Historical Distribution of Microcystis and its Toxins in Lake Erie Sediments




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Historical Distribution of Microcystis and its Toxins in Lake Erie Sediments

Principal Investigator: Greg Boyer

Professor of Biochemistry

State University of New York

College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Syracuse, NY 13210

315-470-6825 (voice)

315-470-6856 (fax)

Email: glboyer@esf.edu

Proposed Budget: Federal funds requested: $19,500

Non-federal match $16,630

Dates of the Project: May 1, 2005 – April 30, 2006

Executive Summary:

Toxic blooms of the cyanobacteria Microcystis that produce the hepatotoxic microcystins have been documented in the western basin of Lake Erie in the mid-1990’s and again in 2002-2004. This project will collect sediment cores from the western, central and eastern basins and establish a chronology of the cyanobacteria blooms over the last two decades. The cores will be dated using lead-210. Free microcystins will be measured in the cores using both ELISA and instrumental techniques. The amount of microcystin bound to particles will be measured by GCMS after oxidation of the ADDA-amino acid with ozone. PCR techniques will be used to estimate both the abundance of Microcystis and microcystin producing genes in the sediment core. The information provided here should be of interest to those working on food webs, and to Lake Managers interested in both the historical and spatial distribution of toxic cyanobacterial blooms on Lake Erie and to those using past remote sensing data to develop algorithms for harmful algal bloom detection.


2. Scientific Rationale


Lake Erie has experienced large shifts in trophic status in the last half century. In the 1960’s, the lake suffered from large Cladophora blooms and was declared all but “dead” (Asworth, 1988). With the advent of phosphorus controls, Lake Erie showed a marked increase in water quality. The introduction of the zebra mussel in 1988 introduced another change in trophic status of the lake. Chlorophyll content of the water column has decreased in the decade following their introduction (Makarewicz et al, 1999, Barbiero and Tuchman, 2004); however there has also been an apparent shift in the phytoplankton species abundance. Studies from the 1970’s show the phytoplankton community dominated by diatoms and chlorophytes, with cyanobacteria only contributing about 12% of the mean phytoplankton biomass (Munawar and Munawar, 1996). Immediately after the introduction of the dreissenids (1989-1993), the abundance of the cyanobacteria in the offshore regions of the western basin decreased, mainly due to the removal or reduction of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae biomass (Makarewicz et al, 1999). In 1995, this cyanobacterial abundance was replaced by a bloom of Microcystis (Taylor 1995) and in 1995-1996, Lake Erie experienced its first reported toxic bloom of cyanobacteria in the western basin. This Microcystis aeruginosa bloom produced several hepatotoxins including microcystin-LR and lesser minor amounts of demethyl (Asp3) microcystin-LR and microcystin-AR (Brittain et al, 2000). Since that initial bloom, Microcystis has reoccurred in the western basin of Lake Erie. Recent survey cruises in 2000-2004 as part of NOAA’s Lower Great Lakes Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms regional project (MERHAB-LGL), have reexamined the question of hepatotoxin toxin production in Lake Erie. The levels of microcystins found in the western basin were similar to (0.7 µg L-1 in 2002, 2.4 µg L-1 in 2004), or in some cases significantly elevated (21 µg L-1 in 2003) from those levels reported in 1995-1996. Interestingly, there also appears to be a shift in the toxin composition, with demethyl (Asp3) microcystin-LR now being a major toxin congener (Boyer, in preparation). This shift in composition raises the question of if we also have a change in the Microcystis strain to a more or less toxic subspecies.

Both toxic and non-toxic Microcystis subspecies exist and form blooms. It is difficult to differentiate toxic and non-toxic strains from each other on the basis of morphology or pigment signatures and the best approach is either by toxin (Boyer et al, 2004a, b) or molecular i.e. DNA (Ouellette and Wilhelm, 2003) analysis. Furthermore both the supposed toxic Microcystis aeruginosa and the closely related supposed nontoxic Microcystis wesenbergii co-occur in Lake Erie blooms (Boyer, unpublished). Thus while satellite imagery and limnological reports have indicated that Microcystis has continued to bloom in the western basin, we know little about the toxicity of those blooms. Paleolimnology has been used to infer changes in the trophic status and phytoplankton communities, particularly in remote areas where few or no past limnological records exist. Stoermer et al (1996), in their classic study on Lake Erie, using changes in the diatom assemblages in a core from the central basin to infer a rapid (~ 5-10 yr) change in the trophic status of the lake. We would like to extend upon those studies and use similar techniques to investigate the recent occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in the lake. The International Field Year on Lake Erie offers a unique opportunity to collect the required cores on a detailed and lake-wide basis.



