General content: multiple-choice questions




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GENERAL CONTENT: TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS


  1. The most powerful radio stations are called “superstations” and can deliver signals for long distances.

(False; moderate; p. 257; LO1; AACSB Use of IT)


  1. FM stations tend to be stronger than AM stations, sometimes reaching as far away as 600 miles, which is why music stations prefer FM, and talk radio and stations that broadcast sporting events are often found on AM.

(False; difficult; p. 257; LO1; AACSB Use of IT)


  1. Public radio stations are considered noncommercial in that they rely on listener support for most of their funding, and no commercial support is allowed by law.

(False; moderate; p. 258; LO1)


  1. Network radio is a group of local affiliates connected to one or more national networks through telephone wires or satellites.

(True; moderate; p. 260; LO1; AACSB Use of IT)


  1. Syndicated radio advertising providers offer flexibility through their willingness to run unusual ads, allow last-minute changes, and negotiate rates.

(False; difficult; p. 262; LO1; AACSB Communication)


  1. Radio is a highly segmented medium.

(True; easy; p. 259; LO1; AACSB Communication)


  1. Arbitron and RADAR are the major audience-rating services for radio.

(True; moderate; p. 260; LO1)


  1. One advantage of advertising on radio is that radio is not normally perceived as an irritant and has a high level of consumer acceptance.

(True; moderate; p. 279; LO1; AACSB Communication)


  1. Advertisers trying to reach a wide audience often need to buy time on several stations, and this has been made easier by the “one-order, one-bill” system.

(False; difficult; p. 260; LO1; AACSB Analytic Skills)


  1. One disadvantage of advertising on radio is lack of control, which means advertisers do not have much control over when their ads will air.

(False; moderate; p. 259; LO1)


  1. Although radio may not be a primary medium for most businesses, it does have excellent reminder and reinforcement capability.

(True; easy; p. 262; LO1; AACSB Communication)


  1. One trend in audio advertising is narrowly targeted laserlike sound beams that can pinpoint individual shoppers with prerecorded messages encouraging them to try or buy some product.

(True; moderate; p. 263; LO1; AACSB Use of IT)


  1. Because television advertising is embedded in television programming, most of the attention in media buying, as well as in the measurement of television advertising’s effectiveness, is focused on the performance of various shows and how they engage their audiences.

(True; moderate; p. 263; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)


  1. The price of a 30-second prime time network television ad has increased, but the size of the audience has increased as well.

(False; moderate; p. 263; LO2; AACSB Communication)


  1. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) defines a network as a program service with 30 or more hours of prime time programming per week between the hours of 8 a.m. and 11 p.m.

(False; difficult; p. 264; LO2; AACSB Communication)


  1. Currently, there are six national, over-the-air television networks in the United States: ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, WB, and UPN.

(False; moderate; p. 264; LO2; AACSB Communication)


  1. Network-affiliated television stations are required by law to show all of the programming provided by the network.

(False; difficult; p. 264; LO2; AACSB Communication)


  1. A problem facing network TV is that its audience, particularly men continues to erode as other viewing opportunities make inroads on their audiences.

(True; easy; p. 265; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)


  1. The initial purpose of cable television was to provide highly targeted special-interest programming options.

(False; moderate; p. 265; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)


  1. Cable News Network (CNN), the Disney Channel, and the Entertainment and Sports Programming Network (ESPN) are examples of independent superstations.

(False; difficult; p. 266; LO2)


  1. The two categories of cable scheduling are network and local.

(True; moderate; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)


  1. With local cable scheduling, advertisers can show their commercials to highly restricted geographic audiences through interstitials, a special cable technology.

(False; difficult; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)


  1. Television stations not affiliated with a network are known as independent stations.

(True; easy; p. 266; LO2)


  1. National advertisers sometimes buy local advertising on a city-by-city basis using spot buys.

(True; moderate; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)


  1. The FCC allows public broadcasting system (PBS) stations to air commercial messages, called program sponsorships, as long as the messages do not make a call to action (i.e., ask for a purchase) or make price or quality comparisons and appear only during the local 2.5-minute program breaks.

(True; moderate; p. 266; LO2)


  1. The FCC has licensed low-power television (LPTV) to provide programming outlets to minorities and communities that are under-served by full-power stations.

