Guide to Initial Groups MidWest

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Sub-Guide to Initial Groups -- MidWest
Revised through 12 January 2009

Group A – Plants on persistent protonemata

Group A

Leaves 2-ranked and distichous (attached in two rows on opposite sides of the stem).

Leaves cleft at anterior edge and clasping posterior edge of next leaf; WS Fissidens

Leaves decurrent and confluent; protonemata luminous; “Goblin Gold”; WS* Schistostega

Leaves with longitudinal lamellae; setae long; capsules cylindrical; epiphragm present; WS Pogonatum

Leaves serrate to spinose-dentate; capsules sessile, +globose & cleistocarpous; WS Ephemerum

Leaves acute, lacking the above unique characteristics.

Plants growing on soil; costa weak at base; capsules exserted; WS* Discelium

Group B – Plants minute with immersed capsules

Group B

Leaves with a hair-point or awn.

Leaves with ridge-like lamellae on upper surface of costa; WS Pterygoneurum

Leaves with revolute, entire margins; cells pleuripapillose (C-shaped); WS Phascum

Leaves with recurved (at apex), serrate margins; cells +smooth; WS* Acaulon

Leaves with plane, entire margins; cells smooth.

Capsules operculate; calyptrae persistent, 4-angled and split; spores small; E Pyramidula

Leaves subulate / setaceous at least on perichaetial leaves.

Setae straight; capsules immersed and cleistocarpous.

Capsules pyriform with conspicuous, stomatose neck; spores small; WS Bruchia

Capsules globose to ovoid with no neck.

Calyptrae mitrate or cucullate; spores numerous and small; WS Pleuridium

Calyptrae rudimentary; spores few and large (>100µ); E Archidium

Leaves cuspidate to long-apiculate with reflexed tips; bulbiform; WS* Acaulon

Leaves involute when wet, crisped and contorted when dry; E Astomum

Leaves with ridge-like lamellae on upper surface of costa; WS Pterygoneurum

Leaves serrate to spinose-dentate; protonemata persistent; WS Ephemerum

Leaves acute to acuminate, lacking the above unique characteristics.

Capsules clearly operculate.

Operculum short-beaked; exothecial cells collenchymatous; WS Aphanorrhegma

Operculum long-beaked; exothecial cells not collenchymatous; WS Physcomitrium

Capsules cleistocarpous or rupturing irregularly.

Capsules pyriform with conspicuous, stomatose neck; spores small; WS Bruchia

Capsules globose.

Calyptrae mitrate; spores numerous and small; WS Physcomitrella

Calyptrae rudimentary.

Costa strong; spores few and large (>100µ); E Archidium

Costa lacking; spores medium to large (up to ~80µ); WS Micromitrium

Group C – Plants dendroid or frondose from an erect stipe.

Group C

Plants dendroid

Stems with dense paraphyllia or paraphyllia-like structures.

Paraphyllia green, filiform, and branched; on rich soil; E Climacium

Stems lacking paraphyllia.

Leaves not bordered and ovate to lanceolate.

Leaf singly or doubly serrate above; apical cells rhombic; WS Thamnobryum

Plants frondose.

Leaves falcate-secund; plant regularly pinnate; WS* Ptilium crista-castrensis

Group D – Plants with pendulous branches

Group D


Group E – Plants growing horizontally or as “fish-hooks”

Group E

Plants growing horizontally; sticking +straight out from vertical surface.

Leaves complanate and undulate.

Leaves ecostate; paraphyllia lacking; WS* Neckera

Leaves neither complanate nor undulate.

Shoots distinctly julaceous; costa long & single; cells short; SE Cryphaea

Shoots not julaceous.

Alar cells subquadrate in large groups; E Forsstroemia

Plants growing as “fish-hooks”; secondary branches curved upwards when dry.

Costa long and single; leaf cells papillose; E Anomodon viticulosus

Costa short and double to lacking; leaf cells smooth.

Leaf cells >5:1; 5-20 quadrate alar cells at the basal angles; WS* Pylaisiella

Leaf cells ~3:1; numerous oblate alar cells extending up leaf margins; E, AZ Leucodon

Group F – Plants growing on dung

Group F

Hypophysis turbinate, globose or skirt-like, and colored; leaves obtuse to acuminate; N, CP & SA Splachnum

Hypophysis pyriform and +urn-colored; leaves elongate-subulate to hair-pointed; N Tetraplodon


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