To test the feasibility of using sediment cores to measure Microcystis and microcystin production, a box core was collected from Environment Canada’s station 357 in the western basin in summer of 2004. This core was sub-sampled from 0-10 cm in 2 cm increments as described in the methods for objective 1. Free microcystins were extracted using the 5% glacial acetic acid in TFA - methanol protocol of Tsuji et al (2001), and analyzed by the protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA). Preliminary results indicate we can recover a measurable amount of microcystin from the core (0.08 µg gdw-1). This number agrees well with those reported in Tsuji et al for Japanese sediments assuming that the bulk of the microcystins would be absorbed to sediments and not extractable as free microcystins. We have not tried the MMPB technique on these cores. Professor Steven Wilhelm’s laboratory at the University of Tennessee, using a duplicate core taken from the same starting box core, and an additional core from station 340, has successful extracted DNA from the sediments suitable for analysis by multiplex PCR (Wilhelm, personnel communication). More importantly, there are marked differences in the PCR results between the two different cores, both in terms of abundance of the Microcystis 16S genes and in the occurrence of the toxin biosynthesis mcyB and mcyD genes. There are also clear changes with depth of the core in both the toxin and PCR results, even though generic cyanobacterial DNA was detected throughout all 10 cm. These cores have not been dated but these preliminary results are strongly encouraging for this approach.

Hypothesis and Questions addressed


Lake Erie has experienced marked shifts in trophic status in the last decade (Stoermer et al, 1996). Our working hypothesis is that sediment cores provide a viable method to reexamine the occurrence of past cyanobacterial bloom events and differentiate between blooms of toxic vs. non-toxic species. We hypothesis that paleolimnological investigation will show that distinct toxic and non-toxic bloom events of Microcystis have occurred in the western basin1, and that toxic species of Microcystis dominated in the western basin of Lake Erie only after the introduction of dreissenids. To test this hypothesis, we propose the following objectives:

Project Objectives:


  1. To collect sediment cores from the western, central and eastern basins of Lake Erie. These cores will be dated using 210Pb.

  2. To examine theses cores for the occurrence of both free and bound microcystins using PPIA, ELISA and MMPB oxidation.

  3. To determine the levels of toxic Microcystis in these cores using both 16S and microcystin-specific quantitative PCR.

Project Approach and Methods:


Objective 1: Collection of Sediment Cores: Sediment cores will be collected from both the western and central basin using a box corer similar to the approach by Stroemer et al (1996). This original box core will then be sub-sampled by inserting a 7.5 cm clear plastic tube into the sediment. Material in the tubes is sectioned immediately after retrieval using a rubber extruder into 0.5-1.0 cm intervals2. These subsections are then stored in plastic bags at -20˚C until analysis. Triplicate cores will be taken from each box core to account for bioturbation and statistical variation. In the laboratory, the frozen sediment samples will be weighed, lyophilized and then reweighed to determine the porosity and dry weight of the sediment. The chronology of the core will be determined on a homogenous dried sample by nondestructive gamma counting of 210Pb using the germanium well detector and multi-channel analyzer available in the radioisotopes lab of SUNY-ESF.

Objective 2: Determination of Microcystin content: There are two key problems associated with the determination of microcystins in sediments. The first is microcystins rapidly adsorb to clay particles (Rapela et al, 1994, Morris et al, 2000) and will likely not be released by classical extraction and analytical conditions. We propose to extract free microcystin from the sediment cores using 5% glacial acetic acid in methanol containing 0.1% TFA with ultrasound. After centrifugation, the supernatant is dried down to half the extraction volume in a rotary evaporator, diluted with an equal volume of water, and then taken to dryness. This protocol gave excellent recovery (> 80%) of free microcystin in control experiments conducted in our laboratory. The resulting material is then resuspended in 50% methanol containing 0.1% TFA and analyzed for microcystins using a combination of the protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), ELISA and HPLC coupled with PDA and MS detection (Boyer et al, 2004a, b).

