Guided Notes Marine MammalS




Дата канвертавання24.04.2016
Памер26.03 Kb.

MARINE MAMMALS

  • marine mammals

      • _________________________________________

      • depend on the ocean for its food




  • marine mammals evolved to live in the ocean ____________________________

  • after mammals originally evolved to live on land


EVOLUTION OF MARINE MAMMALS



  • ________________________________________ 7 separate times

  • A prehistoric deermouse is the link between land animals and the whale lineage

  • New fossils suggest ________________________________________________

  • Breathe air with ___________________________________________________

  • Have hair

  • Live birth

  • Mothers feed young milk

  • ________________________________- regulate body heat with their metabolism

  • 4 chambered heart

SOME ADAPTATIONS TO A LIFE IN WATER

  • Blubber and thick coats of hair to ____________________________________

  • Tetrapod limbs modified into _______________________________________

  • Bodies modified for swimming: _____________________________________

  • Collapsible lungs and rib cages for deep diving

  • Ability to _______________________________extremities to increase dive time

  • Record-1 1/2 hour long, 6000 ft deep dives ex.-___________________________

CLASSIFICATIONS



  • Order- __________________________________

    • Family Mysticeti

    • Family Odontoceti


  • Order __________________________________

    • Suborder Pinnepedia

    • Family Phocidae

    • Family Otariidae

    • Family Odobenidae

    • Family Mustelidea

    • Family Ursidae



  • Order __________________________________


Order Cetacea

  • 80 different species, _______________________________________

  • Intelligent social animals

  • Two groups of whales

Suborder Mysteceti- ___________________________________________



    • _________________________that eat plankton and small fish

    • Blue, finback, humpback, right and gray whales

    • To feed- open mouths and take in enormous quantities of water and filter out food

    • Rorqual whales have _____________________to help collect more water

    • Baleen- _____________________________________________________

Baleen Feeding Methods



  • ________________- take in huge gulps of water to eat krill and small fish

  • _______________ -swim through near surface waters to skim and strain plankton

  • ______________ - bottom feeders that suck up sediments to filter out small crustacean and other invertebrates

  • _________________ -____________________________________________

    • Swim up thru middle of the bubbles and gulp prey

    • May involve cooperative hunting

Order Odontoceti ____________________________________



    • Peglike teeth to catch fish, seals, penguins and squid

    • Sperm, killer, pilot, beluga, dolphins and porpoises

    • __________________________with specialized teeth who swallow their prey whole

    • Male narwhal tooth grows out of it’s upper jaw

      • Used to attract mates and _________________________

Whale Reproduction



  • Fertilization and development are __________________________________

  • Gestation lasts 11 to 18 months

  • Breeding once every three years

  • _______________________________________________________________

    • Newborns are brought to the surface for their first breath

    • Nursed for 6 to 10 months

    • Milk is 50% fat so the calves can grow quickly

Whale Adaptations and Behavior

Breathing


  • Breathing thru the ________________________(nostril)

  • Thru whale evolution nostril moved from the snout to the top of the head

  • Air moves from ___________________________________________

  • ________________________________________________________

Swimming


  • _______________________________________________________

  • Dorsal fin is used in _______________________________________

  • Pectoral fins are used in ____________________________________

    • Bone structure is similar to the bones in hand

Other Movements



  • _______________- smashing tail down on the surface of water (maybe displaying aggression)

  • _______________- head is raised above water surface for a period of time

  • _______________- leaps out of water and crashes back down

Migration



  • Whales travel 1000’s of km a year with their______________________________
    _________________________________________________________________

  • Navigate using geologic features, ocean currents, water chemistry, magnetic field, and sun

  • Migrate between ________________________________________

    • Summer-feeding in rich Arctic waters

    • Winter- Breed in warm, shallow and secluded tropical waters

Keeping Warm



  • __________________________________________________________

    • Sperm whale may dive to depths of 3000m




  • Migrate to cold Arctic waters




  • Posses thick layer of ____________________________________________

    • Traps and prevents heat loss

    • Can be 2 feet thick

Communication



  • _________________________________________________________________

  • Complex types of communication have been documented

    • Used in _____________________________________________________
      ____________________________________________________________

  • Echolocation-

  • Humpback whales compose complex songs which differ by individual and pod



Order Carnivora

  • Suborder Pinnepedia

    • Family Phocidae: True seals

    • ____________________________________________________________
      ____________________________________________________________

    • Family Odobenidae: ___________________________________________

    • two long tusks, no external ears, but can rotate their hind flippers and "walk" on land

Seals and Sea Lions and walruses…

  • Pad-like appendages and torpedo shaped bodies

  • Seals and sea lions are _________________________________________________

Pinniped Reproduction



  • Return to land to mate and give birth

  • Breeding season results in congregates of 1000’s

  • Males usually compete for harems of females with whom they mate

  • ___________________________________________________________
    ___________________________________________________________

Pinniped Adaptations



  • _____________________________________ who also use communication

  • Deep divers- elephant seal dives up to 1500m

  • Thick layer of blubber insulation

  • Thick fur

  • Walruses have tusks for __________________________________________



Family Mustelidea _____________________________________

  • Only recently adapted to aquatic life (3mya)

  • Sleep, eat, mate and rear young in ocean

  • Smallest mar mamm found only in Pacific

  • _____________________________________________________

    • Feed on species that would otherwise destroy the kelp (sea urchins and snails)

  • Dive for shellfish, at surface use a rock to get to their food

  • ________________________________________________ (1000 hairs per inch)

  • ________________________________________________________________

Threats to Sea Otters



  • Oil spills- _____________________________________________

    • Otters freeze because of the loss in insulation




  • Past hunting for their prized fur decimated otter populations almost to extinction

    • ________________________________________________





Family Ursidae: Polar bears


  • Most terrestrial ____________________________________

  • Lives on ice floes of the north polar region

  • ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • Not an excellent swimmer

  • Hunt seals sunning on ice or coming up thru ice holes to breathe

  • __________________________________________________________________

Order Sirenia- Dugongs and Manatees



  • live in warm or tropical waters

  • ________________________________________________________________

  • Shy, social animals thaft communicate via squeaks

  • ________________________________________________________________

  • the Steller sea cow, once inhabited Arctic waters, but was hunted to extinction by 1768, within 27 years of its discovery

Threats to Manatees



  • ________________________________________________________________

  • Frequently injured or killed by powerboat propellers

  • ________________________________________________________________

MAMMAL CHARACTERISTICS






База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка