Fixed effects Random effects




Дата канвертавання24.04.2016
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Table S1: Summary of linear mixed models using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) from the initial field experiment and laboratory sequential-feeding bioassay.

Fixed effects

Random effects

Responses

Degrees of freedom (numerator, denominator)

F value*

Plant genotypic diversity treatment (O. biennis monocultures vs. polycultures)

Spatial block

Popillia japonica abundance

Plant damage (cm2 removed)



Number of fruits produced

1,103

4.9
4.0
5.9

O. biennis genotype

Spatial block, plot nested within spatial block

Plant damage (cm2 removed)

19,146

21.1

Diversity treatment genotype interaction

Spatial block, plot nested within spatial block

Plant damage (cm2 removed)

19,146

2.2

Bioassay treatment (monoculture vs. polyculture sequence)

Genotype, beetle

Plant damage (mm2 removed hr-1)

1,134

1.3

Bioassay day (days 1-3)

Genotype, beetle

Plant damage (mm2 removed hr-1)

2,279

1.6

Bioassay treatment  day interaction

Genotype, beetle

Plant damage (mm2 removed hr-1)

2,279

6.9

*Bold F values denote significance at P < 0.05.

Table S2: Average leaf area consumed (cm2) by Popillia japonica on twenty Oenothera biennis genotypes grown in genotypic monocultures vs. polycultures.


Genotype

Monoculture mean*

Polyculture mean*

F

P

S18

4.7

2.8

5.3

0.023

S1

7.3

4.7

4.0

0.048

S6

8.4

8.8

0.1

0.81

S36

8.6

4.0

5.0

0.027

S21

8.9

8.1

0.2

0.68

S7

9.7

7.2

1.7

0.19

S15

10.1

5.5

7.6

0.006

S11

10.3

8.3

1.0

0.31

S20

10.9

7.3

2.3

0.13

S43

10.9

6.0

7.5

0.007

S9

11.3

9.1

0.9

0.34

A23

11.3

7.6

3.2

0.08

S17

11.7

13.4

0.4

0.54

A29

13.0

9.7

1.7

0.19

S38

14.5

8.0

7.2

0.008

A4

15.3

11.3

1.4

0.24

S32

15.7

15.2

0.0

0.89

S33

17.1

30.2

6.3

0.013

S5

19.2

8.0

11.4

0.001

S44

43.4

49.0

0.3

0.59

*Differences detected between least square means via post-hoc independent contrasts.


Figure S1: Relationship between the reduction in leaf area removed by herbivory in O. biennis polycultures (monoculture LS mean – polyculture LS mean) and the increase in fruit production in polycultures (polyculture LS mean – monoculture LS mean). Each point represents one O. biennis genotype (n = 20).



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