(True; moderate; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)


  1. The FCC has recently banned pay-per-view television from carrying commercials.

(False; difficult; p. 267; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)


  1. Syndicated programs include reruns of network shows as well as new episodes of programs.

(True; moderate; p. 267; LO2; AACSB Communication)


  1. TiVo is a substantial threat to marketers because it allows consumers to skip commercials completely.

(True; easy; p. 267; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)


  1. In program sponsorships, the advertiser assumes the total financial responsibility for producing the program and providing the accompanying commercials.

(True; easy; p. 271; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)

  1. Participations are commercials that appear in the breaks between programs, which local affiliates sell to advertisers who want to show their ads locally.

(False; moderate; p. 271; LO2; AACSB Communication)


  1. The share figure is always larger than the rating for television, because the base is smaller.

(True; moderate; p. 269; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)


  1. Network television is an expensive medium, but because of its traditionally high reach to a mass audience it is considered cost-efficient.

(True; easy; p. 272; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)


  1. Syndicated programming networks run programs and commercials, such as the channels you see in grocery stores, doctors’ offices, and truck stops that distribute commercials by video or satellites.

(False; difficult; p. 277; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)


  1. The biggest problem with product placement is that the placement may not be noticed.

(True; moderate; p. 279; LO4; AACSB Communication)

GENERAL CONTENT: ESSAY QUESTIONS


  1. Describe the structure of the radio industry by naming and describing the elements of the structure.

Answer:


The structure of the radio industry includes the following elements:

(1) AM/FM—Radio stations are delivered by two different ranges of signals or radio wave frequencies: AM and FM. AM stations tend to be stronger than FM stations, but the tonal quality of an FM signal is superior to that of AM, which is why music stations prefer FM, and talk radio and stations broadcasting sports events are often found on AM.

(2) Public Radio—Local public radio stations are usually affiliates of National Public Radio (NPR) and carry much of the same programming. These stations are considered noncommercial in that they rely on listener support for most of their funding; however, they have slowly expanded their corporate sponsorship messages.

(3) Cable Radio—Uses cable television receivers to deliver static-free music via wires plugged into cable subscribers’ stereos and typically is free of commercials.

(4) Satellite Radio—Can deliver radio stations, regardless of where you are in the continental United States.

(5) Low-power FM (LPFM)—Nonprofit, noncommercial stations that serve a small market, with a reach of three to five miles. Currently, the FCC does not allow them to carry advertising.

(6) Web Radio—Audio streaming through a web site and can offer advertisers spots that run only in certain parts of a city.

(difficult; pp. 257-259; LO1; AACSB Use of IT)




  1. Name and describe the three major types of radio advertising.

Answer:


(1) Network Radio Advertising—Radio advertising bought from national networks who distribute programming and advertising to their affiliates. Network radio is a group of local affiliates connected to one or more national networks through telephone wires and satellites.

(2) Spot Radio Advertising—Advertiser places an advertisement with an individual station rather than through a network and makes up nearly 80 percent of all radio advertising.

(3) Syndicated Radio Advertising—Program syndication has benefited network radio because it offers advertisers a variety of high-quality, specialized, and usually original programs. Both networks and private firms offer syndication, and advertiser's value syndicated programming because of the high level of loyalty of its audience.

(moderate; pp. 260-262; LO1; AACSB Communication)


108. Discuss three advantages and three disadvantages of advertising on radio.
Answer:
Students can discuss any three of the following advantages:

(1) Target Audiences—Ability to reach specific audiences through specialized programming, different parts of the country, and through different parts of the day.

(2) Affordability—May be the least expensive of all media.

(3) Frequency—Because it is affordable, it’s easier to build frequency through repetition. The nature of the radio message is another reason why it is a good frequency medium because reminder messages, particularly jingles and other musical forms, are easier to repeat without becoming irritating.

(4) Flexibility—Has the shortest closing period, meaning copy can be submitted up to airtime. Stations are also willing to participate in promotional tie-ins such as store openings, races, and so on.

(5) Mental Imagery—Allows the listener to imagine. Radio uses words, sound effects, music, and tone of voice to enable listeners to create their own pictures, resulting in radio sometimes being called the theater of the mind.

(6) High Level of Acceptance—At the local level; it is not normally perceived as an irritant because people have their favorite radio stations and radio personalities.
Students can discuss any three of the following disadvantages:

(1) Listener Inattentiveness—Messages are fleeting, and listeners may miss or forget commercials. Many people think of radio as a pleasant background and do not listen to it carefully.

(2) Lack of Visuals—Products that must be demonstrated or seen to be appreciated are inappropriate for radio advertising.

