Figure Legends TEXT Figure 1. Distribution of subterranean mammals across the planet. Palearctic region: Talpa (Talpidae, insectivores), Spalax (Spalacidae, rodents; SE Europe, Turkey, Near East, N. Africa) and Ellobius (Arvicolidae, rodents; Asia); Ethopian: Chrysochloris and Amblysomus (Chrosochloridae, insectivores; S. Africa), Tachyoryctes (Rhizomyidae, rodents: S. Africa); Oriental: Scaptonyx and Urotrichus (Talpidae, insectivores; E. Asia) and Rhizomys (Rhizomyidae, rodents); Australian: Notoryctes (Nortorctidae, marsupial moles; Australia); Nearctic: Scalopus and Scapanus (Talpidae, insectivores) and Geomys (Geomyidae, rodents); Neotropical: Spalacopus (Octodontidae, rodents), Ctenomys (Ctenomyidae, rodents), and Clyomys (Echimyidae, rodents). Different symbols mark the different zoogeographical regions. (From Prof Hynek Burda, a personal slide.)(Given to Eviatar Nevo as a personal gift).
TEXT FIGURE 2. Neuroglobin (Ngb) expression quantification. (A) Ngb mRNA expression in total brain, quantified by qRT-PCR. Under normoxia, Ngb expression is 1.8- and 2.8-fold higher, respectively, in S. judaei and S. galili than in rat. In S. judaei and rat, severe short-time hypoxia (4 h, 6% O2) decreases Ngb mRNA to half of its normoxic value, whereas the amount in S. galili is unchanged. Longer term moderate hypoxia (22 and 44 h, 10 O2) decreases Ngb expression to 40-75% of the normoxic condition in all three species. Significance levels, indicated by asterisk and horizontal brackets, were obtained by the Student’s t test: **P ≤ 0.01, * P ≤ 0.05,(*)P ≤ 0.1. (B) Western blot analysis of Ngb protein expression in rat, S. judaei (2n = 60; S60), and S. galili (2n = 52; S52) normoxic total brain. Three individuals of each species were tested (preparations 1-3). The blot, containing equal amounts of protein per lane, indicates an up to 3.5-fold higher Ngb protein level in the Spalax species as compared with rat. (C) Western blot analysis of Ngb in hypoxic vs. normoxic (n) animals. In rat we observe a slight down-regulation after 22 or 44 h of moderate hypoxic stress (10% 02). In S. galili (S52) and S. judaei (S60), protein levels do not proportionately reflect the decreasing mRNA but show that there is no hypoxic up-regulation of Ngb (From Avivi et al. 2010).PNAS no permission required).
TEXT Figure 3a. Time course of Epo gene expression in Spalax and Rattus kidneys in normoxia and 10% hypoxia. The numbers of copies in 50 ng of total RNA in Spalax were 190 ± 57; 6,805 ± 946; 27,485 ± 8,322; 38,898 ± 13,548 and 3,177 ± 877; and the numbers in Rattus were 130 ± 53; 3,398 ± 898; 3,040 ± 963; 1,355 ± 209 and 2,691 ± 523 under normoxia and after 4, 12, 24, and 44 h of hypoxia, respectively (From Shams et al. 2004). (PNAS no permission required). TEXT Figure 3b. Comparative Epo gene expression in S. galili and S. judaei under normoxia and 6% O2 for 10 h. S. galili values were 269± 65 and 10, 687 ± 1,506’ and S. judaei values were 85 ± 30 and 3,739 ± 1,620, under normoxia and hypoxia, respectively (From Shams et al. 2004).PNAS no permission required).
TEXT Figure 4a. Dead Sea with four species of its filamentous fungi: Penicillium crustosum, Aspergillus versicolor, Eurotium rubrum, and Eurotium amstelodami.
TEXT Figure 4b.Transformation of the HOG gene into a mutant yeast and growth of the transformant in Dead Sea water with 250 mμ LiCl: (1) E = hog 1∆yeast mutant, (2) E + EhHOG: the transformant: hog1 yeast mutant containing HOG gene from the fungus Eurothium herbariorum, EhHOG. (3) E + pA : hog1∆yeast mutant containing empty plasmid pADNS; (4) A = Wild type yeast strain. Note that the growth of the transformant with EuHOG is best. NO NEED FOR PERMISSION-4a,b. OUR OWN FIGURE.
TEXT Figure 5. Microclimatic stress and adaptive RAPD DNA differentiation in wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides from Yehudiyya microsite, Golan. The test involved two climatic microniches in the open oak-park forest of Quercus ithaburensis (1) sunny between trees, and (2) shady under the trees’ canopies. The histograms of frequencies of canonical scores show the difference between shady and sunny niches according to 25 polymorphic RAPD loci (From Li et al. 1999) (Requested permission for Fig. 1 from Springer:No permission required.)
TEXT Figure 6. The four “Evolution Canyons” in Israel (EC I-IV). Note the plant formation on opposite slopes. The green lush, “European”, temperate, cool-mesic, north-facing slope (NFS) sharply contrasts with the open-park forest of warm-xeric, tropical, “African-Asian” savanna on the south-facing slope (SFS). Note the interslope divergence in vegetation, even in EC III in the Negev desert where the SFS is covered by cyanobacteria and the NSF by lichens (FromNevo 2009).(REQUESTED PERMISSION for Fig.2: No Permission from Pagepress Publications required). TEXT Figure 7. Chernobyl atomic stress displayed in two families. Appearance of a new band in the child conceived after parental exposure to atomic radiation in Chernobyl. The band marked by a star (size about 750bp) appears neither in the parents nor in the siblings conceived before the accident. The example presented refers to RAPD fingerprinting with primer BC460 (ACTGACCGGC). From right to left: Lanes 1 and 5, mother; lane 2 and 6, father; lanes 3and 7, after exposure (SA); lanes 4 and 8, before exposure; lane 9, PCR amplification with no template DNA (negative control); lane 10, pGEM-marker (From Weinstein et al. 2001).(Requested Permission for Fig.1: No PERMISSION required FROM Proc.R.Soc.Lond.B) TEXT Figure 8A,B,C. Higher RNA editing level in human vs. nonhuman primates. (A) RNA editing levels of 75 sites in six transcripts originating from cerebellum tissues of four humans, two chimpanzees, and two rhesus monkeys were quantified after PCR amplification using the DSgene program. Average editing values were normalized (Z-score) and colored accordingly with blue-yellow gradient using the Spotfire program (Tibco). (B) RNA editing levels per site for humans, chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. The human editing sites are ordered in decreasing editing levels, and the nonhuman primate editing sites are aligned accordingly. (C) RNA editing level s in cerebellum tissues of eight individual primates: a total of the resulting editing level quantification in the six tested transcripts are plotted in four human, two chimpanzees, and two rhesus individuals where the bar size is proportional to the total of the editing levels in all tested sites. (From Paz-Yaacov et al. 2010). (PNAS no permission required).
Text Figure 9. Possible effects of Alu architecture alterations on RNA editing. Schematic representation of the genomic Alu elements’ location and orientation: Alu elements are marked as arrow-shaped boxes in the human (blue) and monkey (red) genomes. Alterations between the species are indicated in orange. (A) Minor alteration in Alu sequence between the species. (B) Inversion of one of the Alu sequences along primate evolution. (C) Deletion of Alu element along evolution. (D) Insertion of additional Alu sequence along evolution (From Paz-Yaacov et al. 2010). PNAS no permission required).
TEXT Figure 10. Analysis of newly inserted Alus. Among the 165 shared genes representing new (independent) Alu insertions in the human and the chimpanzee, 115 are neurological function and neurological-associated genes (From Paz-Yaacov et al. 2010) Upper right: Number of common human and chimpanzee genes showing new (independent) Alu element insertions. Among the 165 shared genes representing new independent Alu insertions in the human and chimpanzee, 115 are neurological function and neurological disease-associated genes (From Paz-Yaacov et al. 2010). (PNAS no permission required).
Supplementary Figure and Legends SUPPLEMENTARY FIG. 1A, B.The distribution of the four species of the Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies in Israel, with their diploid chromosome number. a. Geographic distribution of: Spalax galili (2n=52); Spalax golani (2n=54); S. carmeli (2n=58); and S.judaei (2n=60). b. the four karyotypes. Metacentric chromosomes of groups B and C are in boxes. Chromosomal evolution from Wahrman et al. (1969). (Waiting for response from Sciencemag.org) Supplementary Fig 1c. Four Israeli species of the superspecies Spalax ehrenbergi. They are indistinguishable morphologically except by detailed multivariate analysis (From the book: Nevo, Ivanitskaya and Beiles. Adaptive radiation of subterranean mole rats. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden 2001. Fig 4 a-d (on page 18). Permission granted. Supplementary 1d. Genetic polymorphism of Spalax in Israel: Positive correlations with aridity stress southwards towards the desert: Comparisons of parallel genetic diversities in 2 probes of DNA fingerprinting, allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, RAPDs frequency of the four chromosomal species of the Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies in Israel across the main aridity gradient stress of 200 km southward towards the Negev desert, and a secondary aridity gradient of 70 km eastward from 2n=52 to 2n=54 (From Nevo et al., 1996). The name of the paper is: Genomic adaptive strategies: DNA fingerprinting and RAPDs reveal ecological correlates and genetic parallelism to allozyme and mitochondrial DNA diversities in the actively speciating mole rats in Israel. In : Gene Families :Structure, Function, Genetics, Evolution.. R.S. Holmes and H. A. Lim (EDs) World Scientific Singapore. Received permission for Fig.1. Supplementary 1e. Parallel genetic patterns in the level of gene diversity, He, of unrelated genera represented by plants, invertebrates and vertebrates across Israel, plotted against increasing climatic unpredictability eastward and southward; represented by mean relative interannual variability of rainfall amount, expressed as fraction (RV) (From Nevo and Beiles 1988).(REQUESTED PERMISSION FOR FIG 1: RECEIVED PERMISSION from the Linnean Society) Supplementary Figure 2. Mean body weight of both sexes displaying clinal geographic variation of four species of the Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies in Isreal: Spalax galili, 2n=52; S. golani, 2n=54; S. carmeli, 2n=58; S. judaei, 2n=60 (From Nevo et al. 1986).(REQUESTED PERMISSION FROM SPRINGER FOR FIG 2: No PERMISSION required).
Supplementary Figure 3. Adaptive respiratory variation in PO2 and PCO2 in subcutaneous gas pockets; mean and SE (bars for the four species of mole rats of the Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies in Israel: Spalax galili, 2n=52; S. golani, 2n=54; S. carmeli, 2n=58; S. judaei, 2n=60(From Arieli et al. 1984).REQUESTED PERMISSION FROM SPRINGER: No PERMISSION required for Fig.2).