Updated June 13, 2007 Baiting Away Guidance Introduction
This guidance is provided to aid in compliance with the Endangered Species Act. Baiting away is a technique to remove ABBs from a given area prior to project soil disturbance without handling the ABB or physically relocating them to another area.
Same as Services “ABB Survey Guidance”
Same as Services “ABB Survey Guidance”
Timeframe a Baiting Away Effort is Valid*
A bait away effort is only valid for the immediate corresponding project for which ABBs are being removed.
Bait Away Effective Radius*
The effective radius of a bait away effort is dependent on the number of bait stations deployed.
Bait roughly the size of a whole chicken (3-5 pounds) should be used at each station.
Bait Enclosure and Cover
Bait needs to be enclosed, secured to the ground, and covered in such a manner to allow ABBs access to bait and protect ABBs from desiccation but prevent access by other non-target scavengers. Enclose bait with wire mesh, or with a metal or hard plastic, perforated bucket or bowl type structure (such as a wire mesh trashcan or Rubbermaid type container) with holes large enough to allow ABBs access to bait but prevent access by other non-target vertebrate scavengers. Bait enclosures need to have holes at ground level to ensure ABBs will have access to the bait.
Enclosed bait placed in a dense, forested habitat type where shade is provided the entire day will not require any additional protective covering for shade. Bait enclosure structures providing cover from the sun (such as a bucket) in addition to securing the bait, will not require additional protective covering for shade. However, enclosed bait that is not shaded by dense, forested habitat or bait enclosure will require additional protective covering to prevent desiccation of ABBs. The covers must not prevent ABBs from readily accessing the bait. Bait should be in direct contact with the soil, meaning no solid material is allowed between the bait and the soil. The use of a hard, mesh material, with mesh size large enough to allow ABBs access, between the bait and the soil is acceptable.
Enclosures and covers need to be secured to the ground with rebar, stakes, or other such item to prevent removal and access to bait by vertebrate scavengers. All materials used to enclose and cover bait, and to secure the enclosure and cover to the ground must be able to withstand weather conditions and vertebrate scavengers. Enclosures and covers must allow for visual inspection of the bait to determine replacement needs.
The enclosed bait needs to be protected from sunlight to prevent desiccation of ABBs. ABBs have been reported to remain under the bait or in the soil under the bait throughout the daytime. Preliminary data suggest that Nicrophorus species could be adversely affected or killed via desiccation as a result of exposure to temperature extremes from remaining with the bait (Hoback 2007, personal communication).
For nonlinear projects bait stations should be deployed along the perimeter of the project at 1,000 foot intervals and about 500 feet away from the project perimeter.
For linear projects with a radius close to 0.5 mile in width (about 0.35 to 0.5 mile), bait stations should be deployed along both long sides of the project at 1,000 foot intervals and about 500 feet away from the project perimeter. For projects with a smaller width (less than 0.35 mile), bait stations should be deployed alternately along both sides of the projects long boundaries at 1,000 foot intervals. (Meaning one bait station should be deployed on side A and then another bait station deployed 1,000 linear feet away on side B, and so on.)
Minimum Bait Away Effort
Baiting away efforts should begin at least 5 nights prior to project disturbance. Bait away efforts should continue until all soil disturbance associated with the project has commenced. Once all project soil disturbances has commenced, bait away efforts can cease.
Minimum Project Size
Projects with a radius equal to or less than 0.5 mile from the center to any given point along the perimeter are suitable for baiting away to be implemented.
Projects with a radius greater than 0.5 mile from the center to any given point along the perimeter are not suitable for baiting away to be implemented. Project areas greater than 0.5 miles from the center to any point along the perimeter are too large to deploy bait stations outside the project boundary and be effective at luring ABBs. Trapping and relocating should be implemented. Instead trapping and relocating must be deployed inside the project boundary. Please refer to the Service’s March 5, 2007 “ABB Trap and Relocation Guidance”.
The average nightly movements of ABBs are around 0.5 miles. So, to err on the side of the species a maximum project radius size of 0.5 miles is necessary to ensure ABBs are effectively removed from the proposed disturbance area.
Projects implemented in the ABBs active season can implement baiting away at any time between May 20 and September 20. This may vary among states and guidelines for each state should be verified. Projects implemented during the ABBs inactive season should be planned to address the ABB prior to the onset of the inactive season. Prior planning allows for removing ABBs from the project area near the end of the active period just prior to the onset of the inactive period, thereby allowing the commencement of project construction during the inactive period. To implement baiting away at this time, start baiting on September 14 and continue for 6 days.
A “Baiting Away Form” must be completed and submitted to the appropriate Service Field Office within 30 days of removal effort. One “Baiting Away Form” must be completed for each bait away effort.
Protocols and Forms
All protocols and forms can be downloaded from the Oklahoma Ecological Services Field Office’s website .
*Bait away radius and validity, and placement and spacing are more restrictive for “ABB Baiting Away Guidance” than the Service’s “ABB Survey Guidance” because ABB surveys are only aimed at determining the presence or absence of ABBs. Baiting away is aimed at removing all ABBs from the project area.*
Portions of this guidance were developed from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s July 14, 2005, “ABB Survey Guidance” and a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Working Group on May 6, 2004. The Oklahoma Ecological Services Field Office, in coordination with other Field Offices, update this protocol as necessary due to new findings. The purpose of this guidance is to streamline and update American burying beetle bait away recommendations among the Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Arlington, Texas Field Offices.
American Burying Beetle Bait Away Form GENERAL DATA
Date Started:_____________ Date Ended: _____________ County:_____________