Haustorium parasitic Plants Newsletter




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A PROJECT TO ELUCIDATE THE DESMODIUM EFFECT ON STRIGA
In studies by ICIPE and Rothamsted Research, it has been demonstrated that the suppressive effect of Desmodium spp. on Striga can be provided by passing water over the roots of Desmodium and then into soil containing the Striga and maize seeds. Furthermore, when Desmodium was grown in water with nutrients but without soil, the water captured the activity, which could then be transferred to the Striga and maize seeds in soil, and again conferred control of the parasite. Fractionation of the chemicals from the water affecting this control identified a fraction that reduced radicle growth of the parasite. Chemicals from this fraction have been identified. However, the exact way in which these chemicals work to prevent Striga infestation has not been determined. Thus, the aim of a new BBSRC (Biotechnology and Biological Science Research Council)-funded project between the University of Sheffield (Professor Julie Scholes and Professor Malcolm Press) and Rothamsted Research (Professor John Pickett and Dr Tony Hooper) is to identify the stage(s) of the Striga lifecycle affected by the inhibitory compounds present in Desmodium root exudates, to purify some of these compounds and to use them to test the hypothesis that they are responsible for the suppression of Striga seen in the field. Finally, the root exudates of another legume that is commonly used in molecular studies, Lotus japonicus, that we know also produces root exudates that inhibit Striga radicle growth, will be examined to determine whether they contain compounds that suppress Striga infection. Although L. japonicus would not be agronomically suitable for practical control of Striga, the wealth of genomic information and tools available for this model legume would enable the biosynthetic pathways involved in the synthesis of the novel flavones to be elucidated in the future.
Julie Scholes. University of Sheffield.

CUSCUTA JAPONICA IN CALIFORNIA
Tim Tidwell of California Department of Food and Agriculture has drawn our attention to the unwelcome appearance of the Asian species Cuscuta japonica in California. A total 159 infestations have now been documented, apparently resulting from the deliberate introduction of seed from Asia in the form of e.g. compressed dodder cakes, for use as traditional Chinese medicine. They occur mainly in urban areas settled by residents with Asian background. Such importations should not include any viable seed, but many samples are being tested and found to germinate. C. japonica is a robust species occurring on fruit trees, including apple and citrus, and on woody ornamentals and is capable of completely smothering its host. In northern California, where most infestations have occurred, flowering may occur but no seed set has yet been observed. This is partly attributable to the lateness of flowering, followed by cool conditions, but also to the self-incompatibility of the species - even large infestations may be clonal, having developed by vegetative spread from a single seed. Aerial survey is being considered as a means of monitoring high risk areas. Fears are that it will occur further south where winter conditions are less severe, allowing seed-set and spread. C. japonica has also been found in Texas and South Carolina. This note is based on the report by Hrusa and Kelch, 2006, listed below, and on personal communication with Tim Tidwell, Carla Markmen and R. Marushia.
Chris Parker.
REQUESTS
Host records for Orobanche species
Dr Yaakov Goldwasser is looking for published and non-published data on the WEED host range of Orobanche spp. (data regarding Striga spp. will be interesting as well). In case of any publication, the source of the material will be acknowledged.

Please email to: gold@agri.huji.ac.il


Seed samples of Orobanche and other parasitic species
Bristol University is currently developing a parasitic plant bed at the University of Bristol Botanic Garden. Seed has been collected from a variety of species this year, but we would very much appreciate seed from other sources to cultivate a wide variety of plants. We currently have seed from Orobanche minor, O. elatior, O. ramosa, O. crenata, O. amethystea. O. gracilis and O. foetida as well as seed from Cistanche phelypaea. We are particularly interested in obtaining seed from rare or endangered species in Europe or elsewhere, and those that would not be difficult to cultivate in a temperate climate. If you have any seed that you would be willing to donate, we would very much like to hear from you (we are willing to exchange).

