SUBJECT IS AT5 THE END OF THE SENTENCE.
hošt ǰu We are going home.
hočɛp ǰu You (all) go home.
FRAME SENTENCES. PUTTING TWO VERBS TOGETHER.
i.e. hoč ǰu θapiš I am going home to bathe.
hošt ǰu θapiš We are going home to bathe.
hočɛp ǰu θapiš You (all) go home and bathe.
hoč hohoɬč hot́ᶿəm
ʔɛɬən ʔɛɬtənoɬ ʔɛltənθəm
čičɬɛm čičɬɛmoɬ čičɬɛmθəm
kʷinət kʷinətoɬ kʷinətθəm
rain it rained it will rain
č̓ɩɬ č̓ɩɬoɬ č̓ɩɬsəm
snow it snowed it will snow
ʔaχʷ ?aχʷoɬ ?aχʷsɛm
wind it was windy it will be windy
puʔɛm puʔemoɬ puʔəmsəm
tam kʷaθ nanʔ what is your name?
k̓ʷɛnaye čɛpʔ how many of you?
k̓ʷɛnsəm kʷalčʷ tasʔ When will you be here?
čimšɛnčxʷʔ Where are you going?
hahačxʷʊm p̓ap̓ɛmʔ Are you going to work?
gət kʷaθ qəmʔ Who are you with?
Possessives are formed by adding the possessor to an article before the noun.
ʔaθ taθ kʷaθ
ʔaθ tan taθ tan kʷaθ tan
ɬaʔamɩn (Sliammon First Nations)
LETTER HOW TO PRONUNCE EXAMPLES
ʔ Glottal stop. Exists in English, but is ʔopan
not written: i.e. Typicallay heard in the 10
exclamation uh – oh!
a as in father, bought ʔaχʷ
æ as in apple, bat kʸæpo
č like ch in change, cherry čuy
č́ glottalized ch č́ɛno
e as in they, bait nɛʔɛt
be in the way
ə as in about kʷatə
g like g in gift gɩǰɛ
h like h in hoe hoǰoθɛn
be finished eating
i ee sound. As in she, beat ǰi:ƛ
ǰ as in job ǰɛʔǰɛ
Letter How to pronounce Examples
k as in kayak kušən
ḱ glottalized k ḱɩḱiḱ
kʷ lips rounded as in “oh”. As in quality kʷanəčɛm
ḱʷ glottalized rounded k ḱʷas
l as in lips č̓ɛləs
ĺ glottalized l, ./. most often used ʔal ̓əs / ʔaʔləs
ɬ “barred l” like a whispered l ɬa/amɛn
ƛ “barred lamda” t and- together ƛən̓ƛən
ƛ̓ glottalized barred lamda ƛ̓ɛʔƛ̓ɛ
m as in metal mos
ḿ glottalized m. ʔ often used haḿo / hamo
n as in name nɩgi
o as in throat, boat ʔoɬqʷo
p as in paper paʔa
p̓ glottalized p p̓ap̓ɛm
q “uvular k”. back of the throat sound. qəχ
q̓ glottalized q̓atən
Letter How to pronounce Example
q̓ʷ glottalized and popping q̓ʷɛt
s as in salt saɬt̓ɩxʷ
š́ like sh as in shoulder šɩm
t like t in take tala
t́ glottalized t t́ɛn
tᶿ t followed by th tᶿ (man)
θ like th in thin θoθɛn
u oo sound as in boot kʷušɛm
ʊ sound as in book tʊkɬɛ
w as in wallet walθ
ẃ glottalized w mɛmaw̓
x uvular fricative χaʔa
like some people say Bach ‘ch’ butter clam
y as in yellow yɛχay
aw as in cow χawgəs
ay as in eye ʔayʔaǰʊθəm