Import of Asian (‘Shandong’) pear




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Import of Asian (‘Shandong’) pear

(Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai and P. ussuriensis var. viridis T. Lee) fruit

from Shandong Province in

the People’s Republic of China

A review under existing import conditions for

Ya pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Redh.) fruit from Hebei and Shandong Provinces


June 2003






Foreword

© Commonwealth of Australia 2003

This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce this material in unaltered form only (retaining this notice) for your personal, non-commercial use or use within your organisation. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, all other rights are reserved.

Requests for further authorisation should be directed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Intellectual Property Branch, Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts, GPO Box 2154, Canberra ACT 2601 or by email to commonwealth.copyright@dcita.gov.au.




CONTENTS


CONTENTS i

GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS iv

SUMMARY vii

..Scope 1

.. Scope 1



..background 1

.. background 1

1.1 The pear industry in Australia 3

1.1 The pear industry in Australia 3



1.1.1. Pear production in Australia 3

1.1.2. Exports of pears from Australia 4

1.1.3. Imports of pears into Australia 4

1.2 The Asian pear industry in China 5

1.2 The Asian pear industry in China 5

1.2.1. Asian pear production in China 5

1.2.2. Exports of pears from China 7

1.3 Current Australian quarantine protocols for pear imports 7

1.3 Current Australian quarantine protocols for pear imports 7

1.3.1. China 8

1.3.2. Japan 9

1.3.3. South Korea 10

..Considerations 11

.. Considerations 11

1.4 Comparison of pear pests in Shandong Province on Ya (Pyrus bretschneideri Redh.) and Asian pear species (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai and P. ussuriensis var. viridis T. Lee) 11

1.4 Comparison of pear pests in Shandong Province on Ya (Pyrus bretschneideri Redh.) and Asian pear species (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai and P. ussuriensis var. viridis T. Lee) 11



..quarantine pests of concern for fresh ASIAN PEAR (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai and P. ussuriensis var. viridis T. Lee) fruit exports from SHANDONG PROVINCE 12

.. quarantine pests of concern for fresh ASIAN PEAR (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai and P. ussuriensis var. viridis T. Lee) fruit exports from SHANDONG PROVINCE 12



..Proposed phytosanitary conditions for the importation of ASIAN Pears (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai and P. ussuriensis var. viridis T. Lee) from china 14

.. Proposed phytosanitary conditions for the importation of ASIAN Pears (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai and P. ussuriensis var. viridis T. Lee) from china 14

1.5 Summary of the import conditions for fresh Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai and P. ussuriensis var. viridis T. Lee) fruit from Shandong Province 14

1.5 Summary of the import conditions for fresh Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai and P. ussuriensis var. viridis T. Lee) fruit from Shandong Province 14



..References 15

.. References 15



..Appendices 17

.. Appendices 17

APPENDIX 1: PESTS ASSOCIATED WITH ASIAN PEARS FROM CHINA (SHANDONG PROVINCE) 17

APPENDIX 2: PESTS ASSOCIATED WITH YA PEAR (PYRUS BRETSCHNEIDERI REDH.) FROM CHINA (HEBEI AND SHANDONG PROVINCES) 41

APPENDIX 3: UPDATED DATASHEET FOR ACROBASIS PYRIVORELLA (MATSUMURA) ON YA & ASIAN PEARS FROM CHINA 47

APPENDIX 4: AMENDED IMPORT PROTOCOLS – YA PEAR FRUIT FROM CHINA TO AUSTRALIA (January 2003) 51




FIGURES


Map of China showing Hebei and Shandong Provinces 6



TABLES


Australia’s pear production for 2000-01 (excluding Nashi pear) 4

Import volumes (tonnes) for pears from China, Japan and Korea 5

China’s Asian pear area and production for export orchards in Shandong Province 7

Summary of potential pests associated with pears in China (Shandong Province) 11

Number of potential pests associated with pears in China (Shandong Province) and in Australia 11

Number of pear pests of quarantine concern to Australia 12

Pests of quarantine concern on all pears (Pyrus bretschneideri, P. pyrifolia and P. ussuriensis var. viridis) in China (Shandong Province) (pests on Asian pear in bold) 13



GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS


AFFA Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry - Australia

ALOP appropriate level of protection

AQIS Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service

AQSIQ State General Administration of the People’s Republic of China for Quality Supervision and Inspection and Quarantine

Area an officially defined country, part of a country or all or parts of several countries

Biosecurity Australia a major operating group within the Commonwealth Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry - Australia. Biosecurity Australia protects consumers and animal and plant health, and facilitates trade, by providing sound scientifically based and cost effective quarantine policy

China the People’s Republic of China

CIQ SA State Administration for Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine of People’s Republic of China

Control (of a pest) suppression, containment or eradication of a pest population

Endangered area an area where ecological factors favour the establishment of a pest whose presence in the area will result in economically important loss

Entry (of a pest) movement of a pest into an area where it is not yet present, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled

Entry potential likelihood of the entry of a pest

Establishment the perpetuation, for the foreseeable future, of a pest within an area after entry

Establishment potential likelihood of the establishment of a pest

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Fresh not dried, deep-frozen or otherwise conserved

ICA Interstate Certification Assurance

ICON AQIS Import Conditions database

Introduction potential likelihood of the introduction of a pest

Introduction entry of a pest resulting in its establishment

IPPC International Plant Protection Convention, as deposited in 1951 with FAO in Rome and as subsequently amended

ISPM International Standard on Phytosanitary Measures

MAFF Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Japan

National Plant Protection

Organisation official service established by a government to discharge the functions specified by the IPPC

Non-quarantine pest pest that is not a quarantine pest for an area

NPQS National Plant Quarantine Service

Official established, authorised or performed by a National Plant Protection Organization

Official control

(of a regulated pest) the active enforcement of mandatory phytosanitary regulations and the application of mandatory phytosanitary procedures with the objective of eradication or containment of quarantine pests or for the management of regulated non-quarantine pests

Pathway any means that allows the entry or spread of a pest

PBPM Plant Biosecurity Policy Memorandum

Pest any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent, injurious to plants or plant products

Pest categorisation the process for determining whether a pest has or has not the characteristics of a quarantine pest or those of a regulated non-quarantine pest

Pest free area an area in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained

Pest risk analysis the process of evaluating biological or other scientific evidence to determine whether a pest should be regulated and the strength of any phytosanitary measures to be taken against it

Pest risk assessment determination of whether a pest is a quarantine pest and evaluation of its introduction potential

Pest risk assessment

(for quarantine pests) evaluation of the probability of the introduction and spread of a pest and of the associated potential economic consequences

Pest risk management the decision-making process of reducing the risk of introduction of a quarantine pest

Pest risk management

(for quarantine pests) evaluation and selection of options to reduce the risk of introduction and spread of a pest

Phytosanitary measure any legislation, regulation or official procedure having the purpose to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests

Phytosanitary regulation official rule to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests, by regulating the production, movement or existence of commodities or other articles, or the normal activity of persons, and by establishing schemes for phytosanitary certification

Quarantine pest a pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled

Regulated non-

quarantine pest a non-quarantine pest whose presence in plants for planting affects the intended use of those plants with an economically unacceptable impact and which is therefore regulated within the territory of the importing contracting party

South Korea Republic of Korea

Spread expansion of the geographical distribution of a pest within an area

Spread potential likelihood of the spread of a pest

SPS Sanitary and Phytosanitary

SPS Agreement WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

Stakeholders Government agencies, individuals, community or industry groups or organisations, whether in Australia or overseas, with an interest in the subject matter of an IRA/Review, including the proponent/applicant for a specific project

WTO World Trade Organization


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