Tsuji et al (2001) and others suggest that most microcystins in sediments are irreversibly bound to the particles and will not be released as free microcystins. The different congeners also behave differently with the hydrophilic microcystins (e.g. microcystin-RR) being more strongly bound to the sediments that the hydrophobic (MC-AR) congeners. To determine this bound fraction, we will utilize the MMPB (2-methyl-3 methoxy-4 phenyl butyric acid) method of Tsuji et al (2001). In this method, sediments are resuspended in 5 ml methanol and MMPB-d3 added as an internal standard. The suspension is oxidized in a stream of ozone at -78ºC, effectively converting the ADDA group of microcystins to 2-methyl-3 methoxy-4 phenyl butyric acid (MMPB). This compound is then derivatized with BF3-methanol, extracted into hexane, and analyzed by GCMS or LCMS. The approach gives an integrated value for all ADDA-containing congeners (i.e. total microcystins) and the starting concentration of all microcystins in the sediment is then back-calculated from the recovery of the internal standard. The sensitivity of this method is ~0.05 µg microcystin g-1 sediment. Another advantage of the technique is that ADDA is resistant to biodegradation and hence may allow us to analyze deeper into the cores. Tsuji et al (2001) used this technique to detect microcystins in sediments as deep as 30 cm.



Objective 3: Determination of the Cyanobacterial Content of the Sediments. The Paleodetermination of Microcystis in sediments is difficult due to the nature of the organism. Diatoms have silicate frustules and filamentous cyanobacteria such as Aphanizomenon form resilient akinetes (Eilers et al, 2004) that are stable in sediments. Microcystis colonies are unlikely to leave behind any distinctive assemblages that can be used for identification or quantification. Phytoplankton pigments have often been used to reconstruct limnological data but a distinctive carotenoid or pigment signature has not been identified for Microcystis. It may be possible to use a ratio of the carotenoids myxoxanthophyll, nostoxanthin and caloxanthin (Smit et al, 1983, Woitke et al, 1997), but the development of that approach is still in progress. Rather we will use DNA techniques to estimate the abundance of Microcystis in our sediment cores. DNA will be extracted from the sediments using established techniques (Rinta-Kanto et al, 2005) and the presence of both Microcystis and the microcystin biosynthetic pathway determined by PCR using primers against the Microcystis 16S RNA and the mcyB and mcyD genes (Hotto et al, 2005). The relative amount of Microcystis present in the samples will be determined using QPCR analysis to quantify gene copy numbers of cyanobacteria-specific 16S rRNA genes, Microcystis-specific 16S rRNA genes and mcyD genes (Rinta-Kanto et al, 2005). Amplifications and quantifications will be performed using a BioRad iCycler equipped with an iQ real time fluorescence detection system using Eppendorf HotMasterMix and Taq-probe. The standard for real time PCR will be provided by Professor Steven Wilhelm (University of Tennessee) and consists of a single copy plasmid containing the cyanobacterial 16S rRNA fragment that was amplified by PCR from the Lake Erie strain Microcystis aeruginosa LE-3 and cloned into PCR 2.1 vector using Invitrogen’s TOPO-TA cloning kit (Rinta-Kanto et al, 2005).

Project Relevance


This project represents a significant collaborative venture between NOAA’s MERHAB-LGL regional study and the NOAA-GLERL laboratories. Both projects are focused in part on the occurrence of harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie. The MERHAB-LGL project is specifically interested in the spatial distribution and historical occurrence, specifically as it applies to developing a monitoring plan to protect the end users of Lake Erie. In that regard, a better understanding of the relative occurrence of toxic vs. non-toxic blooms is essential. However, the results of these studies should be directly of interest to several GLERL researchers (G. Fahnenstiel, G. Leshkevich, T. Nalepa, and H. Vanderploeg) interested in toxic cyanobacterial blooms on Lake Erie. For example, understanding the occurrence of toxic versus non-toxic blooms of Microcystis is essential for proper interpretation of past satellite imagery. In many cases, the ground-truthing necessary to interpret that imagery was done sporadically if at all. The work proposed here would fill some of those information gaps. Determining if there was a shift from toxic to non-toxic species may also be of importance to those investigators looking at food-web interactions and the role of dreissenids in promoting Microcystis blooms.

