Human skeletal anatomy




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HUMAN SKELETAL ANATOMY


  1. Bone “anatomy.”

    1. Regular bones (long bones).

      1. Epiphysis.

        1. End of long bone.

        2. Proximal and distal epiphyses.

      2. Diaphysis-- “shaft” of long bone.

      3. Metaphysis--growth plate of long bones, fuses with maturity.

      4. Medullary cavity--usually filled with yellow marrow (fat).

    2. Irregular bones--bones of skull, patella, carpals, tarsals.

    3. Cancellous (spongy) bone.

      1. Irregular lattice of thin plates or bridges of bone called trabeculae.

      2. Usually filled with red (haemopoetic) marrow.

    4. Compact bone, outer layer of bone, composed of Haversian systems.

    5. Articulation--joint (where two or more bones meet).

  2. Bone surface markings.

    1. Fontanel--soft spot.

    2. Foramen--hole

    3. Fissure--irregular hole (see orbit)

    4. Sulcus--groove

    5. Meatus (canal)--canal

    6. Sinus--cavity in cranial or facial bone that opens into nasal cavity.

    7. Condyle--a “knuckle-like) articular prominence (distal femur epiphysis)

    8. Facet--smooth flat articular surface (vertebrae).

    9. Head--rounded articular surface with a constricted “neck”

    10. Crest--prominent ridge of bone

    11. Epicondyle--prominence “above” condyle

    12. Linea--small ridge of bone (line)

    13. Spinous process--sharp, pointed process

    14. Tubercle--small, rounded process

    15. Tuberosity--large roughened process

    16. Trochanter--very large projection on femur.

    17. Ramus--branch or extension of bone

    18. Notch--indentation along a ridge of bone or edge of bone

  3. Axial skeleton:

    1. Skull--recognize bones and parts, articulated and disarticulated.

      1. Cranial bones:

        1. Frontal

        2. Parietals

        3. Temporals

          1. Middle ear bones

            1. Malleus

            2. Incus

            3. Stapes

        4. Occipital

        5. Ethmoid

        6. Sphenoid

        7. Wormian bones--extra bones that form in sutures, variable in shape and number

      2. Facial bones

        1. Lacrimals--also observe lacrimal duct

        2. Nasals

        3. Vomer

        4. Inferior nasal conchae

        5. Zygomatics (malars)

        6. Maxillae

          1. Incisors

          2. Canines

          3. Premolars

          4. Molars

          5. Dentition

            1. Describes the number of teeth in upper and lower quadrants of the mouth (starting at midline).

            2. Numbers in order describe the number so of incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.

            3. Human adult dentition is: 2-1-2-3/2-1-2-3 which means, starting at the midline of the maxillary teeth and working posterolaterally, there are 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, and 3 molars; doing the same with the mandibular teeth there are also 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, and 3 molars.

        7. Palatines

        8. Mandible

      3. Sutures

        1. Frontal (Coronal)

        2. Sagittal

        3. Lamdoidal

        4. Squamosal

    2. Hyoid

    3. Vertebral Column (vertebrae)

      1. Cervical--7, with transverse foramina

        1. Atlas--C1

        2. Axis--C2, with odontoid process (dens)

      2. Thoracic--12 with costal facets for rib articulation

      3. Lumbar--5

      4. Sacral (Sacrum)--5 fused

      5. Coccygeal (Coccyx)--usually 4

      6. Animals with tails have caudal vertebrae instead of coccygeal vertebrae.

    4. Costa (ribs)

      1. True--first seven (directly connect to sternum via bridge of hyaline cartilage).

      2. False--last five (non-floating have band of costal cartilage that connects to cartilage of true ribs)

      3. Floating--last two false ribs, do not connect to sternum in any way and are considered false ribs.

    5. Sternum

      1. Manubrium

      2. Body (Soma)

      3. Xiphoid process

  4. Appendicular Skeleton--recognize bones, parts, and right from left

    1. Clavicle

    2. Scapula

    3. Humerus

    4. Radius

    5. Ulna

    6. Carpals

      1. Trapezium (Greater multangular)

      2. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular)

