexed for Online Users at References with more than three authors should list only the first three authors, followed by "et al." Punctuation and syntax must agree precisely with the samples provided below. Be sure to provide both the first and last page number for each reference.

Style of References


1) Standard journal articles

Weed LL. Medical records that guide and teach. N Engl J Med 1968;278:593-600.

Landau JW, Newcomer VD, Schultz J. Aspergillosis, report of two instances in children associated with acute leukemia. Mycopathologia 1963;20:177-224.

Steer PL, Marks MI, Klite PD, et al. Flurocytosine: an oral antifungal compound. Ann Intern Med 1972;76:15-22.

2) Journal paginated by issue

Seaman WB. A case of pancreatic pseudocyst. Hosp Pract 1981;16(Sept):45-48.

Proceedings (should only be cited when referred journal articles or textbook citations are not available and should be identified as personal communications.)

Seaman WB. A case of pancreatic pseudocyts. Proceed 19th Am Coll Vet Intern Med Forum, Minneapolis, 1999:181-183.

Books and other monographs

1) Personal author(s)

Williams CF. The Foundations of Intelligence. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1974:121-5.

2) Editor, compiler, chairman as author

Dausset J, Colombani J, eds. Histocompatibility Testing. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1973:12-8.

3) Chapter in a book

Williams CF. Man and his intelligence. In: Doe J, ed. The Foundations of Intelligence. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1974:736-741.

Magazine articles

Roueche B. Annals of medicine: the Santa Claus culture. The New Yorker, 1971(Sep 4):66-81.


Name of article in website. Name of website or sponsoring organization, url for website (e.g., and the date on which the website was visited.

Illustrations and Photographs

  • Limit illustrations and photographs to those that effectively reduce the length of the text or clarify material presented in the text.

  • All illustrations and photographs must be cited in the text in consecutive order, within brackets, e.g. [Figure 1], [Figure 2].

  • Legends must be provided for all photographs and illustrations. Legends (captions) must be typewritten and double-spaced at the end of the manuscript. Do not list any author or institutional name(s) within the legends.

  • All details illustrated in the figures must be noted with arrows or some other type of markers, and the markers should be clearly denoted in the legends.

  • Photomicrographs (of histopathology or cytopathology specimens) must have internal scale markers, magnification, and identification of stain used.

  • Please do not send original artwork, X-ray films, Xerox copies, slides, or drawings or any hard copies of the figures and tables. Suitable electronic copies must be uploaded at the time of manuscript submission—see specific instructions, above.

  • For any art (charts, figures, drawings, graphs, and so on) reprinted or derived from another source, the author must obtain permission to reprint. This applies to reprinting the art as it was originally published, or any art that is derived from another work (for example, figures that are redrawn, even if they are slightly altered). To obtain permission, writers may go through the Copyright Clearance Center ( or the original publisher. The authors must pay any fees required to obtain permission.


  • Limit tables to those that effectively reduce the length of the text or clarify material presented in the text.

  • All tables must be cited in the text in consecutive order, within brackets, e.g. [Table 1], [Table 2].

  • Tables must be numbered consecutively and have a brief title. Do not list any author or institutional name(s) in the title.

  • Please make tables concise and comprehensive to the reader without reference to the text.

  • Tables must be self-explanatory and should supplement, not duplicate, the text. For footnotes to tables, use the following symbols in this sequence: *,† , ‡ , § , \ , ¶, #, **

  • Tables must be submitted within the same Word document as the manuscript , each on a separate page. They cannot be submitted in Excel or other formats.

  • See specific instructions above for creation of the electronic table files.

Multimedia Items

  • Multimedia files must be cited in the text in consecutive order, within brackets, e.g. [Video 1], [Video 2], [Audio 1].

  • Legends must be provided for all multimedia files. Legends must be typewritten and double-spaced at the end of the manuscript, as instructed for Figure legends.

Supplementary Files

Acknowledgment of individuals should cite the reason for the acknowledgment and be limited to those persons who provided substantial assistance with either the study or preparation of the manuscript. Reasons for acknowledgment include review of radiographs, statistical analysis and review, aid or production of photographs and illustrations, manuscript preparation, etc. Please note: Acknowledgments must be submitted as a separate file and should not be included in the manuscript.

Animal Care and Use Statement

Any manuscript describing work involving the use of animals must contain a descriptive statement allowing JAAHA representatives to confirm humane animal care and use.

  1. Investigations using research animals must comply with the Animal Welfare Act and the NRC Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Such investigations must contain a statement of favorable review by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (or equivalent).

  2. Manuscripts describing the use of client-owned animals to investigate new/unproven/comparative treatments, procedures, must contain a statement indicating that informed consent was obtained from pet owners for animals in both treatment and placebo/control groups (for prospective studies only).

  3. Manuscripts not involving new/unproven/comparative treatments, procedures, or techniques must contain a statement that the contemporary standard of care was provided to each animal. All animal use should be consistent with acceptable practices as described in AAHA policy statements. Any manuscript that describes methods that have subjected animals to inhumane conditions, or that do not comply with the above requirements, will not be considered for publication in JAAHA.

Peer-Review Process

All manuscripts submitted to the Journal are first reviewed by the appropriate Section Editor. Those that do not conform to the mission of the JAAHA or do not substantially add to the current body of knowledge of clinical small animal practice will be rejected. The JAAHA reserves the right to reject any manuscript.

Those manuscripts that conform to the mission of JAAHA and contain sufficient information to warrant possible publication are sent to two or more experts for review. The review process is blinded, so that the reviewers are unaware of the authors or origin of the paper. The author must delete any identifiers (e.g. names, references to institutions and animals hospitals, etc.) within the manuscript to ensure their identity and that of the originating institutions are not revealed.

Manuscripts are processed in the order in which they are received. Authors can expedite processing of their manuscripts by rapidly responding to reviewer and editorial comments. Manuscripts approved by the reviewers are accepted for publication once the corresponding author adequately addresses all editorial and production questions and concerns.

Final Proofs

All accepted manuscripts are subject to copyediting and editorial revisions, but the author(s) remain responsible for the statements in the work, including editorial changes and accuracy of references. Prior to publication the corresponding author will receive an electronic copy (via email) of the final copyedited manuscript for review. If your email address or other contact information changes after the time of submission, you must update such information on the submission website in order to receive a copy of your final manuscript.


All AAHA members, all authors with access to a U.S. or Canadian veterinary school library, and all authors who are members of veterinary institutions/clinics with an AAHA Practice Team membership are able to access and download the PDF files of their articles from the Journal’s website after the paper has been published. For other authors, PDF files of the published manuscript may be downloaded from the Journal’s website ( for a nominal fee.

Questions about your submission? Call 303/986-2800; fax 303/986-1700; email ; or write to Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 12575 W Bayaud Ave, Lakewood, CO 80228.

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