Growth rate of shrub-fruticose cladonia lichens in west siberia: climatic, habitat, and disturbance factors

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Svetlana U. Abdulmanova
Institute of plant and animal ecology Ural Division Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation, 620144 Yekaterinburg, 8 March st, 202
West Siberia territory is notable for different lichen habitat conditions. These conditions (climate, landscape, soil, vegetation, disturbances) have greatly influence on lichen growth rate.
The goal of our study is represents a unique assessment of shrub-fruticose lichens growth rate and its relation to environment and succession gradient.
Key plots were located in zonal community of tundra and forest sites in taiga (middle and southern boreal forests), forest-tundra and tundra (southern subarctic, northern subarctic and arctic tundra subzones) zone. We sampled a total of ~ 220 plots with a 100-400 m2 size and measured about 10000 lichen thallus.
The main variability trend of lichens growth rate is a zonal (climatic) gradient. Lichen growth rate significantly decreases from South to North within the limits from 9.8 (southern taiga) to 1.3 (tundra) mm/year. The main factor which causes this decrease is air temperature during vegetative season (June-October): significant regression model – β = 0.82; R2adj = 0.72; p < 0.01. Significance of precipitation during active growth period is lower (regression model – β = 0.74; R2adj = 0.56; p < 0.01).
Taiga zone. Growth rate of Cladonia lichen from various communities’ types has not significant differences. However in this zone high variation of lichen growth rate was described for uneven-aged post-fire communities. These differences are related to changes of structure and depth lichen-moss cover during post-fire succession. Growth rate of Cladonia lichens from pirogenic communities increase from 1.2 mm/year (5-20 year after fire) to 9.8 mm/year (> 60 year after fire).
Forest-tundra zone. Lichen communities of this zone were described in many various environmental conditions. Growth rate were estimated for lichens from exposed dwarf shrub tundra phytocenosis, shrub tundra, and open woodland. These communities are located along hills slope and are characterized by different wetting conditions. As a result we detected that lichens grow with maximum rate in shrub tundra phytocenosis on the hills slope (3.4 mm/ year). And minimum growth rate was detected in lichen-moss tundra phytocenosis at the top of hills (3.2 mm/year). Also we estimated differences of growth rate for Cladonia lichens from territories near by Ural Mountains and from central part of West Siberia. As a result we indicated that Cladonia lichens from territories near by Ural Mountains grow considerable slowly.
Tundra zone. Growth rate of shrub-fruticose lichens from communities of this zone is characterized by minimum values about 2-3 mm/year. The main factor which has an effect on lichen growth rate of Yamal tundra communities is heavy reindeer grazing. As a result of this disturbance lichen growth rate have no significant differences for Cladonia lichen from different subzones and vegetative types.

Sergei V. Chesnokov1, Ludmila A. Konoreva1, 2

  1. Komarov Botanical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia

  2. Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden Institute, Kirovsk, Russia

The lichen flora of Stanovoye Highlands is currently poorly studied because the region is inaccessible. Some contributions were made by V. Burkova, T. Makryi (Makryi, 2002, 2005, 2013), S. Budaeva, N. Anisimova, A. Lishtva (S. Budaeva, N. Anisimova, 1992; S. Budaeva, 1995, The biota…, 2005).

According to the published data and taking into account the data on Vitimsky Reserve, 422 species of lichens were known for the eastern part of Stanovoye Highlands before we started our research.
In 2011-2013 we undertook several expeditions to the eastern part of Stanovoye Highlands. During the expeditions we investigated the following areas: the Kalar Ridge (the Purelagskiye thermal springs), the Kodar Ridge (the Leprindinskoye plateau, valley of the river Middle Sakukan, Kodar glaciers), the Udokan ridge (Copper Mountain), the South Muya ridge (valley of the river Koyra), valley of the river Vitim and Chara Sands.
We added in the existing list of lichens 138 species. Currently, the total species list for Stanovoye Highlands includes 560 species. We examined all the available cenoses (mountain-tundra zone, the coastal cliffs and cliffs in the canyons of the rivers, stony placers, the thickets of elfin cedar, land of light and dark coniferous taiga) and substrates (stones, soil, the bark and branches of trees, rotten wood). Saxicolous lichens make up a large proportion of the species range. Our study of local floras of mountain-tundra zone of the Kodar Ridge and mountain-tundra forest zones of the South Muya ridge, Udokan ridge, Kalar Ridge gave a number of interesting findings such as a new species for Eurasia – Bacidia reagens Malme, a new species for Russia – Pilophorus strumaticus Nyl. ex Cromb. (Konoreva, 2013), and 7 rare species for Russia: Bryonora curvescens (Mudd) Poelt, Gyalideopsis alnicola Noble & Vězda, Phaeophyscia dissecta G. Urban., I. Urban. & T. Otn., Phaeophyscia endococcinodes (Poelt) Essl., Phaeophyscia hirtella Essl., Rhizocarpon cinereonigrum Vain., Squamarina cartilaginea (With.) P. James.


