Haustorium parasitic Plants Newsletter

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, Yatzenko, T.V., Lyarskaya, L.V., Aseeva, T.A., Nikolaev, S.M., Badluev, O.A. and Sambueva, Z.G. 2007. Hepatoprotective effect of herbal medicine "dig-da-shi-tan" on liver damaged by ethanol. Rastitel'nye Resursy 43(1): 130-135. (Odontites vulgaris is one of the 4 plant species involved in the preparation of ‘dig-da-shi-tan’, which is shown to help alleviate damage to liver from ethanol, when injected into laboratory animals.)

De Vega, C. and de Oliveira, R.C. 2007. A new procedure for making observations of embryo morphology in dust-like seeds with rigid coats. Seed Science Research 17(1): 63-67. (A successful procedure for seeds of Cytinus hypocistis and C. ruber involved successive treatments with Franklin's and Jeffrey's softening fluids and then with Herr's clearing fluid.)

Debabrata Das. 2007. Host range diversity of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in South 24-Parganas District of West Bengal. Environment and Ecology 25(1): 106-108. (Recording 67 host species with Excoecaria agallocha and Acanthus ilicifolius most commonly attacked.)

Devkota, M.P. and Kunwar, R.M. 2006. Diversity, distribution and host range of mistletoes in Godawari-Phulchoki area, Kathmandu, Nepal. Journal of Japanese Botany 81: 255-261. (Of 10 mistletoe species recorded on 69 hosts, Scurrula parasitica and Helixanthera ligustrina affected the most hosts. Others included Scurrula gracilifolia, S. pulverulenta , Macrosolen cochinchinensis, Viscum loranthi and Loranthus odoratus. The main host species included Castanea sativa, Populus deltoides, Callistemon citrinus and Pyrus pashia.)

Devkota, M.P. and Kunwar, R.M. 2006. Pollination and dispersal of three Scurrula species (Loranthaceae) in Godawari Area of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Indian Journal of Botanical Research. 2(2):115-128. (Describing the role of 4 bird species in the pollination and 3 species in the dispersal of Scurrula pulverulenta, parasitica and elata.)

Dias, D.P. and Marenco, R.A. 2007. (Photosynthesis and photoinhibition in mahogany and acariquara as a function of irradiance and leaf temperature.)(in Portuguese) Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 42: 305-311. (Studies included Minquartia guianensis (Olacaceae).)

Diminic, D. and Kauzlaric, Ž. 2006. (The occurrence of common mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. abietis/Wiesb./Abromeit) on silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Gorski Kotar (Croatia).)( in Croatian) Glasnik za Šumske Pokuse, 2006, No. Posebno izdanje 5: 365-376. (A. alba heavily infected by V. album in 3 localities. Vigour of V. album was greater in trees on silicate soils than on dolomitic limestone.)

Dimitrova, T. 2004. Check of Amaranthus blitoides W. var. reverchoni Th. - an element of the control of Cuscuta epithymum Murr in lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 10: 579-582. (Amaranthus blitoides acts as a host of C. epithymum and enhances the Cuscuta problem in lucerne. Satisfactory control achieved by combination of S-metolachlor before lucerne emergence and imazethapyr 3 days after cutting infected growth.)

Dor, E., Evidente, A., Amalfitano, C., Agrelli, D. and Hershenhorn, J. 2007. The influence of growth conditions on biomass, toxins and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. orthoceros, a potential agent for broomrape control. Weed Research 47: 345-352. (Shaking led to highest rate of biomass accumulation of F. oxysporum; but the greatest pathogenicity against several Orobanche spp., perhaps associated with the toxic metabolites fusaric acid and 9,10-dehydrofusaric acid, was obtained under illumination, without shaking.)

Douthwaite, B., Schulz, S., Olanrewaju, A.S. and Ellis-Jones, J. 2007. Impact pathway evaluation of an integrated Striga hermonthica control project in northern Nigeria. Agricultural Systems 92: 201-222. (Discussing the extension techniques including impact pathway evaluation, believed to have been helpful in the dissemination of Striga control techniques, involving improved crop varieties and the growing of soyabean.)

Dzomeku, I.K. and Murdoch, A.J. 2007. Effects of prolonged conditioning on dormancy and germination of Striga hermonthica. Journal of Agronomy 6: 29-36. (Studies with different temperatures, urea concentrations and water stress showed that optimum temperature for conditioning was lower at high concentrations of urea, while optimum conditioning period decreased with both water stress and with high urea concentration.)

Echevarría-Zomeño, S., Pérez-de-Luque, A., Jorrín, J. and Maldonado, A.M. 2006. Pre-haustorial resistance to broomrape (Orobanche cumana) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): cytochemical studies. Journal of Experimental Botany 57: 4189-4200. (In studies with race F of O. cumana and the resistant sunflower var. HE-39999 root tubercles were never observed, resistance being associated with accumulation of phenolic compounds, browning of both parasite and host tissues, and suberization and protein cross-linking in the sunflower cell wall.)

Eizenberg, H., Lande, T, Achdari, G., Roichman, A. and Herschenhorn, J. 2007. Effect of Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca) seed-burial depth on parasitism dynamics and chemical control in tomato. Weed Science 55: 152-156. (Increasing depth of placement delayed and reduced emergence and biomass of O. aegyptiaca, but some emerged from 30 cm. Herbicide sulfosulfuron prevented emergence of O. aegyptiaca from all depths but its efficacy in preventing attachment and development below ground was best when seeds were at 6 cm and negligible when at 30 cm.)

El-Hamid, M.M.A. and El-Khanagry, S.S. 2006. Studies on dodder (Cuscuta spp.) infestation in clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) fields in some governorates in Nile Delta. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 84(1): 287-300. (A survey showed 11% of fields infested with a mixture of Cuscuta planiflora and C. pedicellata and 87% of farmer seed samples contaminated with Cuscuta spp.)