(3) Clutter—The number of radio stations has increased, and so has the heavy repetition of some ads.

(4) Scheduling and Buying Difficulties—Advertisers seeking to reach a wide audience often need to buy time on several stations, complicating scheduling and ad evaluation due to nonstandardization.

(5) Lack of Control—There is always the risk that a radio personality will say something that offends the audience and could hurt the audience’s perception of an advertiser’s product.

(moderate; p. 279; LO1; AACSB Communication)


  1. Describe the structure of the television industry by naming and describing the elements of the structure.

Answer:
The key types of television delivery systems are wired and unwired networks, local stations, public stations, cable, and subscription. Specialty, syndicated, interactive television, and TiVo offer different types of programming and ways to manipulate the programming. More specifically:

(1) Network Television—A broadcast network exists whenever two or more stations are able to broadcast the same program that originates from a single source, and it can be over-the-air or cable. The FCC defines a network as a program service with 15 or more hours of prime time programming per week between the hours of 8 a.m. and 11 p.m.

(2) Cable and Subscription Television—People sign up for a service and pay a monthly fee. Another form of subscription television is satellite TV. Network cable scheduling runs commercials across the entire subscriber group simultaneously. With local cable scheduling, advertisers can show their commercials to highly restricted geographical audiences through interconnects.

(3) Local Television—Most local television stations are affiliated with a network, but there are independent stations not affiliated with a network. Most advertisers for the local market are local businesses. National advertisers sometimes buy local advertising on a city-by-city basis, using spot buys.

(4) Public Television—Although mostly considered to be “commercial-free,” the FCC now allows some leeway in airing commercial messages, which are called program sponsorships. The FCC says these messages should not make a call to action (i.e., ask for a purchase) or make price or quality comparisons, and they can appear only during the local 2.5-minute program breaks.

(5) Specialty Television—The FCC has licensed low-power television (LPTV) to provide programming outlets to minorities and communities that are underserved by full-power stations. Hotels and restaurants use multipoint distribution systems (MDS) to provide guests with movies and other entertainment. Although specialty systems can carry ads, they are a minor delivery system.

(6) Pay-per-view—Delivered by satellite, usually used for major sporting and music events, commercial customers, such as bars, as well as home viewers subscribe for live delivery of the events without any commercials.

(7) Program Syndication—Syndicated programs are television programs purchased by local stations to fill time in open hours. Off-network and first-run syndication are the two types.
(8) Interactive Television—Basically a television with computer capabilities, and it appears to be growing due to broadband. Broadband has more capacity to send data and images into a home or business through a cable television wire than does the much smaller capacity of a traditional telephone wire or television antenna system.

(9) High-Definition TV (HDTV)—A type of TV set that can play back movie-quality, high-resolution images, but stations or networks have to broadcast the program in an HDTV format. Advertisers have been watching this development and will provide HDTV ads as demand builds.

(10) Digital Video Recorders (DVR)—Allow users to record TV shows and watch them whenever they like. Users get a TiVo “box” and subscribe to a service that distributes programming. The technology allows recording of programs without the hassles of videotape, lets users pause, do instant replays, and begin watching programs even before the recording has finished, known as time-shifting. Rub for advertisers: consumers can avoid commercials.

(difficult; pp. 264-267; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)




  1. Discuss three advantages and three disadvantages of advertising on television.

Answer:
The three advantages of advertising on television are:

(1) Pervasiveness—Television is in almost every home; some homes have a TV in every room, and these TVs are turned on for a great part of the day.

(2) Cost-efficiency—Many view it as the most cost-effective way to deliver a mass-media message because it has such a wide reach. Even though it is expensive on an absolute basis, it is cost-efficient because the costs are spread across so many viewers.

(3) Impact—The interaction of sight, sound, color, motion, and drama creates a strong emotional response. It is also good for delivering demonstrations and dramas.
Students can discuss any three of the disadvantages of advertising on television:

(1) Production Costs—Extremely high cost of producing and running commercials. Production costs include filming the commercial and paying the talent—writers, directors, and actors.

(2) Clutter—There are no restrictions on the commercial time per hour.

(3) Wasted Reach—Communication directed at an unresponsive (and often uninterested) audience that may not fit the advertiser’s target market characteristics.


(4) Inflexibility—Most network television is bought in the spring and early summer for the next fall season, and if an advertiser is not able to make this up-front buy, only limited time slots remain available. Also, it is difficult to make last-minute adjustments in copy and visuals, and production of a TV commercial takes weeks to months.

