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Review of

Post – Entry Quarantine Protocols

for the Importation into Australia of

Apple (Malus) and Pear (Pyrus) Budwood


F

ebruary, 2002

For additional copies of this publication, please contact:
Web address: http://www.affa.gov.au/plantbiosecurity
OR:
Technical and Administrative Services

Plant Biosecurity

Market Access and Biosecurity

GPO Box 858

Canberra, A.C.T. 2601

AUSTRALIA.



Telephone: + 61 2 6272 5094

Facsimile: + 61 2 6272 3307

Email: plantbiosec@affa.gov.au



Document produced by Biosecurity Australia, which is a group within the Commonwealth Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry - Australia



Table of contents



Telephone: + 61 2 6272 5094 1

Facsimile: + 61 2 6272 3307 1

Email: plantbiosec@affa.gov.au 1

Document produced by Biosecurity Australia, which is a group within the Commonwealth Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry - Australia 1

Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations 5

Executive Summary 7

1 Introduction 9

2 Scope of the Review 9

3 Purpose of the Review 10

4 International Framework 10

5 Australian Apple and Pear Industry 11

6 Quarantine pathogens 12

6.1 Erwinia amylovora 13



6.1.1 Impact of E. amylovora on the apple and pear industry 14

6.1.2 Environmental impact of E. amylovora 14

6.1.3 Environmental conditions for survival and multiplication of E. amylovora 15

6.1.4 Mode of transmission of E. amylovora 15

6.1.5 Possibility of spread of E. amylovora in Australia before detection 15

7 PEQ Protocols For Imported Budwood 16

7.1 Current PEQ protocols 16

7.2 DNRE proposal 17

7.3 BA's recommended PEQ protocol 18



7.3.1 Budwood 18

7.3.2 Post-entry quarantine 18

7.3.3 Bacteria 20

7.3.4 Fungi 22

7.3.5 Phytoplasmas 24

6.3.6. Viroids 25

6.3.7. Viruses 27

6.3.8. Diseases of unknown aetiology 28

8 Accredited Sources Of Propagating Material 30

9 Plant Health Improvement 31

10 References 32

Attachment 1: Quarantine Pathogens of Apple (Malus) and Pear (Pyrus) Budwood 36

ATTACHMENT 2: Additional Exotic Fungi recorded on Apple (Malus) and Pear (Pyrus) 50

Attachment 3: Diseases of Unknown Aetiology of Apple (Malus) and Pear (Pyrus) 59

ATTACHMENT 4: Alterations to Lists A, B & C in the DNRE Report. 62

Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations


AAPGA ………………. Australian Apple and Pear Growers’ Association

ABARE ………………. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics

aetiology ……………... the science of the cause of disease

ALOP ………………… Appropriate Level of Protection is the level of protection deemed appropriate by the country establishing a sanitary or phytosanitary measure to protect human, animal or plant life or health

AQIS …………………. Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service

BA ……………………. Biosecurity Australia

DNA ………………….. Deoxyribonucleic Acid, usually consisting of two helical chains of polynucleotides that are responsible for the transfer of genetic characteristics

DNRE ……………..…. Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria

epiphytic ……………..… living on a plant, but not as a parasite

HRDC ……………..….. Horticultural Research and Development Corporation

interstock ……………… scion variety on a rootstock into which a bud or graft is inserted

IPC .…………………… International Phytosanitary Certificate

IPPC ………………….. International Plant Protection Convention

pathogen …………..….. a parasite able to cause disease in a particular host or range of hosts

PCR ………………..…. Polymerase Chain Reaction, where conserved nucleotide sequences are replicated to levels that can be detected by gel electrophoresis

PEQ ………………….. Post-Entry Quarantine

pest ………………..….. any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent, injurious to plants or plant products

phytosanitary measure ... any legislation, regulation or official procedure having the purpose to prevent the introduction and /or spread of quarantine pests

quarantine pest ………… a pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and under official control

RNA …………………… Ribonucleic Acid, consisting of a single helical chain of polynucleotides, the main function of which is the translation of the genetic code into protein synthesis

rootstock ……………... plant into which bud or graft is inserted

scion ………………..… shoots that develop from a bud or graft on a rootstock

SPS Agreement ………. World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

synonymy …………….. listing of illegitimate name(s) not currently employed for the species or group under the current name

vector …………………. an organism that carries and transmits a pathogen to the host which it attacks such as an insect carrying fungal mycelium or spores

WTO ………………….. World Trade Organization


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