Please contact:

Chris Thorogood - email chris.thorogood@bristol.ac.uk
OBITUARY
Professor Ostin Chivinge
Haustorium readers will wish to join me in remembering the life of Professor Ostin Chivinge of Harare, Zimbabwe who died in a road traffic accident in February. Ostin was one of the first African scientists to make a career in weed science. He worked tirelessly to alert the international research community to the issues and to encourage funding and research student projects to focus on the weed problems, including Striga, of smallholder farmers in both Zimbabwe and southern Africa. Ostin learnt his trade as a member of the Weed Research Team at Henderson Research Station before joining the University of Zimbabwe. In a distinguished academic career he went on to become head of the Crop Science Department, Dean of Agriculture and subsequently Pro-vice Chancellor of the University. Ostin was equally at home with academics, researchers, local decision makers as well as extension officers and farmers in the communal areas. He will be remembered in many ways, not least for his enthusiasm for good science which truly benefited farmers and in striving to make Zimbabwe a better place for everyone. I had the honour of working with Ostin on a number of weed management projects and was privileged to share his friendship. The leadership he gave to weed science in southern Africa and his commitment to assisting farmers to combat Striga will be greatly missed.
Charlie Riches, Natural Resources Institute, UK.

FOR SALE
Hansen, B. The genus Balanophora. A taxonomic monograph. Copenhagen, 1972. 188 pp Euro 26. 

Beauverd, G. Monographie du genre Melampyrum, L. Geneve, 1916. 367 pp Euro 80.

Johansson D. Ecology of vascular epiphytes in West African rain forest. Uppsala, 1974. 129 pp Euro 34.

Payment accepted in US$ and GB£. Visa and Eurocard/Mastercard accepted. Postage by standard mail, and handling are extra. For E.C. customers, price does not include 6% VAT.

Backhuys Publishers B.V. PO Box 321, 2300 AH Leiden, The Netherlands

Tel: +31-71-5170208; Fax: +31-71-5171856; E-mail: backhuys@backhuys.com; Web: www.Backhuys.com


MEETINGS
IPPS 9th World Congress on Parasitic Plants, Charlottesville, VA, USA, 3-7 June 2007. Papers and posters presented at this meeting were as follows. There is no publication from this meeting. Abstracts are available at the conference website (http://www.cpe.vt.edu/wcopp/index.html).
Presented papers:
Alers-Garcia, J. and Bever, J.D. - Size dependent parasitism of Cuscuta gronovii: its implications on host population size structure and dynamics.

Aly, R. et al. - A new approach to parasitic weed control based on silencing of a key metabolic gene in the parasite.

Bolin, J.F. et al. - Stable isotope and nutrient relationships of the root holoparasite Hydnora (Hydnoraceae) in southern Africa.

Bouwmeester, H.J. et al. - Strigolactones, signals for friends and enemies.

Cameron, D.D. et al. - Rhinanthus minor as an ecosystem engineer: understanding the mechanistic basis of parasitic plant-induced changes in community structure.

de Mol, M. and Heller, A. - Sap slow from host to mistletoe: an anatomical approach

de Zélicourt, A. et al. - Molecular analysis of resistance mechanisms to Orobanche cumana in sunflower.

Draie, R. et al. - The sucrose-degrading enzymes in Orobanche ramosa. Characterization and involvement in growth, cell wall synthesis and starch accumulation.

Eizenberg, H. et al. - Temporal thermal and special model for Orobanche management.

Funk, H. et al. - Complete DNA sequences of the plastid genomes of two parasitic flowering plant species, Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta gronovii.

Gunathilake, P. et al. - Macromolecular trafficking from host plants into the hemiparasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor.

Harrison, M.J. - The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis; genomics approaches to dissect development and function.

Kaldenhoff, R.W.E. - Molecular events during Cuscuta infection.

Kanampiu, F. - Striga weed management options under smallholder agriculture in Africa.

Kusumoto, D. et al. - Induction of systemic acquired resistance in root parasitic weeds.

Miegel, D. et al. - Seedbank and seedbank management of Orobanche ramosa in South Australia.

Murdoch, A.J. and Kebreab - Predictive empirical modelling of parasitic weed life cycle.

Nickrent, D.L. and Vidal-Russell, R. - The evolutionary origins of aerial parasitism in Santalales.

Palmer, A.G. et al. - Calcium mediated transduction of haustorial inducing signals in Striga asiatica.

Palmer, J. - Horizontal gene transfer gone wild in parasitic and other flowering plants.

Pérez-de-Luque, A. - Mechanisms of resistance to parasitic plants: from field screenings to laboratory microscopic studies.

Plakhine, D. et al. - Non-stimulated spontaneous germination of Orobanche is genetically controlled.

Riches, C.R. and Mbwaga, A.M. - Green manure: a Striga management technology whose time has come?