Collaboration and other Project Linkages


This project has the potential for a number of other collaborative linkages. Understanding the relative occurrence of toxic versus non-toxic species of cyanobacteria may be important in understand past food web events and long term exposure models. It may also be important for the proper placement of HAB monitoring stations. The MMPB technique described here may be of interest to fisheries biologist interested in the occurrence of total microcystins in tissues. Finally, since MERHAB-LGL will be supporting the personnel and basic supply costs for toxin analysis in the sediments, the infrastructure is already in place to run samples for toxin analysis that were collected by other participates in the International Field Year on a no-cost or greatly reduced cost basis. This option was further explored is a second no-cost proposal entitled “Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Lake Erie” by GL Boyer.

Governmental & Societal Relevance with Implications for Risk Management


Most of our information concerning cyanobacterial toxicity in Lake Erie has focused on the recent high biomass events that occurred in the western basin. The tacit assumption is that all these blooms are toxic, but this work will help critically evaluate that assumption. This information is important in terms of the blooms impact on drinking water and recreational users of the western basin. We have no information on the occurrence cyanobacterial toxicity prior to the 1995 bloom event. Historical correlation with established events such as the introduction of dreissenids and increased phosphorus remediation may also provide important information regarding the origin of these blooms. Are they now occurring because of changes in selective grazing, food web interactions, or nutrient inputs? This information is important for water quality managers as they develop response and remediation strategies to deal with these blooms. Finally this study will build on preliminary studies (Ouellette et al, 2005, Boyer et al, in preparation) to evaluate the extent that toxic species and cyanobacterial toxicity occurs in the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie.

Another key piece of information that will come from this project is a better understanding of the removal processes for microcystins in the water column. Microcystins are released from the cyanobacterial cell upon lysis, but measured levels of free microcystins in the water column generally cannot account for the total microcystins that were present in the cells. There are five pathways currently proposed for microcystin removal. This includes dilution, adsorption, thermal decomposition aided by temperature and pH, photolysis and biological degradation (Tsuji et al, 2001). Of these five choices, adsorption to particles is likely to be the most significant for Lake Erie because of the high sediment load to the western basin (Barbiero and Tuchman, 2004). Fine-grained clay particles rapidly remove as much as 81% of the dissolved microcystins from the water column (Morris et al, 2000). This may effectively transport these toxins to the sediments and impact benthic consumers. This project is one of a few attempts to directly measure that removal rate and accumulation in the sediments, thus providing valuable information on a possible remediation strategy for microcystins and their food web interactions.


References


Ashworth, W. (1988) The Late, Great Lakes. Wayne State University Press, Detroit, MI., 286p.

Barbiero, R. P., and M. L. Tuchman (2004) Long-term dreissenid impacts on water clarity in Lake Erie. J. Great Lakes Res. 30:557-565.

Boyer, G. L., J. C. Makarewicz, M. Watzin, and T. Mihuc (2004a) Monitoring strategies for harmful algal blooms in the lower great lakes; Lakes Erie, Ontario and Champlain, USA. Abstracts, 11th Intl. Conf. Harmful Algae. Capetown, South Africa, November 15th, 2004.

Boyer, G., M. C. Watzin, A. D. Shambaugh, M. F. Satchwell, B. R. Rosen, and T. Mihuc (2004b) The occurrence of cyanobacterial toxins in Lake Champlain. In: "Lake Champlain: partnerships and Research in the New Millennium., T. Manley, ed., Kluwer, p 241-257.

Brittain, S. M., J. Wang, L. Babcock-Jackson, W. W. Carmichael, K. L. Rinehart, and D. A. Culver (2000) Isolation and characterization of microcystins, cyclic heptapeptide hepato-toxins from a Lake Erie strain of Microcystis aeruginosa. J. Great Lakes Res. 26:241-249.

Smit, E. J., G. H. J. Kruger, and J. N. Eloff (1983) Carotenoid composition as taxonomic character for Microcystis isolates. J. Lim. Soc. S. Africa 9:43-48.

Eilers, J. M., J. Kann, J. Cornett, K. Moser, and A. St. Amand (2004) Paleolimnological evidence of change in a shallow, hypereutrophic lake: Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA. Hydrobiologia 520:7-18.

Hotto, A., M. Satchwell, and G. Boyer (2004) Seasonal production and molecular characterization of microcystins in Oneida Lake, New York, USA. Environ. Tox. in press.

Makarewicz, J. C., T. W. Lewis, and P. Bertram (1999) Phytoplankton composition and biomass in the offshore waters of Lake Erie: pre and Post-Dreissena introduction (1983-1993). J. Great Lakes Res. 25:135-148.

Morris, R. J., D. E. Williams, H. A. Lu, C. F. B. Holmes, R. J. Andersen, and S. E. Calvert (2000) The adsorption of microcystin-LR by natural clay particles. Toxicon 38:303-308.

Munawar, M., and I. F. Munawar (1996) Phytoplankton Dynamics in the North American Great Lakes. Volume 1: Lakes Ontario, Erie, and St. Clair. SPB Academic Publ., New York, 282p.

Ouellette, A. J. A., S. M. Handy, and S. W. Wilhelm (2005) Toxic Microcystis is widespread in Lake Erie: PCR detection of toxin genes and molecular characterization of associated cyanobacterial communities. Microbial Ecol. submitted.

Ouellette, A. J. A., and S. W. Wilhelm (2003) Toxic cyanobacteria: the evolving molecular toolbox. Front. Ecol. Environ. 1:359-366.

Painter, S., C. Marvin, F. Rosa, T. B. Reynoldson, M. N. Charlton, M. Fox, P. A. L. Thiessen, and J. F. Estenik (2001) Sediment contamination in Lake Erie: A 25-year retrospective analysis. J. Great Lakes Research. 27:434-448.

Rapela, J., K. Lahti, K. Sivonen, and S. I. Neimela (1994) Biodegradability and adsorption on lake sediments of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins and anatoxin-a. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 19:423-428.

Rinta-Kanto, J. M., A. J. A. Ouellette, M. R. Twiss, G. L. Boyer, T. Bridgeman, and S. W. Wilhelm (2005) Quantification of toxic Microcystis spp. during the 2003 and 2004 blooms in western Lake Erie using quantitative real-time PCR. Environ. Sci. Technol. accepted.

Stoermer, E. F., M. L. Julius, G. Emmert, and C. L. Schelske (1996) Paleolimnological evidence of rapid recent change in Lake Erie's trophic status. Can J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53:1451-1458.

Taylor, R. (1995) Bloom of blue-green algae returns to Lake Erie. (Ohio Sea Grant Program) Twineline 17:1.

Tsuji, K., H. Masui, H. Uemura, Y. Mori, and K. Harada (2001) Analysis of microcystins in sediments using MMPB method. Toxicon 39:687-692.

Woitke, P., K. Hesse, and J.-G. Kohl (1997) Changes in the lipophilic photosynthetic pigment contents of different Microcystis aeruginosa strains in response to growth irradiance. Photosynthetica 33:443-453.


3. Project timeline:


Samples should be collected in mid summer and can be done in conjunction with any of the other regularly scheduled cruises. It is expected that the analysis of the free microcystins in sediments will take about 1 month. The MMPB oxidation technique will probably take longer (3 months) due to the number of control experiments that will need to be run. Similarly, PCR analysis should take about 3 months. We have scheduled DNA analysis to start in the fall so as not to interfere with the summer field season. All experiments should be completed by Dec 2005 with the final report due the following March. A brief timeline is shown below.

Tasks

MAY 05

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

SEPT

OCT

NOV

DEC

JAN 2006

FEB

MARCH

APRIL

MAY

Task 1: Sample Collection & preparation




X

X

X




























Task 2: Toxin Analysis







X

X

X

X

X



















Task 3: Cell Analysis and PCR













X

X

X

X

X













Task 4: Final and interim reports













X







X







X






4. Budget Request


We are asking for graduate student support ($$11,664 + 10.5% FB) for the summer and fall semesters to support the collection, extraction and MMPB analysis of the sediment tissues. A tuition waver for the student in the fall semester ($3,450) is included under matching costs. Similarly the PI time (5% AY +FB for the 12 months) is included as matching costs. Miscellaneous supplies ($700) and travel ($300) to the point of debarkation are included under direct costs. Expenses for toxin analysis including technician time, PPIA enzyme, ELISA plates, HPLC and GCMS time will be provided by our NOAA MERHAB-LGL grant. Consultant services ($1500) are for Professor Wilhelm (Univ. Tennessee) to assist with the QPCR and provide the cloned standard. The standard ESF overhead rate of 49.9% MTDC has been decreased to the off-campus rate of 26%. The difference is recovered as matching costs.

