SIZE DEPENDENT INTRAGUILD PREDATION AND CANNIBALISM IN COEXISTING WOLF SPIDERS (ARANEAE, LYCOSIDAE)
Ann L. Rypstra: Department of Zoology, Miami University, 1601 Peck Blvd. Hamilton, Ohio 45011 USA. Email: RypstraL@muohio.edu
Ferenc Samu: Department of Zoology, Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, PO Box 102, Budapest, H-1525 HUNGARY
ABSTRACT. Two species of wolf spider, Hogna helluo (Walckenaer 1837)and Pardosa milvina Hentz 1844dominate the predatory community on the soil surface of agroecosystems in eastern North America. Although as adults they are very different in size, differences in phenology ensure that they overlap in size at various times during the year. In a laboratory experiment, we explored the propensity of each species to attack and kill the other wolf spider species (intraguild predation), conspecifics (cannibalism) or crickets (ordinary predation). Both spiders attacked and killed a broader size range of crickets more quickly than they approached other spiders. We found no differences in Hogna foraging on conspecifics or Pardosa, but Pardosa attacked and killed Hogna more readily than conspecifics. Because Hogna was so slow in attacking other spiders, their impact as an intraguild predator may be quite small, especially if their approach to crickets is an indication of their predatory tendencies with insects. On the other hand, Pardosa attacked and killed small Hognaas readily as crickets, which suggests they may have an influence on Hogna populations if Hogna young emerge coincident with large juvenile or adult Pardosa. REVIEW OF THE ORIENTAL WOLF SPIDER GENUS PASSIENA (LYCOSIDAE, PARDOSINAE)
Pekka T. Lehtinen: Centre for Biodiversity, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT. The pardosine genus Passiena Thorell 1890 is redefined and relimited. Passiena has excellent diagnostic characters, in particular the male pedipalp that carries a unique group of soft spicules on the distal part of the palea. The female of the type species, Passiena spinicrus Thorell 1890 from Malaysia, is illustrated for the first time.A new species, P. torbjoerni, is described from Thailand. All specimens of Passiena were collected from the ground layer of or nearby dense jungle or bush, an exceptional habitat for Oriental Pardosinae. Males of P. spinicrus carry modified setae on the ventral side of the abdomen, similar to Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata (Ohlert 1865) and Pardosa sphagnicola (Dahl 1908), where they play an important role in the courtship behavior of males. Five African species currently listed in Passiena do not conform to the generic diagnosis as provided here. Three of these show clear affinities with Pardosa C.L. Koch 1847 and are consequently transferred from Passiena: Pardosa praepes (Simon 1885); Pardosa elegantula (Roewer 1959) new combination; and Pardosa upembensis (Roewer 1959) new combination. Passiena auberti (Simon 1898) and Passiena albipalpis Roewer 1959 are considered incertae sedis pending a generic revision of African Lycosidae as they cannot be placed with certainty into any other lycosid genus.
The function of long copulation in the wolf spider Pardosa agrestis (Araneae, Lycosidae) investigated in a controlled copulation duration experiment
András Szirányi, Balázs Kiss, Ferenc Samu: Plant Protection Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 102. Budapest, H-1525 Hungary. E-mail: email@example.com
Wolfgang Harand: Bundesamt und Forschungszentrum für Landwirtschaft, Vienna, Austria.
ABSTRACT. Copulation duration varies greatly in wolf spider species, ranging from a few seconds to several hours. In Pardosa agrestis (Araneae, Lycosidae), the most common ground dwelling spider in Central European fields, copulation typically takes more than two hours. Since long copulation is likely to entail certain costs, we address the question, “what is the function of long copulations?” We investigated the consequences of lengthy copulation in an experimental situation, where copulations either ended spontaneously, or were interrupted after 10 min, 40 min or 90 min. There was no difference in the number of offspring per female when treatments were compared and we conclude that ten minutes of copulation was sufficient to fertilize all the eggs of a female. Long copulations should therefore have other functions than securing the necessary amount of sperm for fertilization. We also found that neither the time until egg production after copulation, nor offspring size was affected by copulation duration. This suggests the lack of transfer of ejaculatory substances that would either stimulate the egg sac formation or increase the size of the spiderlings. We propose that prolonged copulations gain meaning in multiple mating situations and should play a role in sperm competition or other forms of sexual selection. The extra time may be used for copulatory courtship, or for the transfer of surplus sperm or other substances to manipulate the female’s willingness to copulate with other males, or to use sperm from them. These hypotheses remain to be tested in multiple mating experiments.
LARVAL CHAETOTAXY IN WOLF SPIDERS (ARANEAE, LYCOSIDAE): SYSTEMATIC INSIGHTS AT THE SUBFAMILY LEVEL
Beata Tomasiewicz: Zoological Institute, Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Taxonomy, Przybyszewskego 63/77, 51-148 Wrocław, Poland. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Volker W. Framenau: Department of Terrestrial Invertebrates, Western Australian Museum, Locked Bag 49, Welshpool DC, Western Australia 6986, Australia.