Roney, J.K. et al. - Trafficking of host mRNAs into dodder: A new frontier in host-parasite cCommunication.

Sandler, H.A. - Integrating germination patterns, chemical, and nonchemical options to manage swamp dodder in Massachusetts cranberry production.

Schneeweiss, G.M. et al. - Phylogeny and evolution of Orobanche and related genera (Orobanchaceae).

Scholes J. and Press, M. - The molecular basis of susceptibility and resistance to Striga: insights from transcript profiling.

Shamoun, S.F. et al. - Development of a biological control strategy for management of hemlock dwarf mistletoe in coastal British Columbia, Canada.

Stefanovic, S. and Costea, M. - Reticulate evolution in the parasitic genus Cuscuta (dodders; Convolvulaceae).

Sugimoto, Y. et al. - In vitro production of strigolactones by plant root cultures.

Thorogood, C.J. et al. - Speciation and host specificity in Orobanche.

Timko, M.P. et al. - Deciphering the interaction of Striga with hosts and non-hosts.

Tomilov, A. et al. - Early haustorium development in Triphysaria: A view from inside the nucleus.

Wegmann, K. - 2000 Years of observation, knowledge and research on Orobanche.

Williams, A.M. and Virtue, J.G. - Calculation of growing degree days to determine optimum timing of herbicide application for control of branched broomrape Orobanche ramosa in pastures.

Xie, X et al. - Qualitative and quantitative differences of strigolactone exudation determine host specificity of root parasites Orobanche and Striga

Yonli, D. et al. - Integrated Striga hermonthica management based Fusarium.


Poster presentations:
Ahom, R.I. and Okereke, O.U. - Varietal differences in ability of sesame and pigeon pea as trap crops to induce suicidal seed germination in Striga hermonthica (Scrophulariaceae).

Alers-Garcia, J. et al. - Parasite mediated maternal effects in bitter and sweet lupins.

Aouali, S. et al. - Genetic diversity among Orobanche crenata ecotypes revealed by RAPD and AFLPs markers, in Algeria.

Bewick, T.A. and Cascino, J. - Development of a biological herbicide for control of Cuscuta spp.

Castillejo, M.A. et al. - Differential expression proteomics to investigate responses and resistance to Orobanche crenata in legumes.

Chachalis, D. and Murdoch, A.J. - Potential use of Nijmegen-1 and smoke water solutions to deplete Orobanche ramosa seed banks in Greece

Chiang, M.Y. et al. - Cuscuta species in Taiwan: molecular differentiation and related findings.

Dewaele, D. et al. - A study of biodiversity of African Radopholus similis in Uganda.

Dhanapal, G.N. et al. - Integrated management of broomrape in India.

Dubé, M-P. and Belzile, F.J. - Genetic variability among five races of Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke detected by ISSR, AFLP and cpSSR analysis.

Dunlavey, R. et al. - The influence of Arceuthobium pusillum infection on the hydraulic architecture of white spruce stems.

Dzomeku, I.K. and Murdoch, A.J. - Studies on seed dormancy, germination and seedling emergence of Striga hermonthica

Echevarría-Zomeño, S. et al. - Histochemical analysis of defense responses involved in resistance of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) to Orobanche cumana .

Elzein A. et al. - Synergy between Striga-mycoherbicides ‘Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae’ and resistant cultivars under field conditions: step towards integrated Striga control in Africa.

Fan, Z.W. et al. - Induced host resistance as a control method for parasitic weeds.

Fernández-Aparicio, M. et al. - Response of Medicago truncatula accessions to various species of Orobanche.

Fernández-Aparicio, M. et al. - Yield increase in oat-faba bean intercrops under heavy Orobanche crenata infections.

Fernández-Aparicio, M. et al. - Yield losses in pea as a function of Orobanche crenata levels of infection.

Gharib, C. et al. - Germination and viability of Cuscuta spp. (dodder) seeds after digestion in sheep rumen.

Goldwasser, Y. et al. - Identification of the stimulants produced by Arabidopsis thaliana responsible for the induction of Orobanche seed germination

Haddad, A. and Pala, M. - Significance of parasitic weeds for food legumes in Syria.

Heller, A. et al. - Colonization of F. oxysporum f.sp. strigae (Foxy 2) on roots of sorghum plants and its implication for Striga control using a seed treatment delivery system: an anatomical study.

Höniges, A. et al. - Ecological and physiological investigations on Orobanche species in the spontaneous flora of Romania.

Lanini, W.T. et al. - Dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) control in Roundup-ready alfalfa.

Liu, Y. et al. - Gene regulation during haustorial development and shoot initiation in Striga asiatica.

Lopez-Raez, J.A. et al. - The biosynthesis of the tomato germination stimulants is promoted by phosphate starvation

Lozano-Baena, M.D. et al. - Analysis of Medicago truncatula resistance against Orobanche crenata using cytochemical techniques.

Lozano-Baena, M.D. et al. - Laser capture microdissection (LCM): new technologies apply to study of the parasitic plant interactions.

Matusova, R. and Bouwmeester, H.J. - The strigolactone germination stimulants of the plant-parasitic Striga and Orobanche spp are derived from the carotenoid pathway.

Okazawa, A. et al. - Trehalose promotes seed germination of a holoparasitic plant, Orobanche minor Sm.

Pacureanu-Joita, M. et al. – AO-548, a sunflower inbred line, carrying two genes for resistance against a new highly virulent Romanian population of Orobanche cumana.

Palmer, A.G. et al. - ROS production and semagenesis in pathogenesis.

Saadoun, I. et al. - Biological control of Orobanche cernua seed germination utilizing an indigenous actinomycete isolate in Jordan.

Takagi, K. et al. - Photoresponse analysis of phytochrome A in the non-photosynthetic parasitic plant; Orobanche minor Sm.

Tennakoon, K.U. - Potential of establishing root hemiparasitic sandalwood (Santalum album L.) as a NTF species in the buffer zones of forests and degraded lands in Australasia: a Sri Lankan experience.

Tennakoon, K.U. et al. - Structural and functional attributes of the hypogeous root holoparasite Hydnora triceps Drege & Meyer (Hydnoraceae).

Ueda H. et al. - Molecular analysis of Lotus japonicus response against Orobanche aegyptiaca and Striga hermonthica parasitism.

van der Kooij, T.A.W. et al. - Characterization of the tocochromanol content and composition of different species of the parasitic flowering plant genus Cuscuta.

Yoneyama, K. et al. - Nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies promote the production and exudation of 5-deoxystrigol in sorghum

Yoshida, S. and Shirasu, K. - Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Striga hermonthica.




FORTHCOMING MEETINGS
The International Conference ‘Novel and Sustainable Weed Management in Arid and Semi-Arid Agro-Ecosystems’ ,Rehovot, Israel. Please note that the deadline for abstract submission was September 1st, 2007. Later submission will be possible for poster presentations only. A Session on Parasitic Weeds is being organized jointly with the EWRS Working Group on Parasitic Weeds. See the conference website: http://agri3.huji.ac.il/aridconference or contact: Dr Baruch Rubin,. Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Science, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel. E-mail: rubin@agri.huji.ac.il
The 5th International Weed Science Congress, June 23 to 27, 2008, in Vancouver, Canada. Session 13 - Management of parasitic weeds, will include one invited talk and 8 other presentations to be selected from the abstracts submitted. The topics will be:

Biology and evolution (to include genomics etc.)

Germination sequence (to include chemistry etc.)

Host-parasite interrelations in agro-ecosystems (to include modelling etc.)

Host resistance

Management and control efforts



Conference information is available at: http://iws.ucdavis.edu/5intlweedcong.htm or contact: Koichi Yoneyama, yoneyama@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp or Joachim Sauerborn, sauerbn@uni-hohenheim.de

GENERAL WEB SITES
For individual web-site papers and reports see LITERATURE
For abstracts from the 9th World Congress on Parasitic Plants see: http://www.cpe.vt.edu/wcopp/index.html
For information on the International Parasitic Plant Society, past and current issues of Haustorium, etc. see: http://www.ppws.vt.edu/IPPS/
For past and current issues of Haustorium see also: http://www.odu.edu/~lmusselm/haustorium/index.shtml
For the ODU parasite site see: http://www.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/parasitic/index.php
For Lytton Musselman’s Hydnora site see:

http://www.odu.edu/webroot/instr/sci/plant.nsf/pages/lecturesandarticles
For Dan Nickrent’s ‘The Parasitic Plant Connection’ see:

http://www.science.siu.edu/parasitic-plants/index.html
For The Mistletoe Center (including a comprehensive Annotated Bibliography on mistletoes) see: http://www.rmrs.nau.edu/mistletoe/
For information on, and to subscribe to PpDigest see:

http://omnisterra.com/mailman/listinfo/pp_omnisterra.com
For information on the EU COST 849 Project and reports of its meetings see:

http://cost849.ba.cnr.it/
For information on the EWRS Working Group ‘Parasitic weeds’ see: http://www.ewrs.org/
For the Parasitic Plants Database including ‘4000 entries giving an exhaustive nomenclatural synopsis of all parasitic plants’ (last updated 2003), the address is: http://www.omnisterra.com/bot/pp_home.cgi
For a description and other information about the Desmodium technique for Striga suppression, see: http://www.push-pull.net
For information on EC-funded project ‘Improved Striga control in maize and sorghum (ISCIMAS) see: http://www.plant.dlo.nl/projects/Striga/
For the work of Forest Products Commission (FPC) on sandalwood, see: www.fpc.wa.gov.au
For past and future issues of the Sandalwood Research Newsletter, see: www.jcu.edu.au/school/tropbiol/srn/
For information on the work of the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) on Striga control in Kenya, see: http://africancrops.net/striga/
To view the list of presentations and participants at the Striga meeting in Addis Abeba, November 2006, see: http://www.agry.purdue.edu/strigaconference/index.html
For information on the 5th International Weed Science Congress, June, 2008, in Vancouver, Canada see: http://iws.ucdavis.edu/5intlweedcong.htm
LITERATURE
* indicates web-site reference only
Abadie, J-C., Püttsepp, ü., Gebauer, G., Faccio, A., Bonfante, P. and Selosse, M-A. 2006. Cephalanthera longifolia (Neottieae, Orchidaceae) is mixatrophic: a comparative study between green and nonphotosynthetic individuals. Canadian Journal of Botany 84: 1462-1477. (No mention of parasitism, but a study in Estonia shows that albino C. longifolia gained 100% of their carbon from ectomycorrhizal fungi in Thelophoraceae, versus 33% for green individuals, and that surrounding trees (Juniperus and Pinus spp.) ‘…were likely the ultimate carbon source.’)

Abdel-Kader, M.M. and El-Mougy, N.S. 2007. Applicable control measure against Orobanche ramosa in tomato plants. Australasian Plant Pathology 36: 160-164. (Reporting successful suppression of O. ramosa in tomato by application of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride to the planting medium, with or without a following application of glyphosate.)

Abdulai, M.S., Denwar, N.N. and Haruna, M. 2006. Combating the menace of Striga hermonthica infestation: an integrated approach adopted in North-Eastern Ghana. Journal of Agronomy 5: 617-620. (Three Striga-resistant maize varieties ACR 94 TZE Comp 5-W, ACR 97 TZL Comp 1-W and IWD STR C1 recorded lower Striga infestation and produced up to 70% more grain than the farmers' maize. Rotation of these varieties with soyabean ‘may be one of the best and practical methods of S. hermonthica control.’)

Adagba, M.A., Lagoke, T.O. and Usman, A. 2002. Management of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth in upland rice: influence of upland rice varieties and rates of nitrogen fertilizer. Nigerian Agricultural Journal 33: 119-127. (Confirming suppression of S. hermonthica and enhanced yield of rice at 90 and 120 kg N/ha.

Albert, M., Belastegui-Macadam, X. and Kaldenhoff, R. 2006. An attack of the plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa induces the expression of attAGP, an attachment protein of the host tomato. Plant Journal 48: 548-556. (Concluding that C. reflexa infection induces a signal in the host leading to expression of tomato attAGP, which promotes the parasite's adherence.)

Alvarado-Rosales, D. and Saavedra-Romero, L. de L. 2005. (The genus Cladocolea (Loranthaceae) in Mexico: true mistletoe or graftlike.) (in Spanish) Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente 11(1): 5-9. (Noting at least 19 species of Cladocolea, parasitizing and damaging hardwoods mostly, especially Salix spp. but also some conifers. Reporting effects of pruning on C. loniceroides on S. bonplandiana trees in an urban area. Significance of ‘graftlike’ in title not clear.)