Escher, P. and Rennenberg, H. 2006. Influx of double labelled glutamine into mistletoes (Viscum album) from the xylem sap of its host (Abies alba). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 44: 880-884. (Results suggest the glutamine is metabolised in the V. album, the C component being distributed to metabolic sinks, while N is over-supplied, and remains mainly in the stem.)

Fan, Z.W., Buschmann, H. and Sauerborn, J. 2007. Prohexadione-calcium induces sunflower (Helianthus annuus) resistance against the root parasitic weed Orobanche cumana. Weed Research (Oxford) 47: 34-43. (Results suggest that PHDC reduces O. cumana infection by inducing host resistance. Lignification is not induced but free phenolics play an important role in the response, which is stronger in the more resistant var. HA89 than in var. Albena.)

Fan, Z.W., Buschmann, H., Müller-Stöver, D. and Sauerborn, J. 2007. Main effects and interactions among acibenzolar-S-methyl, a biocontrol fungus and sunflower cultivar on control of Orobanche cumana Walk. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 114(2): 76-81. (The ‘plant activator’ acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) applied 3 times as a soil drench at 5 mg/l soil, and the biocontrol fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. orthoceras each gave substantial suppression of O. cumana, while the combination gave improved reliability.)

Finall, A.I., McIntosh, S.A. and Thompson, W.D. 2006. Subcutaneous inflammation mimicking metastatic malignancy induced by injection of mistletoe extract. British Medical Journal 333(7582): 1293-1294. (Reporting the case of a woman with subcutaneous inflammation mimicking metastatic malignancy induced by subcutaneous injections of mistletoe (Viscum album) extract self-administered at 20 mg, three times a week for the previous 12 months.)

Gebisa Ejeta and Gressel, J. (eds) 2007. Integrating new technologies for Striga control. Towards ending the witch-hunt. Hackensack, USA: World Scientific Publishing Co. 356 pp. (A publication based on the papers presented at the meeting in Addis Abeba in September, 2006. A review will appear in the next issue of Haustorium.)

Gillespie, M., Hodkinson, I.D., Cooper, E.J., Bird, J.M. and Jónsdóttir, I.S. 2007. Life history and host-plant relationships of the rare endemic Arctic aphid Acyrthosiphon calvulus in a changing environment. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 123: 229- 237. (Describing the life cycle of A. calvulus in Spitzbergen where it is closely synchronized with the phenology of Salix polaris but also occurs on Pedicularis hirsuta.)

Gondola, I. 2006. (Control of broomrape (Orobanche ramosa L.) in herbicide resistant tobacco.)(in Hungarian) Növényvédelem 42: 537-543. (Confirming complete selective control of O. ramosa by chlorsulfuron at 8 g/ha in chlorsulfuron-resistant tobacco derived from protoplast culture.)

González-Verdejo, C.I., Dita, M.A., di Pietro, A., Moreno, M.T., Barandiarán, X. Rubiales, D., González-Melendi, P. and Pérez-de-Luque, A. 2007. Identification and expression analysis of a MYB family transcription factor in the parasitic plant Orobanche ramosa. Annals of Applied Biology 150: 123-130. (This MYB gene appears to be associated with early stages of development and localized to parenchymatic cells near vascular tissue.)

GRAIN (Spain) 2006. Swapping striga for patents: yet another quick fix for Africa's farmers? Seedling October 2006: 5-9. (Discussing the new ‘Clearfield’ or ‘Strigaway’ technology involving herbicide-treated crop seed for Striga control, as developed by CIMMYT and BASF, and raising serious doubts about its suitability to traditional farmers in Kenya, and concluding that it is ‘a misguided attempt to introduce a complex, expensive and risky technological solution into African farming systems.’)

Guchu, S.M., Yenesew, A., Tsanuo, M.K., Gikonyo, N.K., Pickett, J.A., Hooper, A.M. and Hassanali, A. 2007. C-methylated and C-prenylated isoflavonoids from root extract of Desmodium uncinatum. Phytochemistry 68: 646-651. (A number of components of a root extract which induced germination of Striga hermonthica were identified but none individually stimulated germination.)

Gupta, R.S. and Kachhawa, J.B.S. 2007. Evaluation of contraceptive activity of methanol extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem in male albino rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 112(1): 215-218. (‘It is concluded that D. falcata methanol stem extract showed a significant effect on fertility in male rats as reported in folk remedies.’)

Gworgwor, N.A. 2007. Trees to control weeds in pearl millet. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 27(2): 89-94. (Observing that millet growing under the canopy of Faidherbia albida trees was completely free of S. hermonthica and yielded up to 3 times that outside the canopy.)

Harbaugh, D.T. and Baldwin, B.G. 2007. Phylogeny and biogeography of the sandalwoods (Santalum, Santalaceae): repeated dispersals throughout the Pacific. American Journal of Botany 94: 1028-1040. (Analysis of DNA sequences suggest an origin of Santalum in Australia with at least 5 presumed bird-assisted dispersal events outwards to different Pacific islands, including the Hawaii group. Also suggesting that several recognized sections are not monophyletic and need revision.)

Harsha, V.H., Hebbar, S.S., Shripathi, V. and Hegde, G.R. 2006. Additions to the host-range of Cassytha filiformis L. (Cassythaceae) recorded in the Uttara Kannada District of Karnataka State (India). Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 30: 231-234. (Listing 35 hosts of C. filiformis in 24 families, 3 of these being monocot.)

Howell, B., Kenaley, S. and Mathiasen, R. 2006. First report of Psittacanthus macrantherus on Pinus devoniana and Quercus castanea in Mexico. Plant Disease 90: 1461. (P. macrantherus seen frequently in P. devoniana and P. douglasiana, once only in Q. castanea.)

Hrusa, G.F. and Kelch, D. 2006. Giant dodders 2004-2006. In: Kodira, U.C. (ed.) 2006. Plant Pest Diagnostics Center. 2006 Annual Report. Sacamento, USA: California Department of Food and Agriculture, pp. 9-19 and 41. (Reporting repeated occurrences of C. japonica in California, thought to originate from deliberate introduction as an Asian herbal remedy. It may flower but fails to set seed thanks to self-incompatibility and climate. See note in text above.)

