Insect Order which has Fore Wings Resemble The Halteres of The Diptera By Alan Soffan



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Insect Order which has Fore Wings Resemble The Halteres of The Diptera
By Alan Soffan
Insect order that has fore wing smaller than hind wing is male Strepsiptera (twisted-winged parasite).The forewing of male strepsiptera is reduced to clublike structures resemble in halteres of diptera, but the hind wing keep in large size, membranous, fanlike and have reduced venation. The female appearance are quit different because they are wingless, legless and some of them do not leave the host (Boror, 1966).
www.bumblebee.org/invertebrates/Strepsiptera.htm
Reference

Borror, De Long, Tripelhorn.1981. An Introduction to the Study of Insect. CBS College Publishing. America.827p.



By Arya Widyawan
Small, endoparastic insect, mouthparts of a degenerate biting type, antennae conspicuous and flabellate, fore wings, in male, reduce to small club-like structure, metathorax greatly developed, hind wings large and fan shaped, trochanter absent (Richards and Davies,1977).

Members of order strepsipetra are mostly endoparasitic insect. Males are endoparasitic as larvae but emerge as free living, while females are parasitic throughout their live and quite reduced in structure and legless. Strepsipetra attack several groups in order of Hemiptera and Hymenopetra. Larva of Strepsiptera undergoes a hypermetamorphic development . The first instar is called Triungulin. It is free-living and possesses legs. When it is contact with host, the larvae burrows the host’s cuticle and becomes endoparasitic (Romoser, 1973)



Figure 1. Strepsipetra (Stylopos sp.) (Source: http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/compendium/streps~1.html)


Reference

Richards, O.W. and R.G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ general textbook of entomology. 10th ed. Chapmann and Hall, London.

Romoser, W.S. 1973. The science of entomology. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York


By Boy Valenza Damiri
The Strepsiptera are minute insects, most of which are parasitic on other insects (Borror et al., 1981 ; Atkin, 1978). Various species of orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, and Thysanura serve as hosts of Strepsiptera (Borror et al., 1981). The two sexes are quite different (Figure 1 and 2); the males are free-living and winged, with protuding eyes, and the antennae often elongate processes on segments, the front wings are reduced to clublike structures that resemble the halteres of the Diptera, the hind wings are large and membranous, fan-like, and have a reduced venation (Borror et al., 1981). The females are wingless, often legless, and in the parasitic species, do not leave the host (Borror et al., 1981). Abdullah (1974) in Borror et al (1981) placed the Strepsiptera in the order Coleoptera (family Stylopidae) because of the similarity in life history (hypermetamorphosis) between these insects with Meloidae and Rhipiphoridae.




Figure 1. Strepsiptera-male

Source: Atkins (1978)





Figure 2. Strepsiptera-females

Source: Borror et al. (1981)





REFERENCES
Atkins, M. D. 1978. Insects in Perspective. MacMillan Publisher: London.□
Borror, D. J.; De Long, D. M.; and Triplehorn, C. A. 1981. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. Fifth Edition. Saunders College Publishing: New York.□

By Haris Setyaningrum
Generally insect has fore wing bigger than hind wings, or fore wings normally big. But some insect which belongs to the order Stresiptera (Stylopoids ) have fore wings smaller comparing to the hind wings. Stresiptera is minute insect whose early stage are spent as parasites of other insect. Adults males are free living and have the fore wings reduced to tiny clubbed shaped structure rather like the halters of the true flies. Some times called twisted winged parasites. The hind wings are broad and membranous or called fan shape and the metahorax greatly enlarged. Adults females are grub like and generally remain inside the host. Both forewings and hind wings reduced venation. (Chinery, 1993; Atkins, 1977; Ross, 1965).

Picture 1. Strepsiptera males



http://www.discoverlife.org/nh/id/lucid/Insect_orders/images/Strepsiptera,_Stylops.LUCID000141.mx.gif
References :

□Chinery, Michael. 1993. Insect of Britain and Northern Europe. 3rd ed. Collins. Hongkong

□Ross, Herbert H.1965. A text book of entomology. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons Inc. New York.

□Atkins, Michael.D. 1978. Insect in perspective. MacMillan Publ. Co. New York, Collier MacMillan Publ. London


By Koko Dwisutanto
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