Ameloot, E., Verheyen, K., Bakker, J., de Vries, Y. and Hermy, M. 2006. Long-term dynamics of the hemiparasite Rhinanthus angustifolius and its relationship with vegetation structure. Journal of Vegetation Science 17: 637-646. (Concluding that the main fluctuations in R. angustifolius population are due to spring droughts. Abundance is correlated positively with forbs and negatively with grasses.)

Amico, G.C., Vidal-Russell, R. and Nickrent, D.L. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships and ecological speciation in the mistletoe Tristerix (Loranthaceae): the influence of pollinators, dispersers, and hosts. American Journal of Botany 94: 558-567. (DNA analysis supported the transfer of two Tristerix spp. (T. verticillatus and T. penduliflorus) from the Metastachys subgenus of the Tristerix subgenus.)

Amusa, N.A. 2006. Microbially produced phytotoxins and plant disease management. African Journal of Biotechnology 5: 405-414. (Discussing the potential for toxins from microorganisms for control of parasitic weeds.)

Annapurna, D., Rathore, T.S. and Geeta Joshi. 2006. Modern nursery practices in the production of quality seedlings of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album L.) - stage of host requirement and screening of primary host species. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 22(3/4): 33-55. (Six leguminous species and 5 non-legumes were compared as ‘primary hosts’ to support S. album when transplanted. Legumes were generally better and Mimosa pudica and Cajanus cajan among the best. Alternanthera sessilis was the best non-legume.)

Archana Khare and Singh, P.K. 2006. Weed flora of vegetable crop of Chitrakoot District (U.P.). Journal of Living World 13(2): 17-21. (Recording one (unspecified) Orobanche sp. among weeds of vegetables.)

Arshad Javaid, Asad Shabir and Khan, S.N. 2006. Preliminary report on tree dieback in Balochistan. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology 3: 711-715. (Causes of die-back of Juniperus excelsa at least partially due to Arceuthobium oxycedri.)

Badu-Apraku, B. 2006. Estimates of genetic variances in Striga resistant extra-early-maturing maize populations. Journal of New Seeds 8(2): 23-43. (A detailed analysis of the genetic variability of the populations described in the following paper.)

Badu-Apraku, B., Fakorede, M.A.B. and Lum, A.F. 2007. Evaluation of experimental varieties from recurrent selection for Striga resistance in two extra-early maize populations in the savannas of West and Central Africa. Experimental Agriculture 43: 183-200. (Two very early maturing lines of maize, white and yellow, were crossed with Striga-resistant inbreds and subjected to back-crossing, random mating and recurrent selection for resistance to S. hermonthica. Resulting populations proved to have high-yield potential in the presence or absence of Striga.)

Badu-Apraku, B. and Lum, A.F. 2007. Agronomic performance of Striga resistant early-maturing maize varieties and inbred lines in the savannas of West and Central Africa. Crop Science 47: 737-750. (Acr 94 TZE Comp 5-W, Acr TZE Comp 5-Y, and TZE-W Pop x 1368 STR C1 were identified as promising varieties. Acr 94 TZE Comp. 5-W outyielded the reference entry by 45% under Striga hermonthica infestation. A number of promising inbred lines were also selected.)

Badu-Apraku, B., Menkir, A., Fakorede, M.A.B., Lum, A.F. and Obeng-Antwi, K. 2006. Multivariate analyses of the genetic diversity of forty-seven Striga resistant tropical early maturing maize inbred lines. Maydica 51: 551-559. (Principal component analysis of 47 maize inbred lines suggested 4 clusters. Eight lines combined high grain yield with reduced Striga attack.)

Badu-Apraku, B., Menkir, A. and Lum, A.F. 2005. Assessment of genetic diversity in extra-early Striga resistant tropical inbred lines using multivariate analyses of agronomic data. Journal of Genetics & Breeding 59(1): 67-79. (Covering the same study as the entry above.)

Bajgrowicz, J. and Gaillard, A. 2007. Perfumer's notes: Javanol. Fragrance creation with sandalwood oil substitutes. Perfumer & Flavorist 32(1): 32-37. (Discussing the use of Javanol, derived from turpentine from pine trees, as a substitute for sandalwood oil, thus protecting Santalum album from over-exploitation.)

Barua, I.C., Rajkhowa, D.J., Deka, N.C. and Kandali, R. 2003. Host range study of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in Assam. Indian Journal of Forestry 26: 414-417. (Recording 86 host species including the gymnosperm Thuja orientale.)