Hunziker-Basler, N., Zuzak, T.J., Eggenschwiler, J., Rist, L., Simões-Wüst, A.P. and Viviani, A. 2007. Prolonged cytotoxic effect of aqueous extracts from dried Viscum album on bladder cancer cells. Pharmazie 62: 237-238. (Extracts of V. album from different host trees showed some variation in cytotoxic effect, not necessarily correlated with lectin content. In the form of ‘Iscucin’, extracts showed therapeutic potential for bladder cancer patients.)

Ibrahima, A., Mapongmetsem, P.M., Mompea, H.M., Moussou, L. and Nyomo. 2006. Vascular epiphytes and parasitic plants on Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn. (Sapotaceae) in the Sudano-Guinean savannas of Ngaoundere, Cameroon. Selbyana 27(1): 72-78. (A survey found Tapinanthus globiferus ssp. apodanthus common on shea-butter trees, occurring mainly on the less humid canopy fringes.)

Idžojtic, M., Glavaš, M., Zebec, M., Pernar, R., Dasovic, M. and Pavlus, N. 2005. (Infestation of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) with mistletoe (Viscum album L. ssp. abietis /Wiesb./ Abrom.) in Croatia.)(in Croatian) Šumarski List, 129: 559-573. (In the areas surveyed, 28% of A. alba were infested by V. album. Not all infested trees showed damage, but all the trees in the least healthy category were infested.)

Iuoras, M., Stanciu, D., Ciucă, M., Joita, M.P., Năstase, D. and Costache, S.M. 2006. (Preliminary research related to marker assisted selection in sunflower for Orobanche cumana Wallr. resistance.)(in Romanian) Cercetări de Genetică Vegetală si Animală 9: 27-34. (Work to identify a marker associated with the Or5 resistance gene locus failed to find a tightly linked marker, but three SSR markers segregated in different proportions.)

Jäger, S., Winkler, K., Pfüller, U. and Scheffler, A. 2007. Solubility studies of oleanolic acid and betulinic acid in aqueous solutions and plant extracts of Viscum album L. Planta Medica 73(2): 157-162. (Discussing solubilities as relevant to extraction methods for compounds with anti-tumour properties.)

Jiang Fan, Timergalina, L., Kudoyarova, G., Jeschke, W.D. and Hartung, W. 2007. Growth and development of the facultative root hemiparasite Rhinanthus minor after removal of its host. Functional Plant Biology 34: 237-245. (After removal of the host (barley) shoot, R. minor continued to grow strongly. It grew stronger roots and closed its stomata during the day. It may also have benefited from degradation of host roots.)

Jiménez, M., André, S., Siebert, H.C., Gabius, H.J. and Solís, D. 2006. AB-type lectin (toxin/agglutinin) from mistletoe: differences in affinity of the two galactoside-binding Trp/Tyr-sites and regulation of their functionality by monomer/dimer equilibrium. Glycobiology 16: 926-937.

Joel, D.M. 2007. Direct infection of potato tubers by the root parasite Orobanche aegyptiaca. Weed Research 47: 276-279. (Reporting attachment and penetration of potato tubers by secondary haustoria of O. aegyptiaca. The parasite was also attached to the roots of potato but not to stolons or sprouts. This may be the first report of attachment of an Orobanche sp. to shoot tissue.)

Joel, D.M., Bar, H., Mayer, A.M., Verdoucq, V., Welbaum, G. and Westwood, J. 2007. Characterization of a dioxygenase gene with a potential role in steps leading to germination of the root parasite Orobanche aegyptiaca. In: Adkins, S.W., Ashmore, S. and Navie, S.C. (eds) Seeds: biology, development and ecology. Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on Seeds, Brisbane, Australia, May 2005: 296-306. (Differential display was used to identify genes with expression changes during conditioning. One of these, a dioxygenase, was characterized.)

Jones, C.G., Plummer, J.A. and Barbour, E.L. 2007. Non-destructive sampling of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album L.) for oil content and composition. Journal of Essential Oil Research 19: 157-164. (Reporting on the difficulties of estimating oil yield of trees, based on cores taken from different heights and the method of analysing these cores.)

Khalik, K.N.A. 2006. Seed morphology of Cuscuta L. (Convolvulaceae) in Egypt and its systematic significance. Feddes Repertorium 117: 217-224. (SEM and light microscopy used to distinguish 8 taxa of Cuscuta in Egypt, and a key prepared.)

Khan, Z.R., Midega, C.A.O., Hassanali, A., Pickett, J.A. and Wadhams, L.J. 2007. Assessment of different legumes for the control of Striga hermonthica in maize and sorghum. Crop Science 47: 730-736. (Inter-planting sorghum or maize with cowpea, greengram (Vigna radiate) or crotalaria (Crotalaria ochroleuca) resulted in some useful reduction of S. hermonthica though much less than Desmodium uncinatum. which provided nearly complete suppression. Only Desmodium in sorghum, and cowpea, crotalaria and Desmodium in maize gave significant increases in crop yield.)

Khan, Z.R., Midega, C.A.O., Hassanali, A., Pickett, J.A., Wadhams, L.J. and Wanjoya, A. 2006. Management of witchweed, Striga hermonthica, and stemborers in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor, through intercropping with greenleaf desmodium, Desmodium intortum. International Journal of Pest Management 52: 297-302. (Confirming that the ‘push-pull’ technique for suppression of stem-borers and Striga works well in sorghum as well as in maize. S. hermonthica was reduced 89-100%, stem-borers by 67-85% and sorghum yields increased by 63-140%.)

Kiesling, R. 1994. (Flora of San Juan, Argentina: Volume I: Pteridophyta, Gymnosperma, multiple-leaf dicotyledons (Salicaceae and Leguminosae).)(in Spanish) In: Kiesling, R. (ed.) Buenos Aires, Argentina: Vasquez Mazzini Editores, 348 pp. (Including keys to Olacaceae and Santalaceae.)

Kültür, S. 2007. Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111: 341-364. (Viscum album subsp. album listed among 126 traditional medicinal plants.)

Lázaro Bello, J.A. 2005. (Chorological notes on the vascular flora of Duero river basin (Valladolid, Spain).)(in Spanish) Anales de Biología 27: 113-118. (Including a new record for Cuscuta campestris.)

Lee KueBae. 2007. Structure and development of the upper haustorium in the parasitic flowering plant Cuscuta japonica (Convolvulaceae). American Journal of Botany 94: 737-745. (A detailed description of the early stages in attachment of the parasite using both light and electron microscopy.)

Lehmkuhl, J.F., Kistler, K.D. and Begley, J.S. 2006. Bushy-tailed woodrat abundance in dry forests of Eastern Washington. Journal of Mammalogy 87: 371-379. (Noting that mistletoe brooms (caused by unspecified Arceuthobium spp.) contributed to higher densities of woodrat in ponderosa pine and Douglas fir forest.)

Lejeune, A., Constant, S., Delavault, P., Simier, P., Thalouarn, P. and Thoiron, S. 2006. Involvement of a putative Lycopersicon esculentum wall-associated kinase in the early steps of tomato - Orobanche ramosa interaction. PMPP Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 69(1/3): 3-12. (Suggesting that a wall-associated kinase increases early in tomato roots and in cell suspensions challenged with Orobanche ramosa.)

Lehmkuhl, J.F., Kistler, K.D., Begley, J.S. and Boulanger, J. 2006. Demography of northern flying squirrels informs ecosystem management of western interior forests. Ecological Applications 16: 584-600. (Noting the possible benefit for Glaucomys sabrinus of retaining trees with Arceuthobium brooms.)

Lendzemo, V.W., van Ast, A. and Kuyper, T.W. 2006. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi contribute to Striga management on cereals in Africa? Outlook on Agriculture 35: 307-311. (Reporting pot and field experiments which confirmed reduction of germination, attachment and emergence of Striga by AM fungi.)

Letousey, P., de Zélicourt, A., dos Santos, C.V., Thoiron, S., Monteau, F., Simier, P., Thalouarn, P. and Delavault, P. 2007. Molecular analysis of resistance mechanisms to Orobanche cumana in sunflower. Plant Pathology 56: 536-546. (A defensin gene is correlated with resistance in sunflower variety LR1. Three other genes, a putative methionine synthase, glutathione S-transferase and quinone oxidoreductase, might be involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species during resistance responses.)

Mabrouk, Y., Zourgui, L., Sifi, B., Delavault, P., Simier, P. and Belhadj, O. 2007. Some compatible Rhizobium leguminosarum strains in peas decrease infections when parasitised by Orobanche crenata. Weed Research (Oxford) 47: 44-53. (Two isolates of Rhizobium, P.SOM and P.1236 did not directly affect germination of O. crenata, but when pea roots were inoculated, there was reduced germination and increased necrosis of the parasite, apparently associated with enhanced activity of peroxidases and phenylalanine ammonia lyase.)

Malkomes, H.P. 2006. (Influence of neem products on higher plants and its possible usage for sucker and weed control - an overview.)(in German) Gesunde Pflanzen 58: 93-98. (Neem products had been tested for control of Orobanche and Striga but with inadequate effect.)

Maširevic, S. and Malidža, G. 2006. (Problem and control of broomrape.)(in Serbian) Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor) 34: 353-360. (Reviewing the importance of O. cumana on sunflower in Serbia and referring to use of resistant hybrids and imidazolinone herbicides.)

Mathiasen, R.L. and Daugherty, C.M. 2006. Additional taxonomic studies of Arceuthobium pendens (Viscaceae): a rare dwarf mistletoe from Central Mexico. Madroño 53(1): 69-71. (Reporting new data on the morphology, phenology and host reaction of this rare parasite on Pinus orizabensis in Mexico.)

Mathiasen, R., Howell, B. and Garnett, G. First report of Arceuthobium aureum subsp. aureum in Mexico. Plant Disease 91: 469. (A. aureum observed on a few trees of Pinus maximinoi causing serious damage to some.)

Mathiasen, R., Sediles, A. and Sesnie, S. 2006. First report of Arceuthobium hondurense and Sruthanthus deppeanus in Nicaragua. Plant Disease 90: 1458. (Both species recorded on Pinus tecunumanii and P. oocarpa.)

Menkir, A. and Kling, J.G. 2007. Response to recurrent selection for resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth in a tropical maize population. Crop Science 47: 674-684. (A maize composite subjected to 6 cycles of recurrent selection claimed to show a remarkable 24% improvement in yield per cycle under S. hermonthica infestation.)

Mikó, P. and Gulyás, A. 2007. (Investigation of the distribution and pathogenity of sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cernua Loefl./Orobanche cumana Wallr.) in North-Bácska Region in the year 2003 and 2005.)(in Hungarian) Növényvédelem 43(1): 25-29. (Reporting some intense losses from race E of O. cumana in Hungary but noting that with the correct resistant sunflower varieties there was no infestation.)

Mishra, J.S., Moorthy, B.T.S., Manish Bhan and Yaduraju, N.T. 2007. Relative tolerance of rainy season crops to field dodder (Cuscuta campestris) and its management in Niger (Guizotia abyssinica). Crop Protection 26: 625-629. (G. abyssinica was the most susceptible to C. campestris of 10 crops tested, suffering 86% loss, followed by Phaseolus radiatus, sesamum, soyabean and Vigna mungo. Cowpea and rice were unaffected. Pendimethalin pre-emergence at 1 kg/ha provided excellent selective control in G. abyssinica.)