ABSTRACT. Studies into the systematics of wolf spiders have mainly employed morphological characters of adult spiders, in particular features of the male and female genitalia, and more recently mitochondrial DNA sequence data. However, there is still no established phylogenetic framework for the Lycosidae, even at the subfamily level. This study uses a novel morphological character set, the chaetotaxy of lycosid larvae (presence and arrangement of setae and slit organs), to infer systematic information on seven species of wolf spiders that are currently listed in three subfamilies: Lycosinae [Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck 1757), Hogna antelucana (Montgomery 1904), Rabidosa rabida (Walckenaer 1837), Trochosa ruricola (DeGeer 1778)], Piratinae [Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata (Ohlert 1865), Pirata hygrophilus (Clerck 1757)], and Sosippinae (Sosippus californicus Simon 1898). Cheliceral and tarsal (legs I and II) chaetotaxic patterns of the first postembryo showed equivalent chaetotaxic complexes amongst all species but revealed considerable differences between representatives of the three subfamilies. Sosippus californicus showed the most complex pattern and P. piraticus the most reduced arrangement. In addition, it casts doubt on the previous listings of H. rubrofasciata in either the Lycosinae or Piratinae, as its chaetotaxic setae arrangement was more similar to S. californicus than to any other species investigated here.
A REDESCRIPTION OF PORRHOMMA CAVERNICOLA KEYSERLING (ARANEAE, LINYPHIIDAE) WITH NOTES ON APPALACHIAN TROGLOBITES
Jeremy A. Miller: Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, NHB-105, Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012 U.S.A. E-mail: email@example.com ABSTRACT. The Appalachian troglobite Porrhomma cavernicola (Keyserling 1886)is redescribed. Porrhomma emertoni Roewer 1942 is a junior synonym (new synonymy). An unusual stridulatory organ with the plectrum on trochanter II and the striae on coxa I is found in both sexes of this species. Porrhomma cavernicola is widespread in Appalachian caves. By contrast, Appalachian nesticid troglobites tend to be highly endemic and syntopic. This despite the fact that both groups of spiders are web-builders that may be found in the same caves. Porrhomma cavernicola is added to a previous phylogenetic analysis of linyphiid spiders. Implications of this analysis for the phylogenetic structure of linyphiid spiders is discussed.
The fossil spider family Lagonomegopidae in Cretaceous
David Penney: Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT. The spider family Lagonomegopidae was described a decade ago from two specimens in Upper Cretaceous Siberian amber from the Taimyr Peninsula, and placed in the superfamily Palpimanoidea. Lagonomegopidae is known only from Cretaceous amber. Undiscovered extant species are considered unlikely because of their frequent occurrence in Cretaceous ambers and their absence in Tertiary fossil resins. One aim of this paper is to bring the existence of this family to the attention of neo-arachnologists. Burlagonomegops eskovi new genus and species is described from Cretaceous amber of Myanmar (Burma) and Lagonomegops americanus new species is assigned to a previously described, but unnamed specimen from Cretaceous New Jersey amber.
THE GENERIC RELATIONSHIPS OF THE NEW ENDEMIC AUSTRALIAN ANT SPIDER GENUS NOTASTERON (ARANEAE, ZODARIIDAE)
B.C. Baehr: Queensland Museum, P.O. Box 3300, South Brisbane Queensland 4101, Australia. E-mail: BarbaraB@qm.qld.gov.au
ABSTRACT. A revision of the new endemic Australian genus Notasteron revealed two species, Notasteron carnarvon new species (male), Notasteron lawlessi new species (female, male). The genus is characterized by a strongly reticulated, shield-shaped sternum with steep lateral margins and a posteriorly situated boss. The male palp has a semicircular and undulated distal tegular apophysis and the female epigyne has long, convoluted copulatory ducts. Possible relationships of Notasteron with genera of the Asteron complex, Habronestes, Hetaerica, Malinella and Storosa, are analyzed with NONA and also reconstructed using the Hennigian method. The results indicate that the new genus does not belong to the Asteron complex but is the sister genus of Hetaerica. Notasteron lawlessi is quite common and occurs throughout the eastern part of Australia, whereas N. carnarvon is only found in the Carnarvon region of Western Australia.
