Homo sapiens sapiens (amh)

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The Origin, Dispersal, and Bioarchaeology of Homo sapiens sapiens

Stanford Ch. 13

Homo sapiens sapiens (AMH)

  • tall and slender stature

Origins of Modern Humans

  • Multiregional Continuity: Hominid populations already in Europe (Neanderthals), China (archaic H. sapiens), SE Asia (H. erectus), Africa (archaic H. sapiens), gradually evolved into modern humans.

  • No certain area of origin because of gene flow.

  • Predictions:

  • intermediate fossils.

  • ancient DNA contributions to modern gene pool.

  • Single-Origin Theory: AMH evolved in Africa between 300-150 kya. From Africa they migrated into the rest of the world replacing local populations such as H. erectus, Neanderthals and archaic H. sapiens.

  • Predictions:

  • lineages overlap in time in each area.

  • abrupt changes in archaeological record.

  • Intermediate Theory?: as AMH radiated from Africa they could interbreed with local populations (Neanderthals, archaic H. sapiens, and H. erectus) and exchange cultures.

Distrubution of AMH

  • Africa

  • by 100 kya fully modern H. sapiens sapiens

  • intermediate fossils (still considered modern)

  • Herto, Ethiopia- 160-154 kya

  • modern fossils slightly later 120-50 kya

  • Klaises River Mouth, and Border Cave in S. Africa

-supports African origin.

  • Near East

  • both have Middle Stone Age tools

  • Supports African origin

  • Europe

  • AMH by 40 kya

  • shared area with Neanderthals until 27 kya

  • but post-skeleton like AMH

  • Upper and Middle Paleolithic technology

  • maybe Intermediate and maybe Replacement

  • East Asia, Asia, and Australia

  • best evidence of Multiregional continuity

  • gap in fossil record from 100-40 kya

Other Evidence

  • mtDNA (Caan)

  • supports Replacement

  • origin of all mtDNA from Africa

  • happened 90-180 kya maybe

  • Y-chromosome

  • Ancient DNA

  • supports Replacement models

  • Most evidence supports the Replacement or Intermediate Model although these processes could be unique in each area.

Homo sapiens sapiens:Developments in Art and Artifacts
The Middle Stone Age (beginning 100,000 yrs ago) in Africa

  • contain elements of modern behavior

  • bone points

  • geometric microlithes

  • 65 kya in Mumba in Tanzania

  • art work

Upper Paleolithic Period in Europe/ Late Stone Age in Africa (50-10kya)

  • Anatomically Modern Humans

  • Broad-spectrum Hunter-gatherers

  • many kinds of resources

  • Highly organized campsites

  • huts of skins and mammoth bones

  • dwellings, hearths in center, storage pits.

  • Stone Tools

  • Blade Production: made long, parallel sided, thin flakes

  • Intense and standardized production

  • Pressure flaking

  • needle, awls, harpoons

  • Inset tools

  • place microliths into a bone or antler handle

  • more efficient

  • Atlatl (spear thrower)

  • Net hunting (29kya-22kya appeared)

  • Dolni Vestonici, Moravia

  • knotted nets made from plant fiber

  • men, women, children likely participated in hunt

  • Elaborate burials

  • Sangir, Russia

Upper Paleolithic Art

  • Venus Figurines

  • found from Europe to Siberia

  • alliance building? religious?

  • What do they symbolize?

  • Cave Paintings and carvings

  • 30,000 BP in Europe and Africa

  • locations of paintings

  • inhabited caves

  • Galleries and inner reaches

  • magical or religious activity

  • Hands symbolize:

  • human figures symbolize:

  • shaman in trance

  • geometric shapes symbolize:

  • techniques

  • crushed charcoal, ochre

  • spit design or used twigs for brushes

  • http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/lascaux/en/

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