Mohamed, H.M., Khan, Z.R., Mueke, J.M., Hassanali, A., Kairu, E. and Pickett, J.A. 2007. Behaviour and biology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) on Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. infested and uninfested maize plants. Crop Protection 26: 998-1005. (There was some tendency for C. partellus to prefer maize plants highly infested with S. hermonthica for oviposition, but larvae consumed more and grew more rapidly on un-infested host plants.)

Mohamed, K.I., Papes, M., Williams, R., Benz, B.W. and Peterson, A.T. 2006. Global invasive potential of 10 parasitic witchweeds and related Orobanchaceae. Ambio 35: 281-288. (Using tools from ecological niche modelling in combination with occurrence records from herbarium specimens to evaluate global invasive potential, and concluding that all tropical and subtropical countries, and most temperate countries are at risk from one or more parasitic species of Striga, Orobanche, Alectra vogellii or Aeginetia indica.)

Mutengwa, C.S., Tongoona, P., Mabasa, S. and Chivinge, O.A. 1999. Resistance to Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze in sorghum: parent characterisation and combining ability analysis. African Crop Science Journal 7: 321-326. (In pot experiments sorghum varieties SAR 19 and SAR 29 showed resistance to S. asiatica, associated with low stimulant exudation. SAR 16 proved susceptible.)

Mutengwa, C.S., Tongoona, P.B. and Sithole-Niang, I. 2005. Genetic studies and a search for molecular markers that are linked to Striga asiatica resistance in sorghum. African Journal of Biotechnology 4: 1355-1361. (Describing efforts to identify molecular markers for the low germination stimulant (lgs) gene.)

Nadal, S., Cubero, J.I. and Moreno, M.T. 2007. Sources of resistance to broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) in narbon vetch. Plant Breeding 126: 110-112. (Among 200 accessions of Vicia narbonensis tested, 8 accessions were selected and identified as new sources of resistance to O. crenata.)

Nicol, J., Muston, S., D'Santos, P., McCarthy, B. and Zukowski, S. 2007. Impact of sheep grazing on the soil seed bank of a managed ephemeral wetland: implications for management. Australian Journal of Botany 55(2): 103-109. (Grazing reduced the density and species richness of the seed bank and in turn changed the plant community. However, in the absence of grazing, Cuscuta campestris was one of the species to flourish, and may need control.)

Olakojo, S.A. and Olaoye, G. 2005. Combining ability for grain yield, agronomic traits and Striga lutea tolerance of maize hybrids under artificial striga infestation. African Journal of Biotechnology 4: 984-988. (Studies with 10 inbred maize lines showed good general combining ability and identified inbreds suitable for commercial hybrid maize production for Striga-infested areas of south western Nigeria.)

Owens, N.L., Tucker, G.C. and Ebinger, J.E. 2006. Flora and vegetation of Coneflower Glacial Drift Hill Prairie Natural Area, Moultrie County, Illinois. Rhodora 108(936): 370-386. (Listing Comandra umbellata as an important forb.)

Pampi Ghosh and Debabrata Das. 2006. A preliminary census and taxonomic survey of host plant diversity of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in the Dakshin Dinajpur District of West Bengal. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 30: 217-220. (Listing 58 hosts of C. reflexa, including one monocot.)

Park JeongMi, Schneeweiss, G.M. and Weiss-Schneeweiss, H. 2007. Diversity and evolution of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retroelements in the non-photosynthetic flowering plants Orobanche and Phelipanche (Orobanchaceae). Gene 387: 75-86. (This first look at retroelements in parasitic plants suggests that genomes of Orobanche are more dynamic than those of Phelipanche. Potential of horizontal gene transfer is discussed.)

Pernar, R., Bajic, M., Ančic, M. , Seletkovic, A. and Idžojtic, M. 2007. Detection of mistletoe in digital colour infrared images of infested fir trees. Periodicum Biologorum 109(1): 67-75. (Abies alba is an important but endangered tree species in Croatia and is significantly attacked by Viscum album. The study confirmed that V. album can be detected using a digital visible near-infrared camera and hybrid interpretation that consists of unsupervised classification and manual merging of clusters.)

Popov, C., Guran, M., Raranciuc, S., Rotărescu, M., Spiridon, C., Vasilescu, S. and Gogu, F. 2006. (Phytosanitary state of cereals, leguminous for grain, industrial and fodder crops in Romania, in 2005.)(in Romanian) Probleme de Protectia Plantelor 34(1/2): 15-37. (Including the situation of Orobanche cumana in sunflower.).

Ramsay, P.M. and Fotherby, R.M. Implications of the spatial pattern of Vigur's Eyebright (Euphrasia vigursii) for heathland management. Basic and Applied Ecology 8: 242-251. (Spatial analysis of the rare endemic E. vigursii (and of E. anglica) at a site in SW England suggested association with, and possible parasitism of, Ulex gallii. A decline in populations is thought to be associated with a deliberate increase in density of U. gallii resulting in more shade at this site.)

Ray, B.R. and Dasgupta, M.K. 2006. Sugarcane crop loss due to wilt caused by parasitic angiosperm Aeginetia pedunculata (Roxb.) Wall. (Orobanchaceae). Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology 36(1): 31-34. (A report on A. pedunculata causing an overall 37% loss of sugar yield in a 100 ha area along the river Bhagirathi in West Bengal, India. Some control is achieved by repeated hand-pulling. As reported earlier n Haustorium 45.)

Rispail, N., Dita, M.A., González-Verdejo, C., Pérez-de-Luque, A., Castillejo, M.A., Prats, E., Román, B., Jorrín, J. and Rubiales, D. 2007. Plant resistance to parasitic plants: molecular approaches to an old foe. New Phytologist 173:703-712. (Reviewing current approaches to the characterization of resistance mechanisms and discussing the application of new technologies to breeding programmes.)

Román, B., González Verdejo, C.I., Satovic, Z., Madrid, M.D., Cubero, J.I. and Nadal, S. 2007. Detecting Orobanche species by using cpDNA diagnostic markers. Phytoparasitica 35: 129-135. (Discussing the development of diagnostic DNA markers for the identification of the Orobanche crenata, O. cumana and O. ramosa in soil or seed lots.)