(5) Intrusiveness—TV commercials intrude into the programs and are therefore more irritating than other forms of advertising, leading viewers to mute and zap commercials.



(moderate; pp. 273, 280; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)

APPLICATION QUESTIONS: MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS



  1. Who did Holiday Inn Express, which was described in the chapter opening vignette, target with its advertising efforts?

    1. single men

    2. single women

    3. head-of-household men

    4. businessmen

    5. men and women more than 65 years old

(d; moderate; p. 255)


  1. How did Holiday Inn Express, which was described in the chapter opening vignette, position itself?

    1. as the lowest-price hotel

    2. as the best quality hotel

    3. as a hotel that offers basic comfort without frills at a good price

    4. as the hotel with the greatest assortment of frills

    5. as the only hotel

(c; moderate; p. 255)


  1. WLSU is the campus radio station at Louisiana State University. It is a nonprofit, noncommercial station that serves a small market (i.e., the university community), with a reach of three to five miles. They provide a variety of music and informational programming, and all LSU student, faculty, and staff performances are broadcast on this station. With respect to the structure of the radio industry, WLSU is an example of ________.

    1. public radio

    2. cable radio

    3. satellite radio

    4. low-power FM (LPFM)

    5. web radio

(d; moderate; p. 258; LO1)


  1. Laurie loves the car radio her husband gave her for her birthday because she spends hours on the road as a sales rep covering the entire southeast region of the United States. She is able to listen to the same station, regardless of where she is in the country, and the music stations are completely commercial-free. She has to pay a monthly fee for this programming, but to her, it’s worth it. With respect to the structure of the radio industry, what kind of radio does this represent?

    1. AM/FM

    2. cable radio

    3. satellite radio

    4. web radio

    5. LPFM

(c; easy; p. 258; LO1; AACSB Use of IT)


  1. Rush Limbaugh is a conservative talk show host who is heard on hundreds of radio stations around the country. Advertisers, such as Select Comfort beds, advertise on his program because of the high level of loyalty of his audience, affectionately called “Ditto Heads” because they agree with Rush because they feel he voices their opinions, thoughts, and feelings effectively. Local radio stations purchase the rights to air his program on their station. National advertisers can purchase advertising time from the program provider or the local station, and local businesses usually purchase advertising during this show from the local station. What type of radio advertising does this represent?

    1. network radio advertising

    2. spot radio advertising

    3. syndicated radio advertising

    4. news radio advertising

    5. up-front radio advertising

(c; moderate; p. 262; LO1; AACSB Communication)


  1. Starbucks is interested in radio advertising and wants to reach consumers at the best time of day to get them to drive into a Starbucks location. Research has shown that 80 percent of consumers drink the majority of coffee before going to work or on their way to work. What daypart would you recommend Starbucks use to reach these consumers?

    1. 6 to 10 a.m. (morning drive time)

    2. 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. (daytime)

    3. 3 to 7 p.m. (evening drive time)

    4. 7 p.m. to midnight (nighttime)

    5. midnight to 6 a.m. (all night)

(a; easy; p. 259; LO1)


  1. Rain Forest Car Wash wants to start advertising to increase its business. Rain Forest is looking for an advertising medium that will allow them to advertise frequently yet still be affordable. They also want the capability to change messages to reflect current conditions that affect a car’s appearance, such as the high level of pollen that settles on cars from one day to the next. Based on this information, which advertising medium would you recommend for this business?

    1. newspapers

    2. magazines

    3. television

    4. radio

    5. outdoor billboards

(d; moderate; p. 262; LO1; AACSB Communication)


  1. Wendy’s fast food restaurant wants to increase radio advertising in the metropolitan area of several major cities. They want to advertise close to lunch and dinner times because they feel that consumers are already in their cars and will more likely drive into a Wendy’s if they hear an ad around the time they are hungry. Wendy’s is seeking to reach as wide of an audience as possible and intends to advertise on several stations within each area to do so. Considering the disadvantages of advertising on the radio, which one is most relevant in this situation?

    1. listener inattentiveness

    2. lack of visuals

    3. clutter

    4. scheduling and buying difficulties

    5. lack of control

(d; moderate; p. 279; LO1; AACSB Communication)


  1. WDAM is a local television station in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, that airs programming provided from the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). This station has a contractual relationship with NBC in which it agrees to carry programming originating from NBC during a certain part of its schedule. WDAM is allowed to sell a small amount of time during this programming to advertisers wishing to reach the local market, but the station typically pays NBC 30 percent of the fees they charge for this local advertising. However, WDAM receives 15 percent of the advertising revenue paid to NBC by national advertisers. WDAM is known as a network ________.