TARSAL SCOPULA SIGNIFICANCE IN ISCHNOCOLINAE PHYLOGENETICS
(ARANEAE, MYGALOMORPHAE, THERAPHOSIDAE)
José Paulo Leite Guadanucci: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Biociências da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Nazaré, 481, Ipiranga, CEP: 04263-000 São Paulo, SP – Brazil. E-mail: email@example.com
ABSTRACT. Tarsal scopula condition and carapace length were studied for eighteen Ischnocolinae species. For cladistic analysis a matrix of 20 terminals and 30 characters of representatives of Ischnocolinae, Theraphosinae, Aviculariinae, Harpactirinae and Trichopelmatinae were analyzed using Nona 2.0 computer software. The matrix was analyzed in four different ways: 1. each tarsal scopula (legs I--IV) coded as separate characters; 2. one character with six ordered states; 3. one character with six independent states; 4. without tarsal scopula character. The first two matrices result in one tree with the same indices (L = 72; CI = 0.54; RI = 0.74) and topology: Part of Ischnocolinae is monophyletic (H. rondoni(S. longibulbi(I. algericus+Catumiri))) and the other representatives (Oligoxystre and Genus 1) form a distinct monophyletic group with Theraphosinae, Harpactirinae and Aviculariinae. There are no homoplasies in tarsal scopula evolution in the second cladogram. The other two cladograms show less resolution for the Ischnocolinae than the two first cladorams. The tarsal scopula condition appears to have no relation to spider size (t = -0.80433; P = 0.438247) and should be used in phylogenetic analysis of Ischnocolinae because it provides information on the character variability within the subfamily.
A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIPS OF TAXA INCLUDED IN THE TRIBE POLTYINI (ARANEAE, ARANEIDAE)
Helen M. Smith: The Australian Museum, 6 College St, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia and Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT. Poltys and the genera Cyphalonotus, Homalopoltys, Ideocaira, Kaira, Micropoltys and Pycnacantha have historically been considered members of the tribe Poltyini. There is little published information on most members of the group and their potential relationships in the context of recent advances in araneid systematics. Information is sought on possible relatives of Poltys. All araneid members of the group except Pycnacantha were added to the data matrix compiled by Scharff & Coddington (1997), which already contained Kaira. Homalopoltys was found to be a tetragnathid when males were identified and was not considered further. The full data matrix of 74 taxa and 82 characters was run in PAUP* and NONA. The resulting placement of Poltys was not well supported but it frequently occurred in association with members of a slightly modified version of the ‘Hypsosinga’ clade of Scharff & Coddington, including Kaira. Cyphalonotus may be placed close to Araneus and Ideocaira may also belong in the same area of the araneines. Micropoltys may belong in the sister clade to these two.
A FOSSIL HARVESTMAN (ARACHNIDA, OPILIONES) FROM THE MISSISSIPPIAN OF EAST KIRKTON, SCOTLAND
Jason A. Dunlop: Institut für Systematische Zoologie, Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstraße 43, D-10115 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: email@example.com
Lyall I. Anderson: Department of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1JF, United Kingdom
ABSTRACT. A fossil harvestman (Arachnida, Opiliones) from the Mississippian (Viséan: Brigantian) of East Kirkton, Scotland is described as Brigantibunum listoni new genus and species. At ca. 340 Ma, it represents the second oldest record of Opiliones. Although some details are lacking, this long-legged, small-bodied and rather gracile harvestman is surprisingly modern-looking and appears to show the impression of an annulate ovipositor. Its leg anatomy closely matches that of some living Eupnoi and it is tentatively referred to this clade. Like the newly discovered Rhynie chert harvestmen, it reinforces the idea that modern, crown-group Opiliones can be traced back to at least the mid-Paleozoic.
A REVISION OF THE SPIDER GENUS TAURONGIA (ARANEAE, STIPHIDIOIDEA) FROM SOUTH-EASTERN AUSTRALIA Michael R. Gray: Australian Museum, 6 College Street, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT. The spider genus Taurongia Hogg 1901 and the species T. punctata (Hogg 1900) are redescribed. Taurongia punctata is shown to be a rather variable species with a widespread distribution across the eastern central Victorian highlands. Taurongia punctata is a robust spider, contrasting with a more gracile new species, T. ambigua, described from the western Victorian highlands. The placement of the latter in Taurongia is provisional and may change once other undescribed ‘Taurongia group’ genera from eastern Australia have been examined. The Taurongia species dealt with here differ from the latter taxa in having an increased number of cylindrical spigots and a large palpal median apophysis.
REVISION OF SPIDER TAXA DESCRIBED BY KYUKICHI KISHIDA: PART 1.
PERSONAL HISTORY AND A LIST OF HIS WORKS ON SPIDERS
Hirotsugu Ono: Department of Zoology, National Science Museum, Tokyo, 3-23-1 Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 169-0073 Japan. E-mail: email@example.com
ABSTRACT. The personal history of forgotten Japanese arachnologist, Kyukichi Kishida (1888-1968) is described for the first time based on information collected from the literature and through interviews with the late Prof. Seikichi Kishida (1931-2002), the fourth son of K. Kishida. A complete list of Kishida's works on spiders is provided. Much confusion resulted from the species and higher taxa descriptions or species designations made by Kishida. In many cases he first proposed a new name for an undescribed species found but left its description to his followers. Therefore, some species were really described by another person, while many nomina nuda were produced. A revision of each taxon with systematical and nomenclatural problems will be given in forthcoming parts of this serial (in preparation).
FORAGING STRATEGIES OF ERIOPHORA EDAX (ARANEAE, ARANEIDAE): A NOCTURNAL ORB-WEAVING SPIDER