Roney, J.K., Khatibi, P.A. and Westwood, J.H. Cross-species translocation of mRNA from host plants into the parasitic plant dodder. Plant Physiology 143: 1037-1043. (Demonstrating that host mRNAs move from pumpkin and tomato hosts into Cuscuta. Movement of 10 transcripts, including the phloem-mobile GAI (gibberillic acid-insensitive) is demonstrated.)

Roxburgh, L. 2007. The effect of gut processing on the quality of mistletoe seed dispersal. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23: 377-380. (A study of Phragmanthera dschallensis on Acacia sieberiana in Zambia showed that regurgitation of seeds by birds resulted in higher germination rates and more direct contact with host branches, than defecation. No mention in abstract of the bird species involved.)

Roychoudhury, N., Singh, B.P. and Joshi, K.C. 2005. Some aspects on the biology of the common jezebel Delias eucharis (Drury) feeding on Dendrophthoe falcata (L. F.). Indian Journal of Entomology 67(2): 102-108. (Presenting observations on the biology and parasitism of the insect D. eucharis on D. falcata.)

Rungmekarat, S., Iino, M., Sato, M., Takahashi, T., Natsuaki, T., Takeuchi, Y. and Yoneyama, K. 2007. Characterization of mRNAs encoding ethylene biosynthesis enzymes in the root holoparasitic plants Orobanche. Journal of Pesticide Science 32: 24-31, 55. (ACC synthases and ACC oxidases from O. minor and O. ramosa have high homology to counterparts from other plants, particularly Striga hermonthica. Only the genes from O. ramosa were induced following stimulation by strigol.)

Sauerborn, J., Müller-Stöver, D. and Hershenhorn, J. 2007. The role of biological control in managing parasitic weeds. Crop Protection 26: 246-254. (A general discussion of the potential for biocontrol of parasitic plants.)

Schädler, M., Roeder, M., Brandl, R. and Matthies, D. 2005. Is palatability of a root-hemiparasitic plant influenced by its host species? Oecologia 146: 227-233. (Melampyrum arvense was grown on 11 different hosts and all were exposed to the slug Arion lusitanicus and to larvae of the moth Spodoptera littoralis. Both herbivores discriminated M. arvense grown on different host plants but there was no correlation between the palatability of a host species and that of the parasite grown on that host.)

Schnitzler, P., Koch, C. and Reichling, J. 2007. Susceptibility of drug-resistant clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 strains to essential oils of ginger, thyme, hyssop, and sandalwood. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 51: 1859-1862. (Involving Santalum sp., presumably S. album.)

Showemimo, F.A. 2006. Effect of Striga hermonthica on yield and yield components of sorghum in Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Journal of Plant Sciences 1: 67-71. (Field experiments with 5 sorghum varieties indicated losses of 14-64% due to S. hermonthica. Samsorg-17 and Samsorg-3 were the least damaged.)

Showemimo, F.A. 2007. Relationships between sources and levels of nitrogen fertilization and the control of Striga hermonthica in sorghum. International Journal of Agricultural Research 2: 170-174. (Apparently a pot experiment in which N at 50 to 100 ppm (equivalent to 170 kg of N ha-1) significantly reduced S. hermonthica. Sorghum varieties SK-5912, KSV-4, KSV-8 and NR71150 showed potential as sources of Striga resistance.)

Singh, B. B. and Ajeigbe, H. 2007. Improved cowpea-cereals-based cropping systems for household food security and poverty reduction in West Africa. In: Kang, M.S. (ed.) Journal of Crop Improvement 19(1/2): 157-172. (Reporting over 300% increases in productivity, and reduced Striga hermonthica, from improved strip-cropping systems involving minimum fertilizer and pesticide applied to two rows of a densely planted improved cereal, sorghum or maize, and four rows of a densely planted, improved cowpea variety. Crop residues are fed to small ruminants in enclosures and manure is returned to the fields. Tested on 2000 farms and claimed to be popular.)

Singh, G., Chen, W., Rubiales, D., Moore, K., Sharma, Y.R. and Gan, Y. 2007. Diseases and their management. In: Yadav, S.S., Redden, R.J., Chen, W. and Sharma, B. (eds) Chickpea breeding and management. Wallingford, UK: CABI. pp. 497-519. (Covering a range of important diseases in chickpea, plus Orobanche and Cuscuta.)

Singh, P. 2007. Mitochondrial activity in Orobanche cernua from different regions of the scape and as influenced by host. Journal of Phytopathology 155: 45-49. (Results indicated greater metabolic activity in the proximal region of the O. cernua scape. When growing on eggplant, activity was higher than on Petunia hybrida or Datura metel.)

Škoric, D., Jocic, S. and Gvozdenovic, S. 2006. (Achievements in sunflower breeding for resistance to diseases, broomrape and insects.)(in Serbian) Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor) 34: 299-313. (A review including reference io Orobanche cumana.)

Snapp, S. and Minja, E. 2003. Integration of integrated pest management in integrated crop management: experiences from Malawi. In: Maredia, K.M., Dakouo, D. and Mota-Sanchez, D. (eds) Integrated pest management in the global arena 2003: 157-167. (Case studies include one on Striga in maize.)

Spurrier, S. and Smith, K.G. 2007. Desert mistletoe (Phoradendron californicum) infestation correlates with blue palo verde (Cercidium floridum) mortality during a severe drought in the Mojave desert. Journal of Arid Environments 69: 189-197. (Reporting high mortality of C. floridum under a combination of P. californicum infestation and severe drought, and contrasting these results with those reported previously by Boweers, and Turner, 2001 (see Haustorium 42).)

Stefanovic, S., Kuzmina, M. and Costea, M. 2007. Delimitation of major lineages within Cuscuta subgenus Grammica (Convolvulaceae) using plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. American Journal of Botany 94: 568-589. (DNA studies confirmed that the sub-genus Grammica with 130 species was monophyletic with the exception of C. appendiculata which shows more affinity to section Cuscuta.)

