Flora and Avifauna of Waiwhakareke and Horseshoe Lake margins

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Flora and Avifauna of Waiwhakareke and Horseshoe Lake margins
These working lists follow several field visits (1999-2005) to record the naturally occurring plants & birds at Waiwhakareke prior to restoration activities. Species which have been planted at the site since 2004 as part of the Waiwhakareke Natural Heritage Park restoration project are not included in the plant list or description.
Horseshoe Lake is a small peat lake within a catchment comprising mainly grazed pasture. It has a narrow fringe of wetland vegetation around its margin; ranging from 0-2 metres in width on the north-western edge, to 6-8 metres on the south-eastern arm. There is a zonation of vegetation relating to water depth; three main types are apparent.
Open water with waterlily

On the surface of the lake, at least four small patches of waterlily are present. All of the patches observed are located close to the edge of the lake.

Baumea-Eleocharis-raupo reedland

Patches of Eleocharis sphacelata are scattered around the lake margin, occasionally dominant in the canopy. An 8 m x 2 m patch of sphagnum moss is present near the eastern edge of the western arm of the lake; through which Paspalum distichum is growing. This is present below Phormium tenax, Isachne globosa, Juncus gregiflorus, Juncus articulatus, Baumea teretifolia and grey willow. The patch is bounded on the lakeside by Baumea articulata.

Grey willow/flax-raupo-Baumea treeland

A narrow fringe of Grey willow/flax-raupo-Baumea treeland occupies the landward zone.

In some places around the lake margin, where the willow treeland is absent, marginal herbs dominate. Species here include Ranunculus, Polygonum, Juncus, Carex, Ludwigia palustris, and assorted pasture grasses.
Vascular Plant list

Scientific Name

Common Name

Acetosa (Rumex) acetosella*

dock, sheep’s sorrel

Baumea articulata

jointed twig-rush

Baumea rubiginosa

Baumea teretifolia

pakihi rush

Bidens frondosa*

beggars’ ticks

Blechnum novae-zelandiae

swamp kiokio

Callitriche stagnalis*

water starwort

Carex secta


Carex virgata


Centella uniflora

Cordyline australis

cabbage tree, ti kouka

Coronopus sp.*


Crataegus monogyna*


Cyperus sp.*

Eleocharis acuta

club rush

Eleocharis pusilla

Eleocharis sphacelata

bamboo spike-sedge

Epilobium ciliatum*


Gonocarpus aggregatus

Holcus lanatus

Yorkshire fog

Hydrocotyle sp.


Isachne globosa

Juncus articulatus*

Juncus effusus*

Juncus gregiflorus

Leontodon taraxacoides*


Leptospermum scoparium


Leycesteria formosa*

Himalayan honeysuckle

Lobelia anceps

Lolium sp.*


Lotus peduculatus*


Ludwigia palustris*

Lycopus europaeus*


Mentha sp.*

Nymphaea sp.*

water lily

Osmunda regalis*

royal fern

Paesia scaberula

ring/scented fern, matata

Paspalum distichum*

Pennisetum clandestinum*

kikuyu grass

Persicaria (Polygonum) persicaria*

willow weed

Phormium tenax

flax, harakeke

Plantago lanceolata*

narrow-leaved plantain

Plantago major*

broad-leaved plantain

Ranunculus repens*


Rubus fruticosus*


Salix cinerea*

grey willow

Salix fragilis*

crack willow

Solanum nigrum*

black nightshade

Sphagnum sp.

sphagnum moss

Stellaria graminea*


Taraxacum officinale*


Typha orientalis


Ulex europaeus*


Bird list

Scientific Name

Common Name

Acridotheres tristis*


Alauda arvensis*


Anas platyrhynchos*


Anas superciliosa

grey duck

Branta canadensis*

Canada goose

Carduelis carduelis*


Circus approximans

kahu, harrier

Cygnus atratus

black swan (and cygnets)

Hirundo tahitica

welcome swallow

Passer domesticus*

house sparrow

Phalacrocorax carbo

black shag

Porphyrio porphyrio


Tadorna variegata

paradise shelduck (Putangitangi)

Turdus merula*


Turdus philomelos*


Zosterops lateralis

silver eye

* indicates introduced species

Descriptions and lists have been compiled from Downs, Clarkson and Beard (2000) and survey by E. Grove & B. Paris Nov. 2005.

Downs T. M., Clarkson B. D. & Beard C. M. (2000) Key Ecological Sites of Hamilton City. CBER Contract Report No. 5. Prepared for Hamilton City Council. Centre for Biodiversity and Ecology Research, The University of Waikato, Hamilton.

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