    1. affiliate

    2. subscriber

    3. agent

    4. assistant

    5. enabler

(a; easy; p. 264; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)


  1. The Wall Street Journal wants to begin an advertising campaign using television to attract more subscribers. They want a television vehicle that is relatively uncluttered and reaches an affluent, well-educated household. One goal of their promotion is to not appear to be asking for a purchase, merely to make the publication more salient in the minds of their target audience. Based on this information and your knowledge of the structure of the television industry, which of the following delivery systems or programming options would be best for the WSJ?

    1. network television

    2. public television

    3. cable television

    4. program syndication

    5. interactive television

(b; difficult; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)


  1. Some have predicted that, in the future, television will allow consumers to purchase products/brands they see on a television show. For example, if you like the shirt Raymond is wearing in Everybody Loves Raymond, you will be able to click on the shirt and will be taken to a web site that allows you to purchase it. When finished, you can pick up viewing the program where you left off. What type of television delivery system or program option does this represent?

    1. pay-per-view

    2. high-definition TV (HDTV)

    3. interactive television

    4. e-commerce television

    5. network cable

(c; moderate; p. 267; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)


  1. In "A Matter of Principle" what problem is analyzed?

    1. The number of hours children aged 3-5 watch TV each week is adversely affecting the children's physical development.

    2. Since college students are exhausted from watching TV each day they underperform in classes.

    3. The airwaves are saturated with radio and television in major markets with country music.

    4. Television violence is used deliberately by advertisers to target TVs most valuable demographic—male viewers ages 18-34 who are top consumers of violent shows.

    5. Criticism of the TV show, Law and Order: Special Victims Unit, is unjustified and cruel.

(d; easy; p. 269; AACSB Ethical Reasoning)


  1. A popular comedy show, which is shown on Fox network, had a rating or 4.0 but a share of 7. Why are these two numbers different?

    1. Rating includes all TV households and share considers only those households that have their TVs on at that time.

    2. Share includes all TV households and rating considers only those households that have their TVs on at that time.

    3. Rating is provided by Arbitron and share is provided by Nielsen, and both use different methods for estimating audience size.

    4. Rating is provided by Nielson and share is provided by Arbitron, and both use different methods for estimating audience size.

    5. Rating compares audience size to the entire TV universe, while share compares only audience size to other network programming.

(a; moderate; p. 269)


  1. As described in “The Inside Story,” how did HER&NU marketing communication turn around the negative image the Framsokn political party was suffering in Iceland?

    1. They executed television commercials using humor with a serious selling point.

    2. They provided factual evidence in their TV commercials of the positive economic and social changes the party was the catalyst for over the past 12 years.

    3. They used comparative advertising, which is allowed only on television in Iceland, in which they juxtaposed the rival political party’s position with their party’s position on several economic and social issues.

    4. They selected a younger candidate and used television advertising heavily to project a younger image for their political party.

    5. They selected a female candidate and used television advertising heavily to project a more female-focused party.

(a; moderate; p. 274; LO2; AACSB Communication)


  1. In 2006, which of the following was the top show by ad rates?

    1. Friends

    2. Will & Grace

    3. ER

    4. Monday Night Football

    5. American Idol

(e; difficult; p. 275 [Table 9.2]; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)


  1. As described in the “Hands-On” case at the end of the chapter, what risky step has Sirius satellite radio taken with the goal to increase subscribers by more than 1 million?

    1. They have gone to programming that is completely commercial-free.

    2. They signed controversial talk show host Rush Limbaugh to bring his program to Sirius in the hopes that his loyal listeners will follow.

    3. They increased their price 50 percent and touted that fact in television commercials to convey the position that they are superior to their competitor, XM Radio.

    4. They signed “shock jock” Howard Stern to bring his program to Sirius in the hopes that his loyal listeners will follow.

    5. They plan on increasing their advertising spending from $1 million to $100 million by 2007, and Mel Karmazin, CEO of Sirius, says this aggressive advertising growth plan will actually drive subscribers to Sirius due to their strong dislike and resistance to commercials.

(d; moderate; p. 283; LO2; AACSB Ethical Reasoning)
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