Paweł Czarnota
Department of Agroecology, Faculty of Biology and Agriculture, University of Rzeszów, Ćwiklińskiej 2, 35–601 Rzeszów and Scientific Laboratory of the Gorce National Park, Poręba Wielka 590, 34–735 Niedźwiedź; Poland
Results of long-term studies on forest epiphytic lichen diversity are rarely presented elsewhere, and in the Polish Carpathians have not been published to date. The basic problem is to repeat observations on the same sample trees due to the natural or antropogenic disturbances of forest stands, or simply due to the mortality of first investigators. Such possibility has opened, however, for author in the territory of the Gorce National Park in the Polish Western Carpathians. 37 permanent sample plots have been chosen from old stands with dominating Norway spruce Picea abies and percentage cover for epiphytic lichen species inhabiting 10 spruce samples (surface from the ground to 2.5 m height around the trunk) in each sample plot have been estimated in years 1993/1994. 20 years later, in 2013, the same methodology by the same author has been applied, however on only 234 sample trees which survived this period of time. For this number of samples frequency of lichen species and for each sample plot IAP index was calculated. The type of forest community and the protection regime were used as environmental factors influencing lichen diversity. Species were determined in the field with a magnifier x10 and x20 but controversial findings were collected and identified using standard light microscopes and simple spot test reactions. For estimation of percentage lichen cover author’s scale has been applied. Statistical analyses have been made using the Statistica 8.0 software.
57 species were found in both inventories including 35 in 1993/1994 and 53 in 2013. In this period frequency for 20 species decreased (especially for Cetraria chlorophylla (10.68 vs 0.00), Platismatia glauca (19.66 vs 1.71) and Pseudevernia furfuracea (15.38 vs 2.56), for 6 species increased [e.g. Chaenotheca ferruginea (19.66 vs 49.57), Dimerella pineti (3.42 vs 30.77) and Hypocenomyce scalaris (14.10 vs 26.50)] and for 9 species remained unchanged. 18 species were recorded on sample trees as new in 2013. In the 20-year term, mean values of IAP index for both control times did not statistically change, as well for all data set as for samples grouped according to both analyzed environmental factors. Mean cover degree for epiphytic lichens significantly decreased, however, in the same time. Protection regime appeared to be important factor for the cover degree of spruce trunk inhabiting lichen species. Forest community was not important factor for both IAP value and lichen cover degree, however, in sub-alpine spruce forest they are distinctly higher than in forest communities of lower belt.


Edit Farkas, Nora Varga
Institute of Ecology and Botany, Centre for Ecological Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences; H-2163 Vácrátót, Alkotmány u. 2–4, Hungary
Though the knowledge on lichenicolous fungi is increasing in Hungary, the number of known species is still very low (56) and mostly based on old herbarium records. Therefore any freshly collected specimen may result in floristical results new to our area. A recent collection of Pertusaria lactea from the Zemplén Mts directed our attention to lichenicolous fungi of this host species. P. lactea is moderately frequent in the middle-mountain range of Hungary in rocky habitats of acidic character. All the earlier collected 59 specimens of P. lactea were studied in lichen herbarium BP. About half of the specimens (16) contained lichenicolous fungi. So far we have detected Stigmidium and Taeniolella species. Further field work is necessary to improve our knowledge on these taxa and their distribution in Hungary.
Our research was supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA K81232).