Steyermark, J. A., Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. and Holst, B.K. 2004. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Volume 8: Poaceae-Rubiaceae.In: Steyermark, J. A., Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. and Holst, B.K. (eds.) Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Volume 8: Poaceae-Rubiaceae. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Gardens Press. 874 pp. (Covering Rafflesiaceae.)

Stringer, L. C., Twyman, C. and Thomas, D.S.G. 2007. Learning to reduce degradation on Swaziland's arable land: enhancing understandings of Striga asiatica. Land Degradation & Development 18: 163-177. (Noting increasing infestation and yield losses from S. asiatica in maize in Swaziland and the need for farmers to be helped in understanding and coping with the problem, but also emphasising the need for more attention to issues of soil fertility and land degradation at the national level.)

Sun, S.K. 2006. Oiltea disease caused by dwarf mistletoe. Plant Pathology Bulletin 15(2): 125-128. (Reporting leaf yellowing and abnormal growth of oiltea trees, Camellia oleifera, as a result of infection with Bifaria opuntia (= Korthalsella opuntia).)

Sundararaj, R., Karibasavaraja, L.R., Gaurav Sharma and Muthukrishnan, R. 2006. Scales and mealybugs (Coccoidea: Hemiptera) infesting sandal (Santalum album Linn.). Entomon 31: 239-241. (23 species listed, including 7 thought to be new records.)

Swanson, M.E., Shaw, D.C. and Marosi, T.K. 2006. Distribution of western hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense [Rosendahl] G.N. Jones subsp. tsugense in mature and old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) forests. Northwest Science 80: 207-217. (A. tsugense was frequent in a 500 year-old stand, while in an area burnt over about 150 years ago it occurred only in riparian patches which did not burn completely.)

Świerczyńska, J., Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, M. and Bohdanowicz, J. 2005. Polyploidization of endosperm chalazal haustorium of Rhinanthus serotinus (Scrophulariaceae). Acta Biologica Cracoviensia. Series Botanica 47(1): 123-127. (LJM)

Świerczyńska, J. and Bohdanowicz, J. 2003. Microfilament cytoskeleton of endosperm chalazal haustorium of Rhinanthus serotinus (Scrophulariaceae). Acta Biologica Cracoviensia. Series Botanica 45(1): 143-148. (LJM)

Tellier, A. and Brown, J.K.M. 2007. Stability of genetic polymorphism in host-parasite interactions. Proceedings of The Royal Society B 274: 809-817. (Claiming to provide a simplified and generalized theory of co-evolution of host-parasite specificities. No reference to parasitic plants but of potential relevance?)

Tennakoon, K. U., Bolin, J. F., Musselman, L. J. and Maass, E. 2007. Structural attributes of the hypogeous holoparasite Hydnora triceps Drège & Meyr (Hydnoraceae). American Journal of Botany 94: 1439-1449. (The vegetative body is shown to be a rhizome based on its endarch collateral bundles. Most parasite connections were xylem to xylem.)

Tennakoon K.U. and Cameron, D.C. 2006. The anatomy of Santalum album (Sandalwood) haustoria. Canadian Journal of Botany. 84: 1480-3305. (Study of the haustoria of S. album on Tithonia diversifolia shows that the parasite-host interface consists of parenchymatous tissue, suggesting cross-membrane (potentially selective) uptake of host solutes rather than mass flow via vascular continuity.)

Udom, G.N., Babatunde, F.E. and Tenebe, V.A. 2007. Suppression of witch-weed (Striga hermonthica) in sorghum: cowpea mixture as affected by cowpea varieties and planting patterns. International Journal of Agricultural Research 2: 268-274. (Intercropping sorghum with cowpea variety Kano 1696 in alternate ridges significantly reduced S. hermonthica.)

*University of Virginia 2007. U.Va. Biologist Michael Timko Helps Africans Breed Disease-Resistant Plant. Genetics News. (An account of the project described above under Botanga and Timko, above.)

USA, United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service 2005. Forest insect and disease conditions in the United States 2004. Washington DC, USA: USDA Forest Service. 142 pp. (Includes appraisal of the status of problems due to Arceuthobium spp.)

Vaughn, K.C. 2006. Conversion of the searching hyphae of dodder into xylic and phloic hyphae: a cytochemical and immunocytochemical investigation. International Journal of Plant Sciences 167: 1099-1114. (A detailed study of the development of phloem and xylem connections in Cuscuta, emphasising the similarities and significant differences in the fine structure of corresponding tissues in parasite and host.)

Velasco, L., Pérez-Vich, B., Jan, C.C. and Fernández-Martínez, J.M. 2007. Inheritance of resistance to broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) race F in a sunflower line derived from wild sunflower species. Plant Breeding 126: 67-71. (Resistance to race F of O. cumana in sunflower variety J1, derived from the wild Helianthus grosseserratus, previously assumed to be due to a single dominant gene, was re-examined and found to be digenic, involving a second gene, susceptible to environmental influence.)

Veronesi, C., Bonnin, E., Calvez, S., Thalouarn, P. and Simier, P. 2007. Activity of secreted cell wall-modifying enzymes and expression of peroxidase-encoding gene following germination of Orobanche ramosa. Biologia Plantarum 51: 391-394. (Discussing the role of pectinolytic enzymes, polygalacturonase and rhamnogalacturonase in host root attack and haustorium formation. After 6 days germinated seeds also secreted proteins which exhibited peroxidase activity.)

Vissoh, P.V. 2006. Participatory development of weed management technologies in Benin. Participatory development of weed management technologies in Benin. Wageningen University, Wageningen: Netherlands, 182 pp. (Endorsing Farmer Field Schools as a means of helping farmers to understand and manage their weed problems, including Striga, the latter being addressed via integrated crop and soil fertility management involving early planting, sorghum transplanting, crop rotation, intercropping and trap crops.)