5. Projected Vessel Time Needs


We are requesting time and space on one large vessel for approximately 1 week in the mid to late summer (June – August) and a box corer. The ship needs to be equipped with an A-frame/ winch suitable for handing the standard box corer and we will need space in a wet lab or on deck where we can sub-sample the core and section the resulting cylinders.

Station sites are flexible, however we would like at least 6-10 stations spread throughout the western basin, as well as a transect from South Bass Island to Environment Canada’s Station 84 in the central basin. Stations inside and outside Sandusky Harbor and 4 stations in the eastern basin, especially near Long Point, are also desired. Approximate locations are show below. It is not essential to sample the different basins at the same time. Most of these stations are current stations for Environment Canada and have been accessed in the past using the RV Limnos. Depending on resources, it may be possible to sample some of the near-shore embayments using smaller boats equipped with the necessary winch and box corer. Exact longitudes and latitudes can be provided if necessary.

No radioactive or hazardous materials are required for this project. However sediments from Lake Erie often have higher than background levels of mercury, heavy metals, PCB’s and dioxins that have resulted in fish consumption advisories (Painter et al, 2001). Appropriate caution will need to be used in handling the sediment samples.


Curriculum vitae for UPDATED 01/29/91Gregory L. Boyer


Faculty of Chemistry, State University of New York Email: glboyer@esf.edu

College of Environmental Science and Forestry Telephone: (315) 470-6825

Syracuse, NY 13210 FAX: (315) 470-6855

RESEARCH INTERESTS

The chemistry and biochemistry of biologically active natural products from plants and algae including toxins, siderophores, allelopathic agents, and growth regulators. Special interests include the biochemistry of iron in forest and aquatic (marine and freshwater) ecosystems, the chemistry / ecology of marine and freshwater harmful algal blooms, brown tides, and rapid detection methods for toxic cyanobacteria and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins.



EDUCATION:

Ph.D., University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1980, (Biochemistry).

A.B., University of California - Berkeley, 1975, (Biochemistry).

A.S., Reedley College (Reedley, Calif.), 1973, (Chemistry).



PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE:

1998-present: Professor of Chemistry, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, (SUNY-ESF) Syracuse NY 13210.

1991-1998: Associate Professor of Chemistry, SUNY-ESF.

1994 Visiting Scientist, Biology Dept., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA 02543.

1986-1991 Joint Academic Appointment in the Faculty of Environmental Sciences, SUNY-ESF.

1985-1990 Assistant Professor of Chemistry, SUNY-ESF.

1983-1984 Research Associate, Dept. of Oceanography, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1W5

1980-1982 Research Associate, Michigan State University - DOE, Plant Research Labs. East Lansing, MI, 48824

1975-1980 Research Assistant, Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 53706

HONORS:

NRSA predoctoral trainee - Cell & Molecular Biology (1976-79), Life member; Phi Beta Kappa - Alpha (UC-Berkeley Honor Soc.), Life member; Alpha Gamma Sigma (Reedley College Honor Soc.), International Expert for IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) on PSP toxins (1999), Participant in EPA’s “Creating a Cyanotoxin Target List for the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule” taskforce (2001), Participant in NOAA – Sea Grant’s workshop entitled “Developing a National Plan for Remediation of Harmful Algal Blooms”, Steering committee for “National Plan for Marine Biotoxins-2004; Elected as Treasurer and Nominations Chair to the Northeast Algal Society 1999-2005; Recipient; State University of New York Research Foundations 2003 Award for Excellence in the Pursuit on Knowledge.


Selected Publications in the last four years:


Giner, J-L., X. Li, and G. L. Boyer (2001) Sterol composition of Aureoumbra legunensis, the Texas brown tide alga. Phytochemistry, 57:787-789.

Goddard, G. D., and G. L. Boyer (2001) A comparison of HPLC with electrochemical oxidation, HPLC with chemical oxidation, and the mouse bioassay for the analysis of PSP toxins in shellfish. In: "Harmful Algal Blooms 2000", G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, R.J. Lewis, ed., p. 261-265.

Bates, S. S., C. Leger, M. Satchwell, and G. L. Boyer (2001) The effects of iron on domoic acid production by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. In: "Harmful Algal Blooms 2000" S.I. Blackburn G.M. Hallegraeff, C.J. Bolch, R.J. Lewis, ed., p. 320-323.

