G. A. Forbes J. A. Landeo



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Note: References for many descriptions of pathogen populations in different countries can be found in the web page of the Global Innitiative on Late Blight (GILB): http://gilb.cip.cgiar

TABLE 8.2. The effectiveness of the most important fungicide active ingredients used for the control of P. infestans in Europe. Opinion of the Fungicides Sub-Group at the Poznan workshop, 2002 (Bradshaw, 2003).



Active Ingredienta

Effectiveness

Action mode

Rain fast- ness

Mobility in the plant

Leaf blight

New growing point

Stem blight

Tuber blight

Protectant

Curative

Eradicant

Chlorothalonil

++

0

(+)

0

++

0

0

++(+)

contact

Copper

+

0

+

+

+(+)

0

0

+

contact

Cyazofamid

+++

0

+

+++e

+++

0

0

+++

contact

Dithiocarbamateb

++

0

+

0

++

0

0

+(+)

contact

Famoxadone

++

0

+(+)e

N/A

++

++d

+d

++

contact

Fentin acetate

++

0

+

++

++

0

0

++

contact

Fentin hydroxide

++

0

+

++

++

0

0

++

contact

Fluazinam

+++

0

+

++(+)

+++

0

0

++(+)

contact

Zoxamide

+++

0

+e

++

+++

0

0

++(+)

contact

Cymoxanil

++(+)

0

+(+)

0

++

++

+

++

Translam/inar

Dimethomorph

++(+)

0

+(+)

++

++(+)

+

++

++(+)

Translam/inar

Fenamidone

++(+)

0

+(+)e

++

++(+)

0

0

++

Translam/inar

Benalaxylc

++

++

++

N/A

++(+)

++(+)

++(+)

+++

systemic

Metalaxyl-M

(mefenoxam)c

+++

++

++

N/A

++(+)

++(+)

++(+)

+++

systemic

Oxadixylc

++(+)

++

++

N/A

++(+)

++(+)

++(+)

+++

systemic

Propamocarb-HCI

++(+)

+(+)

++

++

++(+)

++

++

+++

systemic

Notes: aThe scores of individual active ingredients are based on the label recommendation and are NOT additive for mixtures of active ingredients. Inclusion of an active substance in the list is NOT indicative of its’ registration status either in the EU or elsewhere in Europe; bIncludes maneb, mancozeb, propineb, and metiram; cSee text for comments on phenylamide resistance; dProvided by the active ingredient cymoxanil in Tanos (famoxadone + cymoxanil); eBased on limited data. Key to ratings: 0 = no effect; + = reasonable effect; ++ = good effect; +++ very good effect; N/A = not recommended for control of tuber blight.
FIGURE 8.1. Symptoms of late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans on (a) leaves, (b) stems, and (c) tubers of potato. (Courtesy J. Miller).

FIGURE 8.2. Cross section of leaf showing different stages of infection cycle of



Phythphthora infestans. (Modified from Fernández-Northcote, 2001).






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