Anna G. Fedosova, Eugene S. Popov
Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2, Prof. Popov st, 197376, St. Petersburg, Russia
The genus Geoglossum is characterized by small to medium, clavate, black or brown colored orthotropic epigeous ascomata. It includes a number of species, which are considered as threatened in many European countries. The published data on the diversity of Geoglossum in the Northwestern Federal District (NFD) of Russia are scanty and referring only to 4 species (Weinmann, 1837; Karsten, 1871; Freindling, 1949; Naumov, 1964; Popov, 2005, 2007; Popov et al., 2013).
In our study we undertook a revision of collections of Geoglossum from NFD kept at LE and LEP herbaria as well as our own gatherings. As a whole 65 samples belonging to 8 species were studied. The species are G. cookeanum Nannf., G. fallax E.J. Durand, G. glabrum Pers., G.glutinosum Pers., G. peckianum Cooke, G. simile Peck, G. uliginosum Hakelier, G. umbratile Sacc. The species of Geoglossum were found in Leningrad (6 species / 27 samples), Novgorod (3/15), Pskov (5/12), Kaliningrad (3/3), Vologda (1/1) Regions, Republic of Karelia (2/2) and Saint Petersburg (2/5). From Murmansk Region only 1 species is known according to Karsten (1871). Among the relatively frequent species are the following three: G. umbratile (24 finds), G. glutinosum (13), and G. cookeanum (12). Also there are presumably rare species, namely G. simile (2 finds), G. peckianum (2), G. fallax (1), and G. uliginosum (1). Geoglossum uliginosum is recorded for the first time in Russia. Preferable habitats of the Geoglossa in the area under consideration seem to be species-rich semi-dry grasslands dominated by Calamagrostisepigeios, Thalictrumsimplex and/or Inulasalicinaon limestones or on sandy carbonate-rich soils, sphagnum bogs of Scheuchzerio-Cariceteanigrae, rarely they grow in wetlands dominated by Calamagrostis neglecta, paludal forests of Alneteaglutinosae, and conifer forests.
The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (12-04-33018 мол_а_вед).

Ivan Frolov1, Jan Vondrák1, 2 & Pavel Říha1

  1. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, České Budějovice, CZ-370 05, Czech Republic

  2. Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences, Zámek 1, Průhonice, CZ-25243, Czech Republic

The genus Caloplaca (family Teloschistaceae) has a worldwide distribution and includes at least 500 species (Kirk et al. 2008), and possibly 1000 or more species (Arup et al. 2013). Lichens of the genus usually contain yellow/orange/red anthraquinone pigments in their apothecia and/or thalli, but in several taxa anthraquinones are fully replaced by other pigments, usually grey, brown or green. Caloplaca specimens without anthraquinones do not form a monophyletic group, but occur in various unrelated lineages (Vondrák et al. 2012). Nevertheless, the specimens collected from limestone cliffs in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere fall into one monophyletic group, which is usually called “Pyrenodesmia” (e.g. Clauzade & Roux 1985). Arup et al. (2013) regard Pyrenodesmia A. Massal. as a distinct genus. The group has been studied quite extensively (e.g. Magnusson 1950, Wunder 1974, Wetmore 1994, Muggia et al. 2008), but our recent study of the group in Europe and western regions of Asia shows that its diversity is much higher than previously realized (partially shown by Frolov & Vondrák 2012). Here we present the results of our investigation of the group in the Bohemian karst (BK).