      3. Capitate

      4. Hamate

      5. Triquetrum (Triquetral, Triangular)

      6. Lunate (Semilunar)

      7. Scaphoid (Navicular)

      8. Pisiformis

    7. Metacarpals (Numbered 1-5 from the pollex)

    8. Phalanges (phalanx = singular)

      1. Numbered 1-5 from the pollex

      2. Proximal, middle, distal manual phalanges

    9. Pelvic bone (Os coxae, Os innominatum)

      1. Ilium

      2. Ischium

      3. Pubis

      4. Acetabulum

      5. Pelvic cavity

      6. Determining male from female.

        1. Pelvic girdle includes sacrum

        2. Males

          1. Pelvic arch forms acute angle.

          2. Ischium pinched medially.

          3. Coccyx-coccyx displaced anteriorly.

        3. Females

          1. Pelvic arch forms angle of 900 or more

          2. Ischium tapers laterally.

          3. Sacrum-coccyx displaced posteriorly.

          4. Birth “scars” may be visible on interior surface of pubis.

    10. Femur

    11. Patella

    12. Tibia.

    13. Fibula

    14. Tarsals

      1. Calcaneous

      2. Cuboid

      3. Cuneiforms (1-3, medial to lateral)

      4. Navicular

      5. Talus

    15. Metatarsals (Numbered 1-5 from the hallux)

    16. Phalanges

      1. Numbered 1-5 from the hallux

      2. Proximal, middle and distal pedal phalanges

    17. Sesamoid bones--form within tendons, variable.


THE VERTEBRATES AND COMPARATIVE SKETETAL ANATOMY
Directions: Answer the questions below as best you can. You may use your text or laboratory manuals to help you answer questions.


  1. Lamprey



    1. Notice the mouths of these vertebrates. How are their mouths adapted to how they feed?

    2. Who is a better swimmer, the lamprey or a shark? Explain your answer.

    3. How are the gill openings different from sharks or rays?

    4. Classify to subclass.


  2. Hagfish

    1. Notice the mouths of these vertebrates. Why are they considered Agnatha?


    1. What is the hagfish’s ecological role (niche)?

    2. Who is a better swimmer, a hagfish or a lamprey? Explain your answer.


    3. How are the gill openings different from sharks and rays?

    4. Why are hagfish grouped with lampreys and not sharks?

    5. Classify to subclass.


  1. Shark/Ray/Skate



    1. Of what is the skeleton composed?


    2. Do you see any cartilagenous structures similar to the bones we see in other vertebrates? Give examples.


    3. How are gill openings different from bony fishes?

    4. Note the spiracles near the eyes. What is their function?


    5. This group has placoid scales, sometimes called dentricles. Run your finger over the skin posteriorly and anteriorly. Is there a difference in texture? Explain.

    6. How many chambers does the heart have?


    7. Be able to recognize the following fins if present (look in miscellaneous handouts): dorsal (anterior/posterior), caudal, pectoral, pelvic, anal, claspers in males (reproductive organs).

    8. Classify to subclass.

  2. Bony fishes.

    1. Classify to subclass.

    2. How are the gill openings different from those of the Agnatha or Chondrichthyes?

    3. Describe how the scales are different in bony fishes.

    4. How many chambers does the heart have?

    5. Be able to recognize the following fins if present(look in miscellaneous handouts): dorsal (anterior/posterior), caudal, pectoral, pelvic, and anal.


  3. Ratfish or Chimera.

    1. How is it similar to an elasmobranch, and how is it similar to an osteichthian?

    2. Classify to subclass.

  4. Frog/Toad

    1. Identify as many bones as possible in the frog skeleton (disregard skull).



    2. How many chambers does the heart have?



    3. The skin is not keratinized--why is this important?



    4. Classify to order.

  5. Salamander

    1. How many heart chambers?



    2. The skin is not keratinized--why is this important?



    3. Classify to order.


  6. Caecilian

    1. This animal is an amphibian. If you were free to examine the specimen closely, what characteristics would distinguish it from a worm or a snake (assume you would also be able to observe living specimens)?

    2. Classify to order.

  7. Caiman



    1. Note the teeth--are there different kinds of teeth with different functions, as in mammals, or are they morphologically and functionally similar?



    2. Is there anything unusual about the number of digits in the forelimbs and hind limbs?


    3. Name as many bones as possible (disregard skull).



    4. Classify to order.


    5. How many chambers in the crocodilian heart?

  8. Lizard



    1. Note the teeth--are they differentiated like our own teeth, or not?


    2. Do lizards have eyelids?



    3. Classify to order.


    4. Describe the heart (i.e. how many chambers).


  9. Snake



    1. Do snakes have eyelids?


    2. How could you tell a legless lizard (yes, they do exist) from a snake?



    3. From what group of reptiles did snakes evolve?


    4. Classify to order.


  10. Turtle

    1. The dorsal shell of the turtle is the carapace, the ventral shell is the plastron, and the large scales that cover each are scutes.


    2. What are the scutes—what part of the body (bone, teeth, etc)? Of what are they composed?

    3. Notice the bony matrix that underlies the scutes of the carapace. What bones compose the carapace and how are they modified from other reptiles?


    4. Classify to order.


  11. Hawk



    1. Though the museum mount does not show it well, hawks have eyes that face forward compared to many other birds. Why is this important in a predatory bird like the red tailed hawk that depends on vision for hunting? What does this suggest about their position in the food chain, i.e. are they low in the food chain or at the top?


