I. Introduction 3 II. General Characteristics of Online Arbitration 5




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and Supra Note Error: Reference source not found at 610.

53 M. Geist, Internet law in Canada (Concord, Ont.: Captus Press, 2002) at 598.

54 Supra Note Error: Reference source not found.

55 Supra Note Error: Reference source not found at 4.

56 Supra Note Error: Reference source not found at 459.

57 The UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce was adopted by the General Assembly Resolution 51/162 of 16 December 1996, and amended in 1998; the text available online: .

58 The text available online: .

59 Supra Note Error: Reference source not found at 5.

60 UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce with Guide to Enactment, Section 15, online: . It is noted that a similar approach is used, e.g., in Article 7 of the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration and Article 13 of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods.

61 Ibid., Section 16. The authors of the Guide to Enactment analyzed the functions served by a paper document in comparison with e-documents what, to some extend, reflects the discussion concerning electronic data transmission in comparison to older means of telecommunication provided for in the NYC and the MAL, outlined in the previous sections of this article.

62 According to Article 2 (b) of the Model Law, “electronic data interchange (EDI)” means the electronic transfer from computer to computer of information using an agreed standard to structure the information. For the detailed explanation on “EDI” see Supra Note Error: Reference source not found at 115-117.

63 Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the Internal Market (Directive on electronic commerce), published in Official Journal of the European Communities dated 17.7.2000, L 178/1, online: .

64 Article 9.1 Directive on e-Commerce: Member States shall ensure that their legal system allows contracts to be concluded by electronic means. Member States shall in particular ensure that the legal requirements applicable to the contractual process neither create obstacles for the use of electronic contracts nor result in such contracts being deprived of legal effectiveness and validity on account of their having been made by electronic means.

65 Supra Note Error: Reference source not found at 119.

66 Supra Note Error: Reference source not found.

67 See A. Vahrenwald, M. Wilikens, P. Morris, from the Joint Research Center of the European Commission, Out-of-court dispute settlement systems for e-commerce. Part IV: Arbitration, online: .

68 Supra Note Error: Reference source not found.

69 Supra Note Error: Reference source not found at 120.

70 Ibid.

71 See the literature invoked by Hill (Supra Note Error: Reference source not found), including: P. Fouchard, E. Gaillard, and B. Goldmann, Traité de l'arbitrage commercial international (Litec, 1996) at 392.

72 Schellekens (Supra Note Error: Reference source not found at 120); Hill (Supra Note Error: Reference source not found).

73 G. Kaufmann-Kohler, “Arbitration Agreements in Online Business to Business Transactions”, in: R. Briner et al., eds., Law of International Business and Dispute Settlement in the 21st Century (Köln: Liber Amicorum Karl-Heinz Böckstiegel, 2001) at 358-362; L. J. Gibbons, Rusticum Judicium? Private ‘Courts’ Enforcing Private Law and Public Rights: Regulating Virtual Arbitration in Cyberspace, 23 Ohio Northern L. Rev. (1998) 769, , Section III.B.2.; Hill (Supra Note Error: Reference source not found).

74 Supra Note Error: Reference source not found at 615.

75 See Hörnle (Supra Note Error: Reference source not found at 8) and her comments on a decision of the Hålogaland (Norway) Court of Appeal dated 16. August 1999 (Stockholm Arbitration Report 1999, Vol. 2, at 121).

76 See the information on the works of the UNCITRAL Working Group II, online: and .

77 “A widely shared view was that another compelling reason to address the New York Convention in the draft convention would be to avoid some of the difficulties that could be foreseen if an amendment of the New York Convention itself had to be undertaken.” - A/CN.9/569 - Report of Working Group II (Arbitration) on the work of its forty-first session (Vienna, 13-17 September 2004).

78 A/CN.9/WG.II/WP.133 - Annotated Provisional Agenda – Supra Note Error: Reference source not found.

79 Supra Note Error: Reference source not found at 31.

80 Asynchronous electronic means are those where there is a time lapse between an initial communication and a reply.

81 Supra Note Error: Reference source not found; Supra Note Error: Reference source not found at 3; Supra Note Error: Reference source not found at 465.

82 Supra Note Error: Reference source not found at 31; G. van Harten, Chapter 11 and the Francovich Doctrine: Comparing State Liability under NAFTA and EC law (Montréal: Centre Études internationales et Mondialisation, 2003), online:
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