BK is the largest limestone area in the Czech Republic and one of the northernmost in Central Europe. BK is a slightly undulating plateau near Prague at an altitude of about 400 m, furrowed by deep valleys of the Berounka River and its tributaries. Numerous limestone outcrops are scattered in the valleys. The climate in BK is characterized by a long warm and dry summer and a short relatively warm and dry winter. The eastern part of the area is slightly drier and in spring and autumn slightly warmer than western part (Ložek et al. 2005). In the BK black fruiting Caloplacas are restricted to more or less sunny habitats with exposed limestone.
Mediterranean regions to the south and arid continental regions to the east from the target area have the highest biodiversity of the black-fruiting Caloplaca in Europe, with twelve known species. In Central Europe north of the Alps and west of the Carpathians, only five species were known. So the recording of eight taxa of the group (three of them are undescribed yet) in BK was really unexpected: Caloplaca albopruinosa, C. aff. atroalba, C. chalybaea, C. concreticola, C. aff. diphyodes, C. erodens, C. variabilis and a blastidiate Caloplaca sp. The taxa were recognized by their phenotype and molecular data (ITS and β-tubulin sequences). Two different distributional biases (Mediterranean vs. Eastern European – Central Asian) are recognized among the recorded taxa. Mediterranean lichens are more numerous and abundant in the western part of BK, whereas lichens with the eastern bias occur only in the dryer, eastern part. Ložek (1974) provides evidences for continual oscillations of climate during the Quaternary period in BK. We suggest that xerothermic sites on limestone cliffs of the Bohemian Karst form a cumulative biodiversity hotspot for lichens which successively colonized the territory in different ages with different climate and survived subsequent unfavourable periods to the present in specific microsites.


Marja-Liisa Kämärä, Ede Leppik, Inga Jüriado
Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Lai 40, 51005, Tartu, Estonia
Sand dunes are habitats characterized by frequent natural disturbances (wind, ice, seawater) as well as human disturbances (driving, trampling). We were interested in the effect of local site factors and also the influence of disturbance on terricolous lichen community. Our survey consisted of 13 study sites in Estonia, covering both inland and costal dunes. In each site we studied pair of disturbed and undisturbed study plots. We described lichen species composition and environmental variables in a circular plot of 0.1 ha located in the most homogeneous part of the habitat. We evaluated the effects of environmental characteristics, disturbance and geographical location of a study site on composition and diversity of terricolous lichens by multivariate analyses (DCA, pDCCA) and by general linear models (GLM). Altogether 67 taxa of lichenized fungi were recorded. We found differences in lichen species composition and diversity caused by geographical location of study plot. However, species richness and composition were significantly influenced also by the disturbance of the habitat. Lichen species richness was higher in undisturbed plots compared to disturbed plots. The composition of terricolous lichens was also influenced by mineral nutrients (Ca, Mg, N) of soil, soil pH, soil organic matter, cover of plants, bryophytes, litter and bare sand. Cover of plants, bryophytes and litter had overall negative effect on lichen species richness, whereas cover of bare sand had positive effect on lichen species richness in undisturbed plots and showed negative effect on disturbed plots.


Dariusz Kubiak
Department of Mycology, Warmia and Mazury University in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 1A, PL-10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Nearly half of the territory of Poland is covered with habitats of mesophilous deciduous forests, including 41.6% of oak-hornbeam or oak-lime-hornbeam. The current, actual forest cover of Poland (29.3%) is, however, dominated by coniferous forest stands (69.9%), in particular pine forests. This disproportion has been caused by the fact that, in the past, fertile deciduous forests were primarily taken for cultivation and large-scale introduction of economically more efficient species, i.e. pine or spruce (including habitats of oak-hornbeam forest). Introduction of coniferous species (mainly pine) in fertile habitats or cutting down of deciduous trees from mixed forests, resulting from planned or wasteful exploitation of forests, is referred to in Poland as pine introduction. It is one of the main forms of forest degradation in Poland, which leads to major changes in species composition of vegetation and changes in habitats, resulting in i.a. soil acidification and depletion. The effects of this process involve all components of the forest biocoenosis, including lichens.
The research conducted in 2012-2013 aimed at exploring the qualitative and quantitative changes in the biota of lichens caused by pine introduction. The study area covered the Forest Division of NoweRamuki located in northern Poland, in the central part of Napiwodzko-Ramucka Forest. Habitats of mixed lime-oak-hornbeam forests cover nearly 44% of the Forest Division, though pine is the dominant species in the prevailing part of the area (90% of forest stands). The research was conducted in pine forest stands of varying age planted in the habitat typical of oak-hornbeam forests. In addition, the reference sites were selected in natural oak-hornbeam forests protected in the nearby nature reserve “Las Warmiński”.
The research was conducted in 4 types of forest stands:

60-100-year-old pine forest (inconsistent with the habitat, with characteristics typical of commercial forest, at the age defined in most parts of Poland as pre-felling);

120-160-year-old pine forest (inconsistent with the habitat, at the age defined in most parts of Poland as post-felling);

>200-year-old pine forest (inconsistent with the habitat and with a large contribution of deciduous species characteristic of mixed oak-hornbeam forest of self-regeneration origin);

>200-year-old oak-hornbeam forest (consistent with the habitat of natural forest).
Ten study sites with an area of 400 m2 were located in each of the four types of forest stands. A list of lichen species was compiled at each of them, together with detailed information about microhabitats and the abundance of species occurrence.
While forests of category 1 and 2 come from cultivation, the origin of mature pine forests and processes determining their present conditions are not fully explored. It can be assumed, however, that they are a final succession stage of post-felling forest stands growing on similar habitats as a result of natural regeneration. The obtained results are therefore a contribution to resolving the question whether it is possible to reconstruct the lichen biota typical of oak-hornbeam forests as a result of natural regeneration of pine forest stands growing on fertile habitats and what is the rate of this process.


Vilma Kuodytė1, Ingrida Prigodina Lukošienė1, Jurga Motiejūnaitė2

  1. Department of Botany and Genetics, Vilnius University, M.K. Čiurlionio Str. 21/27, LT-03101 Vilnius, Lithuania

  2. Institute of Botany, Nature Research Centre, Žaliųjų ežerų Str. 49, LT-08406 Vilnius, Lithuania

In the years 2010–2013 three 200-year old cemeteries were studied: Bernardinai cemetery in Vilnius (3.87 ha), Viekšniai cemetery (2,8 ha) in Mažeikiai district (western Lithuania) and Raižiai Tatar Cemetery in Alytus district (southern Lithuania) (2,37 ha). In total, 75 lichen taxa were recorded. The highest diversity of lichens was found in Raižiai Tatar Cemetery (45 taxa), where most of the gravestones are siliceous rocks. In all cemeteries lichens colonized 7 types of man-made substrata: metal (27 taxa), granite (62 taxa), concrete (28 taxa), stone (18 taxa), stone-concrete gravestones (13 taxa), wooden crosses (31 taxa), masonry (4 taxa). Many species showed characteristic distribution patterns with regard to certain ecological indices (light, moisture, nutrient status of substratum). The majority of samples examined consisted of photophytic and mesophytic species growing on medium to nutrient rich substrata. Six frequency groups were defined for the recorded lichens. Nearly half of the taxa were very frequent. No very rare and rare species were identified in Bernardinai cemetery in Vilnius. The highest number of very rare species was recorded in Raižiai cemetery. Very rare species identified were Lecanora semipallida H.Magn., Lecanora sulphurea (Hoffm.) Ach., Xanthoparmelia verruculifera (Nyl.) O. Blanco, Psilolechia lucida (Ach.) M. Choisy, Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC., and Rhizocarpon lecanorinum Anders.


Anna Mežaka1, Liene Auniņa2, Alfons Piterāns3

  1. Research Institute for Regional Studies, Rezekne Higher Education Institution, Rēzekne, Atbrīvošanas aleja 115, LV-4601, Latvia

  2. Institute of Biology of University of Latvia, 3 Miera Street, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia

  3. Department of Botany and Ecology, University of Latvia, Kronvalda Boulevard 4, Riga, LV-1010, Latvia

The aim of the present study was to investigate lichen distribution in heathland in Ādaži Military Area under different heather management methods – cut-and-collect, controlled fire and semi-natural (control) regime. Data about 92 sample plots were analyzed. In total 31 lichen species were found. The highest lichen cover as well as richness and diversity was found in cut-and-collect heathland – 25 species. However, it cannot be associated with the manage-ment method as we do not know the heathland species composition before the application of management. One species is Red-listed in Latvia – Pycnothellia papillaria, found only in cut-and-collect heathland. Lichen species presence and dominance in heathland varied among management methods. The heathland management methods were discussed in relation to conservation of the largest Latvian heathland area and associated lichen species.

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