Bhatt, D.C., Patel, P.K. and Dodia, S.K. 2006. Various hosts of two species of Cuscuta L. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 30(1): 170-171. (Listing 104 hosts of Cuscuta ‘chinensis’ (possibly C. campestris?) and C. reflexa in Gujarat, India, none being common to both species.)

Bickford, C.P., Kolb, T.E. and Geils, B.W. 2005. Host physiological condition regulates parasitic plant performance: Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum on Pinus ponderosa. Oecologia 146(2): 179-189. (Thinning of the host trees increased tree uptake of water and carbon and this in turn resulted in more vigorous growth of A.vaginatum.)

Botanga, C.J. and Timko, M.P. 2006. Phenetic relationships among different races of Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke from West Africa. Genome 49: 1351-1365. (AFLP analysis suggested that genetic variability within and among populations of each of the 5 previously recognized races of cowpea-parasitic S. gesnerioides was extremely low, and also revealed 2 new races, from Senegal and Benin. Molecular markers were identified for each race. A race specific to Indigofera hirsuta was genetically distinct.)

Bouwmeester, H.J., Roux, C., Lopez-Raez, J.A. and Bécard, G. 2007. Rhizosphere communication of plants, parasitic plants and AM fungi. Trends in Plant Science 12: 224-230. (Reviewing the new information on the importance of strigolactones in the development of mycorrhiza as well as for germination of parasitic plants.)

Braby, M.F. and Trueman, J.W.H. 2006. Evolution of larval host plant associations and adaptive radiation in pierid butterflies. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19: 1677-1690. (The ancestral host of the family Pieridae appears to be Fabales, with multiple independent shifts to other orders, including three to Santalales. There were later shifts from Brassicales to mistletoes (Loranthaceae?) and from mistletoes to mistletoe hosts.)

Butonyi, C. 2007. ICIPE unveils new method to fight weed. Daily Nation (Kenya) Tuesday 10 July, 2007. (Reporting the launch of the ‘push-pull’ technology for control of stem borers and Striga hermonthica, after 10 years of development. See news item above)

Butonyi, C. 2007. Doomsday for stubborn pests. Daily Nation (Kenya) Thursday July 12, 2007: 36. (Extended version of item above with pictures.)

Cameron, D.D. and Seel, W.E. 2007. Functional anatomy of haustoria formed by Rhinanthus minor: linking evidence from histology and isotope tracing. New Phytologist 174: 412-419. (Showing that the lack of occurrence of R. minor on forbs such as Plantago lanceolatum and Leucanthemum vulgare is associated with resistance mechanisms which prevent connection with the host xylem.)

Chaudhary, M.A. and Muhammad Aslam. 2005. Biological and climatic factors responsible for dieback of juniper in Ziarat, Balochistan. Mycopath 3(1/2): 17-22. (Arceuthobium oxycedri affected 33% of Juniperus excelsa in the Sasnak locality, but insect and fungal problems were more widespread and responsible for most of the dieback in Ziarat.)

Chen XueLin, Jing GuoHai and Guo Hui. 2007. Ornamentation characteristics of seed coats in nineteen plants of Pedicularis from alpine meadow in east Qinghai-Xizang plateau and its ecological significance. Acta Prataculturae Sinica 16(2): 60-68. (Describing 4 types of ornamentation in 19 species of Pedicularis and discussing their possible evolution.)

Chye LimHuat. 2006. Traditional Asian folklore medicines in sexual health. Indian Journal of Urology 22: 241-245. (Cuscuta and Cistanche listed among about 30 plant species cited as sources of products with value for erectile disfunction and other sexual health problems in Asia.)

Culley, T.M. and Klootster, M.R. 2007. The cleistogamous breeding system: a review of its frequency, evolution, and ecology in angiosperms. Botanical Reviews 73: 1-30. (Including reference to cleistogamy in Epifagus ad Triphysaria.)

Dalrymple, S.E. 2007. Biological Flora of the British Isles: Melampyrum sylvaticum L. Journal of Ecology (Oxford) 95: 583-597. (A detailed review of the biology and ecology of M. sylvaticum noting that in UK it is restricted mainly to the Scottish Highlands, and is currently vulnerable and endangered.)

Daschinamzhilov, Zh.B.

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