Voss, C., Eyol, E., Frank, M., Lieth, C.W. and von der Berger, M.R. 2006. Identification and characterization of riproximin, a new type II ribosome-inactivating protein with antineoplastic activity from Ximenia americana. FASEB Journal 20: 1194-1196. (Reporting the identification of riproximin in Ximenia americana (Olacaceae) and confirming its anti-cancer activity in rats.)

Walters, D., Newton, A. and Lyon, G. (eds) 2007. Induced Resistance for Plant Defence A Sustainable Approach to Crop Protection. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing. 272 pp. (A comprehensive review of the development and exploitation of induced resistance for the control of pathogens. No specific reference to parasitic plants but of possible interest and relevance. Chapters review current knowledge of the agents that can elicit induced resistance, genomics, signalling cascades, transgenic approaches, mechanisms of defence to pests and pathogens, and molecular tools.)

Ward, M.J. and Paton, D.C. 2007. Predicting mistletoe seed shadow and patterns of seed rain from movements of the mistletoebird, Dicaeum hirundinaceum. Austral Ecology 32(2): 113-121. (Distribution of Amyema miquelii was influenced by the tendency for the bird disperser to deposit seeds mainly within 100 m of the source, though over 500 m was sometimes recorded. Seeds deposited could be as high as 66,000 per ha.)

Watson, D.M., Roshier, D.A. and Wiegand, T. 2007. Spatial ecology of a root parasite - from pattern to process. Austral Ecology 32: 359-369. (Ripley's K-function and the O-ring statistic were used in a study of the distribution of Santalum lanceolatum in relation to its principal host Acacia tetragonophylla in New South Wales. Results suggest that S. lanceolatum was associated mainly with the host growing in the most favourable conditions.)

Wei XueZhi, Lian LingYun, Cheng ZhiFang and Su JunXia. 2006. The anatomic research on vegetative organ in two parasite species of Loranthaceae. Bulletin of Botanical Research 26: 663-666. (Recording detailed anatomical observations on Viscum coloratum and Loranthus tanakae.)

Westerman, P.R., van Ast, A., Stomph, T.J. and van der Werf, W. 2007. Long-term management of the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica: strategy evaluation with a population model. Crop Protection 26: 219-227. (Use of a model demonstrates that crop varieties producing low levels of stimulant risk perpetuating or increasing the Striga seedbank. Alternative strategies are discussed.)

Wu ZhengYi, Raven, P.H. and Hong DeYuan 2003. Flora of China. Volume 5: Ulmaceae through Basellaceae. In: Wu ZhengYi, Raven, P.H. and Hong DeYuan (eds) Flora of China. Volume 5: Ulmaceae through Basellaceae. Beijing, China: Science Press. 505 pp. (Covering Olacaceae (5 genera, 10 species), Opiliaceae (5 genera, 5 species), Santalaceae (7 genera, 33 species), Loranthaceae (8 genera, 51 species), Viscaceae (3 genera, 18 species), Rafflesiaceae (2 genera, 2 species), Balanophoraceae (2 genera, 13 species).)

Yang ChunFeng and Guo YouHao. 2007. Pollen-ovule ratio and gamete investment in Pedicularis (Orobanchaceae). Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 49: 38-245. (Pollen-ovule ratio, gamete investment, and their correlations were studied in 40 species of Pedicularis. Pollen-ovule ratio did not differ among either different corolla types or taxonomic groups, suggesting parallel evolution.)

Yang, F.S. and Wang, X.Q. 2007. Extensive length variation in the cpDNA trnT-trnF region of hemiparasitic Pedicularis and its phylogenetic implications. Plant Systematics and Evolution 264: 251-264. (Documenting frequent deletions in the chloroplast genome of the hemiparasitic lineage of the family Orobanchaceae. Section Cyathophora appears to be monophyletic, perhaps with recent origin followed by rapid radiation.)

Yen FengLin, Wu TzuHui, Lin LiangTzung and Lin ChunChing. 2007. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Cuscuta chinensis against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111(1): 123-128. (The seeds of C. chinensis , known as Tu-Si-Zi, are used medicinally to improve kidney and liver conditions. This study suggests that the ethanolic extract of C. chinensis can prevent hepatic injuries from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and this is likely mediated through its antioxidant activities.)

Yordanova, E., Gorinova, N., Bachvarova, R., Nedkovska, M., Atanassov, A. and Ohkawa, H. 2000. Genetic transformation of tobacco with rat cytochrome P4501A1 mono-oxygenase gene. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 6(1): 1-7. (‘The resulting transgenic plants with higher tolerance to chlortoluron will help to study the effects of the expression of rat cytochrome P4501A1 on parasitic plant (such as Orobanche ramosa)-tobacco interactions.’)

*Young, N.D. and de Pamphilis, C.W. 2005. Rate variation in parasitic plants: correlated and uncorrelated patterns among plastid genes of different function. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5(16): (15 February 2005). (The rate of change in genes (rbcL, matK, and rps) was not always immediate upon the loss of photosynthesis. A stronger correlation was observed for synonymous changes than for non-synonymous changes.)

Zuzak, T.J., Rist, L., Eggenschwiler, J., Grotzer, M.A. and Viviani, A. 2006. Paediatric medulloblastoma cells are susceptible to Viscum album (Mistletoe) preparations. Anticancer Research 26: 3485-3492. (Paediatric medulloblastoma cells were exposed to 8 different preparations of V. album, from 8 different host tree species. All showed significant growth inhibition correlated with lectin content.)


has been edited by Chris Parker, 5 Royal York Crescent, Bristol BS8 4JZ, UK (Email, Lytton John Musselman, Parasitic Plant Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk Virginia 23529-0266, USA (fax 757 683 5283; Email, Jim Westwood, Dept. of Plant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0331, USA (Email and Diego Rubiales, Dep. Mejora y Agronomía, Instituto Agricultura Sostenible, CSIC, Apdo 4084, E-14080 Cordoba, Spain (Email: Send material for publication to any of the editors. Printing and mailing has been supported by Old Dominion University.

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