Nichols, D. B., M. F. Satchwell, J. E. Alexander, N. M. Martin, M. T. Baesl, and G. L. Boyer (2001) Iron nutrition in the brown tide algae, Aureococcus anophagefferens: Characterization of a ferric chelate reductase activity. In: "Harmful Algal Blooms 2000", G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, R.J. Lewis, ed., p. 340-343.

Baker, T. R., G. J. Doucette, C. L. Powell, G. L. Boyer, and F. G. Plumley (2003) Character-ization of fluorescent compounds from Pseudomonas stutzeri SF/PS and Pseudomonas /Altermonas PTB-1, bacteria associated with Alexandrium sp. and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Toxicon 41:339-347.

Giner, J.-L., J.A. Farldos, G.L. Boyer (2003) Unique sterols of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymno-dinium breve and a proposed defensive function for unusual marine sterols, J. Phycol. 39:1-6

Satchwell, M. F., and G. L. Boyer (2003) Comparison of three methods for the detection of microcystin cyanobacterial toxins: Proceedings, 10th International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms (XHAB), in press.

Patchett, E.A. M.F. Satchwell, J. Alexander and G.L. Boyer (2003) The effects of iron limitation on growth and PSP toxin production in Alexandrium fundyense. Proceedings, 10th International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms (XHAB), in press.

Boyer, G., M. C. Watzin, A. D. Shambaugh, M. F. Satchwell, B. R. Rosen, and T. Mihuc (2004) The occurrence of cyanobacterial toxins in Lake Champlain. In: "Lake Champlain: Partnerships and Research in the New Millennium. T. Manley, P. Manley, T Mihuc, Eds., Kluwer, p 241-257.

Lehman, P. W., S. Waller, G. Boyer, and K. Gehrts (2004) Distribution and toxicity of a new Microcystis aeruginosa bloom in the upper San Francisco Bay region. Technical Report for NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms. 17p.

Lehman, P., G. Boyer, C. Hall, S. Waller, and K. Gerhts (2004) Distribution and toxicity of a new colonial Microcystis aeruginosa bloom in San Francisco Estuary, California. Hydrobiology. In press

Mihuc, T. B., G. L. Boyer, M. F. Satchwell, M. Pellam, J. Jones, J. Vasile, A. Bouchard, and R. Bonham (2005) 2002 Phytoplankton community composition and cyanobacterial toxins in Lake Champlain, U.S.A. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 29:xxx-xxx., in press

Zou, G., and G. L. Boyer (2005) Synthesis and Properties of different metal complexes of the siderophore desferriferricrocin. Biometals, in press.

Hotto, A., M. Satchwell, and G. Boyer (2004) Seasonal production and molecular characterization of microcystins in Oneida Lake, New York, USA. Environmental Toxicology. In press.



Rinta-Kanto, J. M., A. J. A. Ouellette, M. R. Twiss, G. L. Boyer, T. Bridgeman, and S. W. Wilhelm (2005) Quantification of toxic Microcystis spp. during the 2003 and 2004 blooms in western Lake Erie using quantitative real-time PCR. Environ. Sci. Technol. accepted.

Current and Pending Support


Investigator: Gregory L. Boyer

Home Institution: State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry
















Support:

Current

 Pending

 Submission Planned in Near Future




Project/Proposal Title:

Unrestricted Support for Biochemistry

Source of Support: Multiple Sponsor

Total Award Amount: $59,750

Total Award Period Covered: 1/1/99 – 12/31/05

Location of Project: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY

Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project.

Cal:      

Acad: .09

Sumr:      

Support:

√ Current

 Pending

 Submission Planned in Near Future




Project/Proposal Title:

MERHAB 2002: Tier Based Monitoring for Toxic Cyanobacteria in the Lower Great Lakes

Source of Support: NOAA

Total Award Amount: $3,622,350

Total Award Period Covered: 9/1/02 – 8/31/07

Location of Project: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY

Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project.

Cal:      

Acad: .9

Sumr: 6 wk

Support:

√ Current

 Pending

 Submission Planned in Near Future




Project/Proposal Title:

New York State Disinfection By-Product/Algal Toxin Project

Source of Support: NYS-DEC

Total Award Amount: $23,000

Total Award Period Covered: 6/15/04 – 5/31/05

Location of Project: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY

Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project.