    2. Describe the predatory adaptations of the beak, and feet.


    3. What features suggest that birds have a reptilian origin—look at the feet?


    4. Classify to order.


  12. Owl



    1. Though the museum mount does not show it well, owls also have eyes that face forward compared to many other birds. Why is this important in a predatory bird like the owl?


    2. How do the beak and feet compare to the hawk? Do you think owls have a similar niche in nature? How is an owl’s ecological niche different from a hawk’s? Explain.

    3. Why do owls feathers form funnels around the eyes?



    4. Classify to order.

  13. Perching bird--Perching birds have a specialized tendon that flexes the toes when the bird sits on a branch or wire.

    1. How are the beak and feet different from the owl and hawk?

    2. The eyes are positioned more laterally, as opposed to forward as is the case in the owl and the hawk. Why can’t they afford to have eyes facing forward like hawks and owls?


    3. Classify to order.

  14. Pigeon skeleton



    1. Note the keeled sternum—why does the sternum have such an odd shape with the large keel?

    2. Note the pubis does not meet ventrally as it does in most vertebrates. What is the purpose of this adaptation?


    3. Classify to order.


    4. How many heart chambers in birds?

  15. Several bird skins, and mounts are displayed--be able to classify to orders.


  16. Opossum skeleton



    1. Describe how the teeth compare to carnivores like cats and dogs, i.e. do they have the same dentition?

    2. Why is the opossum not classified as a carnivore (hint: how do they reproduce)?

    3. Identify as many bones of the skeleton as possible.



    4. Classify according to subclass.

  17. Beaver skull



    1. Note the large incisors. They grow for the life of the animal in this order.



    2. Note the diastema (space) separating the incisors from the other teeth.


    3. For what are the molars adapted in this animal?



    4. Classify to order.



  18. Rabbit skull



    1. Look at the maxillary incisors carefully. They have four maxillary incisors just as we do. How are the rabbits incisors arranged compared to ours?


    2. Note the ridges on the premolars and molars--what is their purpose?


    3. Classify to order.



  19. Dolphin skull



    1. Where are the nasal openings located?


    2. Note the teeth of the dolphin—do they have teeth differentiated for specialized functions like our teeth and most other mammals? Explain. For what are their teeth adapted?

    3. Classify to suborder.

  20. Pig skull



    1. What type of teeth are the tusks (incisors, canines, premolars, molars)?

    2. Are the teeth adapted to a carnivorous, herbivorous, or omnivorous diet? Explain.

    3. Classify to order.

  21. Horse leg



    1. Identify the bones of the horse leg (first decide if it is a foreleg or hind leg—hint: decide if the bone at the top is a scapula or pelvic bone).


    2. On what bone(s) does the horse walk?


    3. What do you notice about the phalanges?


    4. Is the horse even or odd toed?


    5. Classify to order.


  22. Cow leg.

    1. Who is a closer relative to the cow, a horse or a pig and why?


    2. Identify the bones of the leg.



    3. Classify to order.


  23. Dog skeleton



    1. Note the distinctive carnassial molars characteristic of the Carnivora.



    2. Animals that walk on their digits are called digitigrade, whereas animals that walk more on their metacarpals and metatarsals (palms or soles) with the digits flat to the ground are plantigrade. How would you describe a dog? A horse? An opossum? A cow?


    3. Classify to family.

  24. Cat skeleton



    1. Note the distinctive carnassial molars characteristic of the Carnivora—how are they adapted to carnivorous diet?


    2. Who has a more omnivorous diet, cats or dogs, and how can you tell?

    3. Is the cat digitigrade or plantigrade?

    4. How are the distal phalanges of feline feet different from canid feet (hint: look at the claws)?


    5. Classify to family.


  25. Sea lion skull



    1. How is the sea lion skull similar to a dog skull?

    2. How are the teeth different from a typical carnivore—for what kind of prey are the teeth adapted?


    3. Classify to family.


  26. Monkey skeleton



    1. Is the cranium larger of smaller than the other mammals you have examined to this point?

    2. Identify as many bones as possible.



    3. Classify to suborder .


  27. Bat



    1. How is the hand adapted to flight?


    2. Identify digits 1-5.



    3. How is the orientation of the foot different from our own? Do you suppose they walk well? Explain.



    4. Identify as many bones as possible.



    5. Classify to order.


  28. Deer and Goat



    1. What features of these skulls suggest that they are closely related?

    2. How are antlers different from horns?

    3. How are the teeth adapted to an herbivorous diet?

    4. Classify each to order.

  29. There will be several pelts out on the tabletops, be able to classify to order, unless a carnivore, in which case classify to family.



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