Cal:      

Acad: .09

Sumr:      

Support:

√ Current

 Pending

 Submission Planned in Near Future




Project/Proposal Title:

Central New York Biotechnology Research Center

Source of Support: US Department of Health and Human Services

Total Award Amount: $713,087

Total Award Period Covered: 9/1/03 – 12/31/08

Location of Project: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY

Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project.

Cal:      

Acad: .09

Sumr:      

Support:

√ Current

 Pending

 Submission Planned in Near Future




Project/Proposal Title:


Source Sentinel : Protection of Municipal Water Supplies

Source of Support: NYS Office of Science, Technology and Academic Research


Total Award Amount: $300,000


Total Award Period Covered: 4/1/02 – 12/31/05

Location of Project: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY



Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project.

Cal:      

Acad: .45

Sumr:      

Support:

√ Current

 Pending

 Submission Planned in Near Future




Project/Proposal Title:

NSF Graduate Research Fellowship for Karen Howard

Source of Support: National Science Foundation

Total Award Amount: $40,500

Total Award Period Covered: 6/1/04 – 5/31/05

Location of Project: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY

Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project.

Cal:      

Acad: .09

Sumr:      




NSF Form 1239 (10/98)













USE ADDITIONAL SHEETS AS NECESSARY



Current and Pending Support


Investigator: Gregory L. Boyer

Continued




Support:

 Current

√ Pending

 Submission Planned in Near Future




Project/Proposal Title:

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Lake Erie

Source of Support: NOAA-GLERL

Total Award Amount: $0 no cost

Total Award Period Covered: 5/1/2005 – 4/30/2006

Location of Project: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY

Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project.

Cal:      

Acad: 0.09

Sumr:

Support:

 Current

√ Pending

 Submission Planned in Near Future




Project/Proposal Title:

Technical Evaluation of a Near-real time monitoring platform for drinking water contaminants




Source of Support: New York Indoor Environmental Quality Center

Total Award Amount: $25,000

Total Award Period Covered: 5/1/2005 – 12/31/2005

Location of Project: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY

Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project.

Cal:      

Acad: .0.09

Sumr: 1 mo

Support:

 Current

√ Pending

 Submission Planned in Near Future




Project/Proposal Title:

This Proposal: A Remote-Sensing Based Early Warning System for Algal Blooms in the Great Lakes

Source of Support: University of Buffalo/NASA

Total Award Amount: $182,226

Total Award Period Covered: 10/1/05 – 9/30/08

Location of Project: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY

Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project.

Cal:      

Acad: .36

Sumr: 1 mo

Support:

 Current

√ Pending

 Submission Planned in Near Future




Project/Proposal Title:

The Health and Ecosystem impacts of a newly developed cyanobacterial bloom of Microcystis in the

Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

Source of Support: California Department of Environmental Conservation

Total Award Amount: $124,612

Total Award Period Covered: 7/1/2006 – 7/1/2009

Location of Project: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY

Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project.

Cal:      

Acad: 0.36

Sumr:

Support:

 Current

 Pending

√ Submission Planned in Near Future




Project/Proposal Title:

Deployment of an automated system for the detection of cyanobacteria

Source of Support: New York Sea Grant

Total Award Amount: $74.028

Total Award Period Covered: 2/1/2006 – 1/31/2007

Location of Project: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY

Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project.

Cal:      

Acad: 0.45

Sumr:

Support:

 Current

√ Pending

 Submission Planned in Near Future




Project/Proposal Title:

Distribution of Microcystins in Lake Erie Sediments (this proposal)

Source of Support: NOAA-GLERL




Total Award Amount: $17,614

Total Award Period Covered: 5/1/2005 – 4/30/2006

Location of Project: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY

Person-Months Per Year Committed to the Project.

Cal:      

Acad: 0.45

Sumr:



















NSF Form 1239 (10/98)













USE ADDITIONAL SHEETS AS NECESSARY




1 The opposing hypothesis that all bloom events in the western basin were toxic is equally likely. This hypothesis can be validated by observing distinct differences in the microcystin and Microcystis profiles with time.

2 Stoermer et al (1996) estimated the sedimentation rate for the central basin (station 93) to be ~0.3 cm per year. The sedimentation rate in the western basin is likely to be greater due to inputs from both the Maumee and Detroit Rivers. If so, it may be possible to segment the core into one year intervals.



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